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was remedied by the system of regulations compiled by the late Sir David Dundas, and which obtained the sanction and countenance of his Royal Highness.
This one circumstance of giving a uniform principle and mode of working to the different bodies, which are after all but parts of the same great machine, was in itself one of the mosc distinguished services which could be rendered to a national army; and it is only surprising that, before it was introduced, the British army was able to execute any combined movements at all.
We can but notice the Duke of York's establishment near Chelsea for the orphans of soldiers, the cleanliness and discipline of which is a model for such institutions; and the Royal Military School, or College, at Sandhurst, where every species of scientific instruction is afforded to those officers whom it is desirable to qualify for the service of the staff. The excellent officers who have been formed at this institution, are the best pledge of what is due to its founder. Again we repeat, that if the British soldier meets his foreign adversary, not only with equal courage, but with equal readiness and facility of manæuvre---if the British officer brings against bis scientific antagonist, not only his cwn good heart and hand, but an improved and enlightened knowledge of his profession, to the memory of the Duke of York, the army and the country owe them.
The character of his Royal Highness was admirably adapted to the task of this extended reformation in a branch of the public service on which the safety of England absolutely depended for the time. Without possessing any brilliancy, his judgment, in itself clear and steady, was inflexibly guided by honor and principle. No solicitations could make him promise what it would have been inconsistent with these principles to grant; nor could any circumstances induce him to break or elude the promise which he had once given. At the same time, his feelings, humane and kindly, were, on all possible occasions, accessible to the claims of compassion ; and there occured but rare instances of a wife widowed, or a family rendered orphans, by the death of a meritorious officer, without something being done to render their calamities more tolerable.
As a statesman, the Duke of York, from his earliest appearance in public life, was guided by the opinions of Mr. Pitt. But two circumstances are worthy of remark. First, that his Royal Highness never permitted the consideration of politics to influence him in his department of Commander-in-Chief, but gave alike to Whig as to Tory the preferment their service or their talents deserved. Secondly, in attaching himself to the party whose object it is supposed to be to strengthen the Crown, his Royal Highness would have been the last man to invade, in the slightest degree, the rights of the people. The following ani lote may be relied upon. At the table of the Commander-in-Chief, not many years since, a young officer entered into a dispute with Lieutenant-Colonel upon the point to which military obedience ought to be carried. “ If the Commander“ in Chief," said the young officer, like a second Seid, “ should command me to do a “ thing which I knew to be civilly illegal, I should not scruple to obey him, and consider “ myself as relieved from all responsibility by the commands of my military superior."--“ So would not I," returned the gallant and intelligent officer, who maintained the opposite side of the question. “I should rather prefer the risk of being shot for “ disobedience, by my commanding officer, than hanged for transgressing the laws and “ violating the liberties of the country." ---- You have answered like yourself,” said his Royal Highness, whose attention had been attracted by the vivacity of the debate ; " and " the officer would deserve both to be shot and hanged that should act otherwise. I trust " all British officers would be as unwilling to execute an illegal command, as I trust the “ Commander-in-Chief would be incapable of issuing one.'
* The religion of the Duke of York was sincere, and he was particularly attached to the doctrines and constitution of the Church of England. In this his Royal Highness strongly resembled his father; and, like his father, he entertained a conscientious sense of the obligations of the coronation oath, which prevented bim from acquiescing in the further relaxation of the laws against Catholies. We pronounce no opinion on the justice of his Royal Highness's sentiments on this important point; but we must presume them to have been sincerely entertained, since they were expressed at the hazard of drawing down upon his Royal Highness an odium equally strong and resentful.
In his person and countenance, the Duke of York was large, stout, and manly; he spoke rather with some of the indistinctness of utterance peculiar to his late father, than with the precision of enunciation which distinguishes the King, his royal brother. Indeed, his Royal Highness resembled his late Majesty, perhaps, the most of any of George III.'s descendants. His family affections were strong; and the public cannot have for
gotten the pious tenderness orfch which he discharged the duty of watching the last days of his royal father, darkened as they were by corporeal blindness and mental incapacity. No pleasure, no business, was ever known to interrupt his regular visits to Windsor, where his unhappy parent could neither be grateful for, nor even sensible of, his unremitted attention. The same ties of affection united his Royal Highness to other members of his family, and particularly to its present Royal Head. Those who witnessed the coronation of his present Majesty will long remember, as the most interesting part of that august ceremony, the cordiality with which bis Royal Highness the Duke of York performed his act of homage, and the tears of affection wbich were mutually shed between the royal brethren. We are aware, that, under this heavy dispensation his Majesty will be chief mourner, not in name only, but in all the sincerity of severed affection. The King's nearest brother in blood was also his nearest in affection; and the subject who stood next to the throne was the individual who would most willingly have laid down his life for its support.
