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the difference; he watched over the bill during its passage through the House, with the greatest assiduity : sometimes by energy, sometimes by conciliation, he removed the obstacles which opposed it, and he unfeignedly participated in the joy of the Catholics, at its ultimate success. For this, they were indebted to none more than to him. The Catholic desires nothing more, than that all who glory in his name, should inherit his prin. ciples, and imitate his conduct in their regard.
“ In 1793, an Act was passed for the relief of the Irish Catholics. It was principally owing to the exertions of the Irish delegates, Mr. Devereux, Mr. Edward Byrne, Mr. John Keogh, and two other gentlemen, who had been appointed to negociate with Mr. Pitt. They were directed chiefly to insist upon five objects :---the elective franchise, the admission of Catholics to grand juries, to county magistracies, to high shrievalties, and to the bar. Mr. Keogh was the soul of the delegation : he possessed a complete knowledge of the subject, uncommon strength of understanding, firmness of mind, and a solem imposing manner, with an appearance of great humility. These obtained for him an ascendancy over almost every person with whom he conversed. On one occasion, he was introduced to the late Mr. Dundas, afterwards Lord Melville. That eminent statesman was surrounded by several persons of distinction, and received the delegates with great good humor. A loug conference ensued, the result of it was unfavorable to the mission of Mr. Keogh. After a short silence, Mr. Keogh advanced towards Mr. Dundas, and, with great respect, and a very obsequious, but very solemn look, mentioned to bim, that • there was one thing which it was essential for Mr. Dundas to know, but of which he had
not the slightest conception. He remarked, “that it was very extraordinary that a • person of Mr. Dundas's high situation, and one of his own humble lot,'---(he was a tradesman in Dublin,).--' should be in the same room ; yet, since it had so happened, • and probably would not happen again, he wished to avail himself of the opportunity of • making the important disclosure : but could not think of doing it without Mr. Dundas's • express permission and express promise not to be offended.' Mr. Dundas gave him the permission and promise : still, Mr. Keogh was all humility and apology, and Mr. Dundas all condescension. After these had continued for some time, and the expectation of every person present was wound up to its highest pitch, Mr. Keogh approached Mr. Dundas in a very humble attitude, and said,---- Since you give me this permission, and
your liberal promise not to be offended, I beg leave to repeat that there is one thing • which you ought to know, but which you don't suspect :---You, Mr. Dundas, know
nothing of Ireland. Mr Dundas, as may be supposed, was greatly surprised : but with persect good humor told Mr. Keogh that he believed this was not the case: it was true
that he never had been in Ireland, but he had conversed with many Irishmen. I have • drunk,' he said, “ many a good bottle of wine with Lord Hillsborough, Lord Clare, and • the Beresfords.'---'Yes, Sir,' said Mr. Keogh, I believe you have; and that you drank many a good bottle of wine with them, before you went to war with America."
Mr. Fox. “ The public is still in total want of a good account of the life of this great man. Considering the space which he filled in the national history of our times, the number of illustrious persons who fought under his banner, their talents, and the warm attachment both to his principles and his memory which they still profess, it appears surprising that he has yet had no adequate biographer.
“ Mr. Fox thought that true genuine principles of civil and religious liberty were not very common. You will not,' he once said to the Reminiscent, 'meet with real • friends of freedom as frequently as you seem to expect! but you may always depend on Filzwilliam and Petty.'
“ Mr. Fox's own principles of civil and religious liberty were of the most enlarged kind.
