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existing distress. We may argue inversely from effect to cause, and say, that if reduced population would not cure the evils, increased population has not caused them. Why should we credit we have too many consumers, when all are complaining from inadequate consumption ? Why should we look to surplus population for a cause of the mischief, while we bave rung in our ears from all sides, the greatness of our over-production ? Surely both cannot be co-existent. If we rely upon one, we must wholly negative the other. Nothing can be clearer to our apprehension, than that the gradual degradation of our laborers has not only been concurrent with, but wholly caused by, the additional pecuniary burthens which the country has had to endure. Many are disposed to scoff at the thought of the gross amount of taxation falling almost entirely upon the laborer ; but that this is the case we fully believe, and may at some future time more largely enter upon. The external and obvious appearances of their condition and history, are entirely in favor of this belief. Here is a highly taxed country, a country having had to endure a progressive amount of imposts, and yet all classes of society but one, have not only maintained their comforts and condition, but positively improved them. What class is the worse for all the taxes, for the funded or unfunded debt? Whose income and means have been abridged one half in the course of three-quarters of a century, besides those of the laborer? In short, is there any one class which has been made to feel the taxation with any thing like the severity that has oppressed the laborer? In addition, it is to be remembered, that each class in society has had the power of bearing any given degree of privation with less destructive effects than a corresponding change make in the circumstances of the laborer. The sufferings of a man of a thousand a year reduced to half, bear no proportion to the wretchedness of a man with six children reduced from 10s. to 58. a week. All classes but the laboring also have the means of pushing off, in some degree, the burthens which oppress them. The farmer and manufacturer feel the weight of taxation; their first step has been to reduce their outgoings for labor.
But in what manner can the laborer obtain relief, upon whom is he to shift his burden?
With regard to a great deal of the existing, and we sincerely hope remediable, distress of the country, no doubt can for a moment be entertained that it has been occasioned by the terrific fluctuations in the value and quantity of our currency. One year we have been enabled to pay our national engagements in a depreciated currency, then prosperity seemed to fill our borders, and give Mr. Robinson eloquence :---the next year, by legislative enactments we were obliged to pay a double amount of taxation by means of the increased value of money caused by those enactments. One year the landlords have been cheated of their rents by receiving them in debased currency :the next, the tenant has been ruined by being compelled to fulfil contracts which he had made, calculating upon the continuance of that currency.. One year, the whole system of trade has been changed and uprooted by the fatal facilities of paper accommodation :
---another year, ruin, unavoidable ruin, has been entailed upon the innocent, by cutting off those supplies which he had rested upon to complete his engagements. Such have been the workings of this system of change and uncertainty, that we verily believe as much suffering has been entailed upon the nation within the last eighteen months, as though a pestilence had swept off a beloved member of every third family in the country. What paltry stuff, then, is it to talk of sending a few hundreds of industrious laborers to starve in Canada, as a cure for these evils---evils originating in such distant and unconnected circumstances.
In addition to she evils of increasing taxation, and a neversettled currency, Ireland (which is the chief point to which the sympathies of our transport-men are mainly directed) has had to endure many aggravated additions ; and not the least of these is the evil of a non-resident, rent-receiving gentry. It was always somewhat a matter of surprise to us, how a journal like the Edinburgh Review could suffer its pages to be prostituted to such empty stuff as that talked-of article on Absenteeism, an article which, with its author, are now “damned to everlasting fame." We cannot be suspected of very great love for the Edinburgh, but we really feel a kind of pity to see it justly become the gibe and jest of its enemies, by reason of the admission of this monstrous tissue of absurdity and false reasoning. What! at a time when hundreds were dying of starvation, or fed by the bounty of Englishmen ; when men were lying on the sea-shore feeding on sea-weed, with the vessels fully laden with the best kinds of Irish provisions in sight; at a time when the ships, laden with charity potatoes from English ports, were passing larger vessels burthened with provisions from Irish ports; was this a time for any quack coming north or south of the Tweed to tell us, that these truths, and the known fact of Irish exports annually exceeding the imports by three millions, had nothing to do with the export of the greater part of the land rents? To tell us that the place of consumption of produce made no difference to the producers? To assert, that if a million a-year were paid in produce for rent, it was a matter of indifference whether that produce was consumed in Ireland or France?
These notions have so often been exposed and refuted, that we should be guilty of positive vulgarity and common-place in seriously entering into their refutation. We merely referred to them as bearing upon the question of Irish population, and the emigration schemers. We say, let Ireland consume what Ireland raises ; let Irishmen be fed and clothed with Irish food and clothing, and we should not hear calls for transporting the hands that raise, and the bodies that ought to consume, the produce. But ought not public odium and contempt to rest upon the framers of such notions? Is it a good sign of English common sense to observe M.P.s, and lords, and legislators forming an audience, and attentively listening to the diatribes of the author and inventor of such empty stuff---of the self-styled, selfelected, self-exposed Ricardo lecturer*?
* By the bye, we learn upon enquiry that Mr. M'Culloch's lectures have this geason been delivered to empty benches. We hail this as a symptom of amendment.
When first I saw thy gentle mien,
And doated on the view, Oh, dared I think thou could'st have been
So fair, yet so untrue ?
