Patterns of Metropolitan Policing
Ballinger Publishing Company, 1978 - Počet stran: 343
A broad overview of the organization of police services in small-sized to medium-sized metropolitan areas in the united states is presented within the framework of an industry model of service delivery. The industry approach, which views police services from the perspective of producers and consumers, is used to explore the interorganizational arrangements for the delivery of police services. The study utilized a random sample of 80 standard metropolitan statistical areas with a population of under 1.5 million. Data were collected from state sources, individual police agencies, telephone and mail contacts, and personal field contacts; however, data on the quality of police services were not available. Measures of fragmentation, multiplicity, independence, autonomy, and dominance were considered. The industry model of production relationships, illustrated by the service matrix -- data display form -is explained. Direct police services, those which are supplied directly to citizens by police agencies, are discussed in terms of the type of agency which produces them. General area patrol is conducted mainly by municipal and county agencies, and it occupies the largest number of personnel. Traffic control is performed by local agencies as well as state police and highway patrol depending on jurisdiction over the particular street or road. Most local police agencies assign traffic duties to the general patrol officers. While very few small agencies investigate cases of homicide, which are usually covered by the county agencies, minor criminal investigations are handled by local agencies. Auxiliary services (radio communication, adult pretrial detention, entry-level training, and crime laboratory analysis) are not produced by all departments, but are shared between various agencies. Radio communications are provided by about 70 percent of the agencies; frequencies and monitoring are often shared between departments in metropolitan areas. Most areas have only one facility for pretrial detention, which is shared between all of the local agencies. Entry-level training is required by law in most states, with larger agencies requiring a longer training period for their recruits. Chemical analysis and other laboratory work is available to all police agencies, even when they do not have their own laboratories. Many police departments in metropolitan areas share facilities and other auxiliary services, with both formal and informal arrangements for mutual assistance. This report shows that there was more cooperation between agencies than was expected. Evaluative research into alternatives for the division of services is suggested.
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150 full-time officers 20 full-time 80 SMSAs academies activities agencies produce alternate analysis arrangements assign assistance authority Autonomy auxiliary services burglary burglary investigation campus police Chapter chemical conduct coordination County sheriffs crime lab criminal investigation direct service producers dispatch divided dominance duplication duties employees entry-level training federal fewer force fragmentation full-time officers 51 Government half homicide investigation included Independence jail jurisdiction laboratory larger less located measures Median Range ments metropolitan areas military Multiplicity municipal police departments Northeast Region Note Number Reporting organization patrol producers patrol service patterns percent personnel police agencies police services pretrial detention proportion radio communications receiving recruits Region 8 Region Region 9 regular relative require residents responsibility served service areas service delivery smaller SMSA Population specialists standards studied supply sworn officers Table tion traffic control traffic patrol Type of Agency Type of Producer units University variation