“On one occasion, be desired the Reminiscent to attend him, for the purpose of conferring, as he condescended to say, on Catholic emancipation. He asked the Reminiscent, . What he thought was the best ground on which it could be advocated?' The Reminiscent suggested it to be, that “it is both unjust and detrimental to the state, to deprive any portion 'its subjects of their civil rights on account of their religious priociples, if these are not inconsistent with moral or civil duty.' No, Sir!' Mr. Fox said, with great animation, that is not the best ground; the best ground, and the only ground ' to be defended in all points is, that action, not principle, is the object of law and legis
• lation ; with a person's principles no Government has any right to interfere.'---' Ain I • then to understand,' said the Reminiscent, wishing to bring the matter at once to issue, by supposing an extreme case,---' that, in 1713, when the houses of Brunswick and • Stuart were equally balanced, a person publishing a book, in which he attempted to prove that the house of Hanover unlawfully possessed the British throne, and tb.it all who
obeyed the reigning prince, were morally criminal, ought not to be punished by law ??--• Government,' said Mr. Fox, 'should answer the book, but shouid not set its officers
upon its author.'---No,' he continued with great energy, and rising from his seat, the
more I think of the subject, the more I am convinced of the truth of my position : action, • not principle, is the true object of Government' In his excellent speech for the repeal of the test, Mr. Fox adopted this doctrine in its fullest extent; and enforced and illustrated it with an admirable union of argument and eloquence.
“ On a further occasion, the Reminiscent took the liberty,---he hopes his readers will believe he did it with the utmost respect,---to renew the conversation. • Does not
your doctrine,' he said to Mr. Fox, 'turn on the much agitated question of Matter and • Spirit? If you impel the hand of a man, who holds in it a knife, into the side of another,
and the knife enters it and kills him, you are guilty of murder; if you write a book,
which induces a man to thrust a knife into the side of another, are you not equally • guilty ?'---' You are,' replied Mr. Fox; but the jury must find,.--first, that the act
was done ;---2dly, that your book was written with an intention of inducing the person to do it ;---and, 3dly, that he did the act in consequence of your book.'
“ So far as civil and religious liberty are involved in the Catholic question, the Reminiscent has found the truest lovers of both. On one occasion, he went to Mr. Whit-, bread, to solicit his attendance on the Catholic Relief Bill, then in the House of Commons. • You may always,' said Mr. Whitbread, depend on me: if Parliament should give you
a limited relief, I shall rejoice that they give you something; if they should grant it • without limitation, I shall rejoice that they give you all.'
" From Mr. Whitbread, the Reminiscent went, with the same request, to Mr. Windham. "Give yourself no trouble,' said that amiable and informed statesman, 'to • call upon me on these occasions; I shall always be sure to be at my post.'
" In 1807, Lord Grey, Lord Holland, Lord Grenville, Mr. Fox, Mr. Wyndham, and Mr. Whitbread, shewed the warmest and most uncompromising attachment to the Catholic cause. All repeatedly expressed to the Reminiscent, their wish, that ' at that
critical time, the Catholics would not provoke a parliamentary discussion of the question :" all also declared explicitly, that if, . contrary to their recommendation, the Catholics • should bring it forward, they would give it their cordial co-operation.' A conduct more honorable to themselves, or more kind towards the Catholics, they could not have adopted. That, in advocating the cause of the Catholics, they lost their official situations, no Cathclic should ever forget."
We disagree with our “ Reminiscent” in his opinion, that Sheridan would not have made a great poet ; we are convinced that he would have made a great anything, which he attempted with assiduity and perseverance; and we maintain the (what some persons call heretical) opinion, that an individual of great powers of mind will, if he applies himself to study, obtain success as a poet, as well as in any other pursuit in which men raise themselves to the admiration of the world. One introduction relative to Sheridan, and we close our quotations.