In social intercourse the Duke of York was kind, courteous, and condescending, general attributes, we believe, of the blood royal of England, and well befitting the princes of a free country. It may be remembered, that when, in “ days of youthful pride," his Royal Highness had wounded the feelings of a young nobleman, he never thought of sheltering himself behind his rank, but manfully gave reparation by receiving the (wellnigh fatal) fire of the offended party, though he declined to return it.*
We would here gladly conclude the subject; but, to complete a portrait, the shades as well as the lights must be inserted; and in their foibles, as welt as their good qualities, princes are the property of history. Occupied perpetually with official duty, which, to the last period of his life, he discharged with the utmost punctuality, the Duke of York was peculiarly negligent of his own affairs, and the embarrassments which arose in consequence, were considerably increased by an imprudent passion for the turf and for deep play. Those unhappy propensities exhausted the funds with which the nation supplied him liberally, and sometimes produced extremities which must have been painful to a man of temper so honorable. The exalted height of his rank, which renders it, doubtless, more difficult to look into and regulate domestic expenditure, together with the engrossing duties of his Royal Highness's office, may be admitted as alleviations, but not apologies, for their imprudence.
A criminal passion of a different nature proved, at one part of the Duke's life, fraught with consequences likely to affect his character, destroy the confidence of the country in his efforts, and blight the fair harvest of national gratitude, for which he had toiled so hard. It was a striking illustration of the sentiment of Shakspeare :--
“ The gods are just, and of our pleasant vices
“ Make whips to scourge us.". The Duke of York married to Frederica, Princess Royal of Prussia, Sept. 29, 1791, lived with her on terms of decency, but not of affection; and the Duke had formed, with a female called Clarke, a connexion justifiable certainly neither by the laws of religion nor morality. Imprudently, he suffered this woman to express her wishes to him for the promotion of two or three officers, to whose preferment there could be no other objection than that they were recommended by such a person. It miglit doubtless have occurred to the Duke, that the solicitations of a woman like this were not likely to be disinterested ; and, in fact, she seems to have favoured one or two persons as being her paramours--several for mere prospect of gain, which she had subordinate agents to hunt out for, and one or two from a real sense of good-nature and benevolence. The examination of this woman and her various profligate intimates before the House of Commons, occupied that assembly for nearly three months, and that with an intenseness of anxiety seldom equalled. The Duke of York was acquitted from the motion brought against him, by a majority of eighty; but so strong was the outcry against him without doors, so much was the nation convinced that all Mrs. Clarke said was true, and so little could they be brought to doubt that the Duke of York was a conscious and participant actor in all that person's schemes, that his Royal Highness, seeing his utility obstructed by popular prejudice, tendered to his Majesty the resignation of his office, wbich was accepted accordingly, March 20, 1809. And thus---as according to Solomon, a dead fly can pollute the most precious unguent--was the honorable fame, acquired by the services of a lifetime, obscured by the consequences of what the gay world would have termed a venial levity. The warning to those of birth and eminence, is of the most serious nature. This step had not been long taken, when the mist in which the question was involved began to disperse. The public accuser, in the House of Commons, Colonel Wardle, was detected in some suspicious dealings with
the principal witness, Mrs. Clarke ; and it was evidently expectation of gain that had brought this lady to the bar as an evidence. Next occurred, in the calm moments of retrospect, the great improbability that his Royal Highness ever could know on what terms she negociated with those in whose favor she solicited. It may be well supposed she concealed the motive for interesting herself in such as were his own favored rivals, and what greater probability was there, that she should explain to him her mercenary speculations, or distinguish them from the intercessions which she made upon more honorable motives! When the matter of accusation was thus reduced to his Royal Highness's having been, in two or three instances, the dupe of an artful woman, men began to see, that when once the guilt of entertaining a mistress was acknowledged, the disposition to gratify such a person, who must always exercise a natural influence over her paramour, follows as a matter of course. It was then that the public compared the extensive and lengthened train of public services, by which the Duke had distinguished bimself, in the management of the army, with the trifling foible of his having granted one or two favors, not in themselves improper, at the request of a woman who had such opportunities to press her suit; and, doing to his Royal Highness the justice he well deserved, welcomed him back, in May, 1811, to the situation from which he had been driven by calumny and popular prejudice..