To me thou wast the imaged one
Of unpartaken hours;
To newly springing flowers.
All there, that hope desir'd;
And I the one inspired.
With fairy hues o'erspread;
In glory o'er my head !
Like eloquence to me ;
Reflecting thoughts of thee.
When thou in thought wast near;
That sparkled like its tear!
The gaudy world to me ;
Convulse my brain with thee.
A wandering thought of me, Should mingle them with some alloy,
And check thy careless glee ; Thou'lt think of one whose soul can be
Heal'd by no earthly balm : The rage of grief, his revelry;
Grief's sullenness, his calm.
For his heart wears away
Of love's impassioned day.
Of all his bosom's strife,
To agonize thy life.
And did I wish a cankering curse
To wither up thy bliss,
Than such a thought as this,
Untouched by woe so dark ;
Within life's anchored bark !
LETTER FROM A NATIVE OF THE UN DISCOVERED ISLANDS.
ARTURIEL TO ALFIDEN GENDIC.
London. You are well read, my dear Alliden, therefore you know from the letters of that great philosopher, Lien Chi Altangi, that the English, at the time he wrote, possessed medical professors, inspired immediately from heaven, whose infallible power could heal all maladies whatsoever, and who made known their talents from motives of the purest benevolence; these virtuous examples of supernatural ability are still common in this happy land, but they fade into insignificance before a race of people with whose existence it has of late years been favored; a race, whose knowledge, as it has nobler aims ihan even the eternal sustenance of mere animal life, so may be supposed to have heaped proportionably greater benefits on their country: I mean the professors of instruction, or, in other words, private tutors and governesses of England; admiration and awe almost annul my faculties when I think of the perfections of these persons; and I know not how to describe them in terms that shall convey to you any adequate idea of their merits; but a brief account of the achievements they have already performed, and a relation of existing facts concerning the science and literature of the country, will perhaps give you a better idea of their excellencies, than any description of their abilities. Know, then, that in England it is not now necessary to study, in order to become learned. Schools and colleges must soon be abolished; application is needless; there are masters for every art who possess the power of bestowing instantaneous knowledge on their pupils. Wonderful as this may seem, I assure you that I had not been a fortnight in the country before I was convinced it was a truth. I learnt it partly by unavoidable inference from the published testinony of the masters themselves, partly from the belief in that testimony which I daily witnessed, and partly from the expectation which I found commonly to prevail of finding certain young persons whom they must be supposed to have instructed, possessed of a most extraordinary degree of learning. I saw, nevertheless, that these teachers did not put forth all their strength; that, whatever they might do by ability, they did not actually change in one moment ignorance into knowledge; and I supposed that there existed some check to the exercise of their power,
of the precise nature of which I was uninformed. I was pondering upon this circumstance, when I accidentally learned from a friend, a fact which solved the mystery, namely, that there are laws in this island which prevent the transfer of more than a certain quantity at a time of many valuable commodities, without a special permission from the government: now, from observing the manner of instructing usually pursued by inspired masters, I have come to the conclusion, that their accomplishments are included in the list of these restricted goods; for no person that sees the wonders they engage to perform, can doubt that it would be easier to themselves to enlighten the minds of their pupils as by a stroke from heaven, than to divide their gifts as they do, and distribute them in a succession of exact shares to every learner. Such, however, is their manner-inspiration per lesson, that is, so much by the hour. This word, lesson, seems to be English, for a certain measure or quantity of information poured by miraculous means on the understanding; I see it continually made use of in sentences where it will admit of no other interpretation; it appears to be a definite term, implying a specific share of mental acquisition to be paid for at a certain rate: its contents, however, are arbitrary, more or less at the discretion of the different donors. Perfection in the desired accomplishment is promised by them all, and all bestow it in divisions, called lessons; but the number of lessons composing proficiency, varies with different masters, some vending their stock by wholesale, some by retail; one gentleman cutting his prizes into eight shares, another into sixteen, and so on, in infinite variety; completion of the whole quantity being certain, so many days after the payment of subscription. Another measure has lately been brought forward, called a section; ten lessons make one section, five sections one language ; but this division being new, requires the explanation of the inventor to make it generally understood.
Under a process of instruction which ascertains beforehand the precise period of perfection, the capacity, memory, and previous disposition of the pupil, must of course be quite irrelative to his progress; no doubt, therefore, can reasonably be entertained of its efficacy: nevertheless, in some instances, to satisfy the over prudent, and explain at once the merits of the system,“ proficiency is guaranteed.”
I have not yet been able to meet with any table reducing to an exact rate of progression, the number of hours or lessons necessary to be employed in gaining different accomplishments, settled according to their respective degrees of importance; but that such a one exists, I have little doubt, as I frequently hear it asked, in a way that shews the question to be answerable by some known standard,' “ how long “ does it take to learn music?” “ When shall I be able to shake ?" &c. &c. &c. I have, however, gained from the depositions of various teachers, some desultory information, which may afford you a few hints on the subject.
From one professor, I learnt that the French, Italian, German, Spanish, and Portuguese languages are to be had in measures of five sections ; but that Hebrew, Greek, and Latin contain more.