“ On one occasion he and the late Mr. Sheldon, of Weston in Warwickshire, supped with the Reminiscent. Mr. Sheldon was born of Catholic parents, and brought up a Catholic; he embraced the Protestant religion, and sate in two parliaments. The Catholic question being mentioned, Mr. Sheridan, supposing Mr. Sheldon to be a Catholic, told him, he was quite disgusted at the pitiful, lowly manner in which Catholics brought • forward their case : Why should not you, Mr. Sheldon, walk into our house, and say,
--- Here am I, Sheldon of Weston, entitled by birth and fortune to be among you: • but, because I am a Catholic, you shut your door against me?' 'I beg your pardon, said Mr. Sheldon, interrupting him, I thought it the duty of a subject to be of the religion of his country; and therefore--.'. You quitted,' said Mr. Sheridan, interrupting
him,' the errors of popery, and became a member of a church which you know to be • free from error. I am glad of ii; you do us great honor.' The subject then changed; but it was evident that Mr. Sheldon did not sit quite easy. At length, the third of the morning hours arrived; Mr. Sheldon took his watch from his pocket, and holding it forib to Mr. Sheridan, 'See,' he said to him, ' what the hour is: you know our host is a very
early riser.' * Damn your a postale watch !' exclaimed Mr. Sheridan; “put it into your • Protestant fob.'”
The remainder of the volume contains remarks on Mr. Burke ; the author of Junius; the late Bishop of Durham; Erasmus and Grotius; the Revelations of Sister Nativité, with an interesting essay on Mysticism of Religion, a compendium of much interest between Mr. Butler and Dr. Parr, and the proposed Reform of the Court of Equity.
From this part we cannot afford room for extracts, and we must indeed hasten to take our leave of the Author, with an expression of the highest esteem and respect for his virtues and talents, and a fervent wish that his gentle and temperate spirit could so influence the hearts of his fellow religionists, as to give hopes that the boon wbich Mr. Butler has so long and earnestly contended for, might be granted with safety, in time to gild the declining years of the amiable Reminiscent.
Travels in Mesopotamia, including a Journey from Aleppo, across the
Euphrates to Orfah, (the Ur of the Chaldees,) through the Plains of the Turcomans, to Diurbekr, in Asia Minor; from thence to Mardin, on the Borders of the Great Desert, and by the Thyris to Mousul and Bagdad : with Researches on the Ruins of Babylon, Nineveh, Arbela, Ctesiphon, and Seleucia.
By J. S. Buckingham. London. Colburn.' 1827. pp. 571.
We are most happy to meet Mr. Buckingham once more in bis legitimate sphere: to speak the truth, his late controversy had given us rather more than a quantum suff.” High praise is due to this enterprising gentleman for the contents of this superb volume. The descriptions are lucid and interesting, the routes well depicted, and the style of the volume, though never eloquent, is at all times pleasing, and now and then approaching to elegance. He is far more exact in his remarks on the Ruins of Babylon than Captain Keppel : there is, indeed, no comparison between the two volumes. The illustrative cuts at the head of each chapter, are most beautifully introduced, and the whole volume is a perfect model of the typographical art.
There is no room for minute criticism in works of this description; we therefore at once proceed to our extracts; in the selection of which, we have catered as well as possible for the amusement of our readers.
" At their giving the word, a halt was made, till they could ride round the caravan to survey it; when, one of them remaining behind to prevent escapes, and the other preceding us, we were conducted, like a flock of sheep by a shepherd and his dog, to one of the stations of their encampment, called El Mazar.
“ It was near noon before we reached this place, as it lay about two hours north of the road from which we had turned off, and was just midway between the common routes to Diarbekr and Mardin, being therefore a good central station from which to guard the passage to both. There were other local advantages which rendered it eligible to these tribute-gatherers, and occasioned it to be a frequently-occupied and often contested spot.
The first of these advantages was a spring of good water, forming a running stream, and fertilizing a fine pasture-ground on each side of it. The next was a high and steep hill, which, if artificial, as, from its abruptness of ascent and regularity of form, it appeared 10 be, must have been a work of great labor, and served the double purpose of an elevated post of observation, from which the view could be extended widely on all sides round, and a place of security for the flocks at night, it being quite inaccessible to mounted horsemen. The last peculiarity, which recominended this place as a station for a tribe exacting tribute, was, that the passage to one particular part, at the foot of the hill, was so exceedingly difficult, either for borses or foot passengers, even in the day-time, that it could not be gained but very slowly, step by step, and under constant exposure and disadvantage. This last spot had been chosen for the tents of the Arabs themselves, where they were as secure as in the most regularly fortified garrison; and we were ordered to encamp in the pasture-ground below, at the distance of about a quarter of a mile from them.