In that high command his Royal Highness continued to manage our military affairs. During the last years of the most momentous war that ever was waged, his Royal Highness prepared the most splendid victories our annals boast, by an unceasing attention to the character and talents of the officers, and the comforts and health of the men. Trained under a system so admirable, our army seemed to increase in efficacy, power, and even in numbers, in proportion to the increasing occasion which the public had for their services. Nor is it a less praise, that when the men so disciplined returned from scenes of battle, ravaged countries, and stormed cities, they reassumed the habits of private life as if they had never left them; and that of all the crimes which the criminal calendar presents, (in Scotland at least,) there are not above one or two instances in which the perpetrators have been disbanded soldiers. This is a happy change since the reduction of the army, after peace with America in 1783, which was the means of infesting the country with ruffians of every description; and in the prison of Edinburgh alone, there were six or seven disbanded soldiers under sentence of death at the same time.
This superintending care, if not the most gaudy, is amongst the most enduring flowers which will bloom over the Duke of York's tomb. It gave energy to Britain in war, and strength to her in peace. It combined tranquillity with triumph, and morality with the habits
of a military life. If our soldiers have been found invincible in battle, and meritorious in peaceful society when restored to its bosom, let no Briton forget that this is owing to the paternal care of him to whose memory we here offer an imperfect tribute.
* The British Government meantime had to struggle with difficulties at home as well as abroad, and of the most unexpected kind. During the former part of the year parliament was occupied with an inquiry into the conduct of the Duke of York as commander-in-chief, which ended in his resigning the office. The circumstances which were disclosed rendered this resignation becoming and necessary; but perhaps there never was another instance in which the reaction of public opinion was at once so strongly and so justly manifested. For when the agitation was subsided which had been raised, not so much by the importance of the business itself, as by the unremitting efforts of a set of libellers the vilest and most venomous of their kind, it was then perceived that the accusation had originated in intrigue and malice ; that the abuses which were brought to light were far less than had been supposed to exist, and that in proving them it had been proved also that the greatest improvements had been introduced into that department by his Royal Highness, and that the general administration was excellent. From that time, therefore, the Duke acquired a popularity which he had never before possessed ; and the efforts which had been made with persevering malignity to ruin him in the good opinion of the nation, served only to establish himn there upon the strongest and surest grounds.
Southey's Peninsular War, vol. ïi. " Xavier Minat, the son of a landholder who cultivated his own estate, and was
. That is, in 1809.---We are happy to be able to subjoin Dr. Southey's testimony to that of Sir Walter Scott.
† This account of Xavier Mina differs materially from that which has been published under the title of The Two Minas and the Spanish Gucrillas, as extracted from the work
deputy for one of the valleys of Navarre, was a student at Pamplona when the resolution began. He was then in the eighteenth year of his age, and during the earlier part of the war had been confined to his father's house by a severe illness, from which he recovered just after Renovales had been compelled to withdraw from Roncal. A French commander, whose corps was en camped in the neighbourhood, sent a serjeant requiring the father in his capacity as deputy to provide rations for his men. The serjeant disappeared on the road, and in consequence the house was surrounded at midnight by a detachment of infantry, who had orders to arrest the elder Mina, and bring him to headquarters. The son, however, had time enough to secure his father's escape, and then in his name presented himself to the officer. The French General before whom he was carried threatened him with death, unless the serjeant were produced; but as every thing in that quarter was to be arranged by means of money, Mina obtained his liberty after being detained three days. The party who arrested bim, had plundered bis father's house. This usage, the danger he had escaped, and the injustice of the whole proceeding, roused into full action those feelings which had only been suspended by disease and languor. He provided himself with a musket and a cartridge-box, and in that trim presented himself in his own village, and offered to take the command of as many Spaniards as would engage with him in the good work of avenging their country upon its invaders. Twelve adventurers joined him ; they took to the near mountains, and there, while they waited an opportunity of action, maintained themselves on his father's sheep.