“ The first tent was scarcely raised, before we were visited by three of the chief's dependants, mounted on beautiful horses, richly caparisoned, and dressed in the best manner of Turkish military officers, with their cloth garments highly embroidered, and their swords, pistols, and khandjars, such as Pashas themselves might be proud to wear. Every one arose at their entry, and the carpets and cushions of the Hadjee, which had been laid out with more care than usual, were offered to the chief visitor, while the rest seated themselves beside him. All those of the caravan who were present, not excepting the Hadjee himself, assumed the humiliating position of kneeling and sitting backward on their heels, which is done only to great and acknowledged superiors.
“ This is one of the most painful of the Mohanimedan attitudes, and exceedingly difficult to be acquired, as it is performed by first kneeling on both knees, then turning the soles of the feet upward, and lastly, sitting back on these in such a manner, as that they receive the whole weight of the body, while the knees still remain pressed to the ground. I at first assumed this attitude with the rest, but an incapacity to continue it for any great length of time obliged me to rise and go out of the tent, on pretence of drinking; which simple incident, though I returned in a very fw minutes afterwards to resume my seat, from its being thought a disrespectful liberty to rise at all in the presence of so great a man, without a general movement of the whole party, gave rise to very earnest inquiries regarding a person of manners so untutored.
The answers to these enquiries were highly contradictory. Some asserted that I was an Egyptian of Georgian parents, and of the race of the Mamlouks of Cairo, from their knowing me to be really from Egypt, and from my speaking the Arabic with the accent of that country, where I had first acquired it, while they attributed my fairer complexion than that of the natives to the same cause. Others said that I was a doctor from Damascus, and suggested that I had probably been in the service of the Pasha there, as I had given some medicines to a little slave-boy of my protector, by which he had recovered from an attack of fever; coupled with which, they had heard me talk much of Damascus as a beautiful and delightful city, and therefore concluded this to be the attachment of a native. Some again insisted that I was a Muggrebin, or Arab of Morocco, acquainted with all sorts of magical charms and arts, and added, that I was certainly going to India to explore hidden treasures, to open mines of diamonds, rubies, and emeralds ; to fathom seas of pearls, and hew down forests of aloes-wood and cinnamon, since I was the most inquisitive being they had ever met with, and had been several times observed to write much in a small book; and in an unknown tongue ; so that, as it was even avowed by myself that I was going to India, and had neither merchandize nor baggage with me of any kind, it could be for no other purposes than these that I could have undertaken so long a journey. Lastly, some gave out that I was a man of whom nobody knew the real religion; for, although I was protected under the tent of Hadjee Abd-el-Rakhman, and treated as an equal with himself, I was certainly not a Moslem of the true kind; because, at the hours of prayer, 1 had always been observed to retire to some other spot, as if to perform my devotions in secret, and never had yet prayed publicly with my companions. A Christian they were sure I was not, because I ate meat, and milk, and butter, on Wednesdays and Fridays, as well as on the other days; and a Jew I could not be, because I wore no side locks, and trimmed the upper edge of may beard, after the manner of the Turks, wbich the Israelites or Yahoudis are forbidden to do. As I had been seen, however, at every place of our halt, to retire to a secluded spot and wash my whole body with water, to change my inner garments frequently, to have an aversion to vermia which was quite unnatural, and a feeling of disgust towards certain kinds of them, amounting to something like horror, as well as
carefully to avoid being touched or lain upon by dirty people, and at night to sleep always aloof from and on the outskirts of the caravan, they concluded, that I was a priest of some of those idolatrous nations of whom tbey had heard there were many in India, the country to which I was going, and who, they had also understood, had many of these singular aversions, so constantly exhibited by myself."