His first adventure was to surprise a party of seven artillery-men. who were escorting two pieces of cannon and a quantity of ammunition from Zaragoza to Pamplona. This success procured him twenty volunteers. He sent off his prisoners to Lerida, retired again to the mountains, and being informed that a general officer was on the road, travelling with an escort of thirty-four foot and twelve borsemen, he laid an ambuscade for them, in so favorable a spot, that a volley was fired upon the French with sure effect before they had any apprehension of danger. The general was shot in his carriage, some of the escort were made prisoners, and some money fell into Mina's hands. This he immediately distributed among his men, recommending them to send part of it to their families, and retain no more than would be necessary to defray the expenses of their own interment, exposed as they must now continually be to death. The men were thus raised in their own esteem and in that of their countrymen wherever this was told; and volunteers now presented themselves in abundance, attracted by a success which was reported every where, with such exaggeration as such tales gather in their way. He received however none but those who brought arms, or whom he could supply with the spoils already taken from the enemy. His party amounted now to about threescore persons, distinguished by a red riband in their hats, and a red collar to their jackets.
He proceeded now towards the frontiers of Aragon, where a band of fifty robbers were adding to the miseries of that afflicted country. These he succeeded in surprising ; the greater number were killed on the spot, the rest he sent prisoners to Tarragona.-Twelve horses were taken from the party, on which he mounted some of his men, and armed them with lances; and every day added now to bis numbers and his reputation. Rations were voluntarily provided for his people wherever they were expected, and given as freely at one time, as they were paid for at another from the spoils of the enemy.
He levied a duty on the passes, where a considerable trade in colonial produce was then carried on ; the clergy also assisted him from their funds, and with these resources he paid and equipped his men, and kept in pay also a sufficient number of intelligencers. It was in vain that the French made repeated efforts to crush this enterprising enemy; if his troops dispersed upon the appearance or the attack of a formidable detachment, it was only to reunite, and by striking a blow in some weak point or distant quarter, render themselves more formidable than before. of a German officer, Captain H. Von Brandt. The German officer, who collected his information in the country, acknowledges that the accounts given upon the spot differ essentially from each other. My statement was derived from Mina himself during his short abode in England. Certainly I have never seen any person whom, from his countenance and manners, I should deem less likely to be given to such company and such courses as in that publication are imputed to him.
* The name of Mina is now more than commonly interesting, which is at once our apology for introducing this extract, containing an account of his early exploits, from Dr. Southey's valuable History.
Tales of a Voyager to the Allantic Ocean. 3 vols. Colburn.
These are very pleasing volumes, and have, from the novelty of the scenes in which many of the stories are laid, and the fidelity with which they are described, a charm which is denied to many works much more elaborate in execution, and brilliant or interesting from the pathos, poetry, or imagination which they display. The voyager is a young man, who, for the sake of sea air, undertakes a voyage to Greenland, the preparations for which, and the adventures met with in prosecuting it, form the ground-work of the story. The tales are supposed to be related by bis friends and the sailors, and refer generally to the climates and regions which they pass and visit. The ground-work, being apparently compiled from a journal, narrates incidents, and describes scenes, which, to a fastidious reader, might appear too trivial, or too well known, to be tolerated in a work of this kind. In reality, however, this is a very great merit, as it strongly increases that veri-similitude, without which, a work like the would be without interest, however great the talent which might be employed in it. The truth of these observations is forcibly recalled to our minds by a comparison of the present volumes with Cunningham's “ Paul Jones,” which we reviewed in our last. The volunies before us, particularly as to those parts which the author narrates himself, never rise above mediocrity in style either of description or sentiment: his eloquence, when he attempts it, is strained: his wit frequently mere common-place; nor is there a single passage which we could cite as being the evidence of a mind rising beyond that of a well-educated and a sensible man. In “ Paul Jones," on the contrary, it is impossible to read a page without feeling convinced that the genius of a poet was employed upon it;-traits of high and generous feeling, tenderness, and elevation; imagery, new and gorgeous, and fantastic splendour of delineation, sparkle in almost every line, and are scattered with a profusion that would be the making of a writer of Irish melodies; but we cannot help perceiving that mere invention has been more exercised than observation, and the general
the mind is that of weariness and dissatisfaction. The truth of the “ Voyager's Tales," and the want of it in “ Paul Jones," are what occasion to the former a preponderance, more to befall than described, in awakening the interest of the reader.
The merits of “ The Voyage” itself consist in its detail, not so much of the minutiæ, as of the realities which are likely to strike a young man on his first expedition. Some of them may excite a smile, such as the description of Rotherhithe and the Thames, and Yarmouth, objects faithfully recorded and delineated, something in the style of a guide-book. His narrative improves in interest as he advances on his journey, because the minuteness, which is tiresome