“ JUNE 21st. We set out at a later hour than usual this morning, as the sky was lowering, and the sun at its rising obscured by a red mist. The air was calm, but a disagreeable and suffocating heat prevailed, all which were considered symptoms of an approaching southern wind. Two hours after sun-rise the heat was insupportable, and, even from the people of the country, the general cry was to halt.
" It was about this time when the wind began to be felt by us, coming in short and sudden puffs, which, instead of cooling or refres bing, oppressed us even more than the calm, each of these blasts seeming like the hot and dry vapour of an oven just at the moment of its being opened. The Southern Desert was now covered with a dull red mist, not unlike the sun-rise skies of our northern climates on a rainy morning, and soon after we saw large columns of sand and dust whirled up into the air, and carried along in a body over the plain with a slow and stately motion. One of these passed within a few hundred yards of us to the northward, having been driven along a long tract of stony land, to a distance of perhaps twenty miles from the place of its rising. It was apparently from eighty to a hundred feet in diameter, and was certainly of sufficient force, by its constant whirling motion, to throw both men and animals off their legs, so that if crossing a crowded caravan, and broken by the interruption of its course, the danger of suffocation to those buried beneath its fall would be very great, though, if persons were prepared for it, it might not perhaps be fatal. The wind now grew into a steady southern storm, and blew with a violence which rendered our march confused and difficult, till at last we were obliged to encamp, before the usual number of hours' march had been performed.
“ The course we had pursued to-day was nearly east-south-east, and the distance not more than ten miles in five hours of time. Our road still maintained the same character of a fertile plain, and was covered by the same kind of black basalt, now seen in smaller pieces, of a still more porous substance, some of them resembling the ragged cinders formed by the coal and iron of a smith's fire. We passed over a piece of ground where the native rock was visible, pointing its ragged surface above the level of the soil, and forming a bed of pure stone, without any mixture of earth. It was here that I remarked the same appearances as those observed in the basaltic masses of the Hauran, namely, in some places presenting circular and serpentine furrows, as if the matter had been once a fluid, and had suddenly cooled while in the act of a whirling motion; while, in other places, where the masses were of a semi-globular form, and coated like onions, it had the appearance of a Auid matter suddenly becoming solid, while in the act of ebullition, and throwing up thick bubbles, such as are seen on the surface of boiling tar or pitch.”
“ As this pile of the Birs Nimrood is here assumed to be the remains of the cele brated Tower of Belus, the place of which has been long disputed ; and as mature consideration, added to a close personal inspection of the monument, has only strengthened and confirmed the original impression of its identity, it may be well to enumerate such features of resemblance between the present ruin and the ancient temple, as are considered to justify the decision of their being one and the same edifice.
“ In recurring to the ancient descriptions of this celebrated monument, Major Rennel justly observes, that all these are very brief, and Strabo is the only one who pretends to give the positive elevation of the tower, though all agree in staring it to be very great. The square of the temple, says Herodotus, was two stadia, (one thousand ' feet), and the tower itself one stadium, in which Strabo agrees.' The former adds, • In the midst, a tower rises, of the solid depth and height of one stadium, upon which, resting as a base, seven other turrets are built in regular succession. The ascent is on the outside, which, winding from the ground, is continued to the highest tower, and, in the middle of the whole structure, there is a convenient resting-place.'* Strabu says, that the sepulchre of Belus was a pyramid, of one stadium in height, whose base was a square of like dimensions, and that it was ruined by Xerxes. Arrian agrees in this particular, and Diodorus adds, that on the top was a statue of Belus, forty feet in beight, ia an upright posture ; from whicha Major Rennel has inferred, by an unobjectionable rule,
* Clio. 181.