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should not Pharamond hear the anguish he only can relieve others from in time to come. Let him hear from me what they feel who have given death by the false mercy of his administration, and form to himself the vengeance called for by those who have perished by his negligence."' R.

No. 85. Thursday, June 7, 1711


Interdum speciosa locis, morataque recte
Fabula nullius Veneris, sine pondere et arte,
Valdius oblectat populum, meliusque moratur,
Quam versus inopes rerum, nugæque canoræ.

-HOR., Ars Poet. 319.

T is the custom of the Mahomedans, if they see any printed or written paper upon the ground, to take it up and lay it aside carefully, as not knowing but it may contain some piece of their Alcoran. I must confess I have so much of the Mussulman in me, that I cannot forbear looking into every printed paper which comes in my way, under whatsoever despicable circumstances it may appear; for as no mortal author, in the ordinary fate and vicissitude of things, knows to what use his works may some time or other be applied, a man may often meet with very celebrated names in a paper of tobacco. I have lighted my pipe more than once with the writings of a prelate, and know a friend of mine who for these several years has converted the essays of a man of quality into a kind of fringe for his candlesticks. I remember, in particular, after having read over a poem of an eminent author on a victory, I met with several fragments of it upon the

next rejoicing day which had been employed in squibs and crackers, and by that means celebrated its subject in a double capacity. I once met with a page of Mr. Baxter1 under a Christmas pie. Whether or not the pastrycook had made use of it through chance or waggery, for the defence of that superstitious viand, I know not; but upon the perusal of it I conceived so good an idea of the author's piety, that I bought the whole book. I have often profited by these accidental readings, and have sometimes found very curious pieces, that are either out of print or not to be met with in the shops of our London booksellers. For this reason, when my friends take a survey of my library, they are very much surprised to find, upon the shelf of folios, two long bandboxes standing upright among my books, till I let them see that they are both of them lined with deep erudition and abstruse literature. I might likewise mention a paper-kite from which I have received great improvement, and a hat-case which I would not exchange for all the beavers in Great Britain. This my inquisitive temper, or rather impertinent humour of prying into all sorts of writing, with my natural aversion to loquacity, give me a good deal of employment when I enter any house in the country; for I can't, for my heart, leave a room before I have thoroughly studied the walls of it, and examined the several printed papers which are usually pasted upon them. The last piece that I met with upon this occasion gave me a most exquisite pleasure. My reader will think I am not serious when I acquaint him that the piece I am going to speak of was the old ballad of the Two Children in the Wood,' which is one of the darling

1 Richard Baxter, of the Saints' Everlasting Rest.'

songs of the common people, and has been the delight of most Englishmen in some part of their


This song is a plain simple copy of nature, destitute of all the helps and ornaments of art. The tale of it is a pretty tragical story, and pleases for no other reason but because it is a copy of nature. There is even a despicable simplicity in the verse, and yet, because the sentiments appear genuine and unaffected, they are able to move the mind of the most polite reader with inward meltings of humanity and compassion. The incidents grow out of the subject, and are such as are the most proper to excite pity. For which reason the whole narration has something in it very moving, notwithstanding the author of it (whoever he was) has delivered it in such an abject phrase and poorness of expression, that the quoting any part of it would look like a design of turning it into ridicule. But though the language is mean, the thoughts, as I have before said, from one end to the other are natural, and therefore cannot fail to please those who are not judges of language, or those who, notwithstanding they are judges of language, have a true and unprejudiced taste of nature. The condition, speech, and behaviour of the dying parents, with the age, innocence, and distress of the children, are set forth in such tender circumstances that it is impossible for a reader of common humanity* not to be affected with

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1 Such as Virgil himself would have touched upon, had the like story been told by that divine poet' (folio).

The thoughts from one end to the other are wonderfully natural' (folio).

3 Genuine' (folio).

4A good-natured reader' (folio).

them. As for the circumstance of the robin redbreast, it is indeed a little poetical ornament; and to show the genius of the author1 amidst all his simplicity, it is just the same kind of fiction which one of the greatest of the Latin poets has made use of upon a parallel occasion; I mean that passage in Horace where he describes himself when he was a child fallen asleep in a desert wood, and covered with leaves by the turtles that took pity on him :


Me fabulosæ vulture in Appulo,
Altricis extra limen Apuliæ,

Ludo fatigatumque somno
Fronde novâ puerum palumbes


I have heard that the late Lord Dorset, who had the greatest wit tempered with the greatest candour,* and was one of the finest critics as well as the best poets of his age, had a numerous collection of old English ballads, and took a particular pleasure in the reading of them. I can affirm the same of Mr. Dryden, and know several of the most refined writers of our present age who are of the same humour.

I might likewise refer my reader to Molière's thoughts on this subject, as he has expressed them in the character of the Misanthrope; but those only who are endowed with a true greatness of soul and genius, can divest themselves of the little images of ridicule, and admire nature in her simplicity and

1 Show what a genius the author was master of' (folio).

2 4 Od. iv.

3 Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset, died in 1706.

4 Humanity' (folio).

• Alceste, Molière's misanthrope, preferred an old song to a new sonnet which was recited to him by its author.

nakedness. As for the little conceited wits of the age, who can only show their judgment by finding fault, they cannot be supposed to admire these productions which have nothing to recommend them but the beauties of nature, when they do not know how to relish even those compositions that, with all the beauties of nature, have also the additional advantages of art.1

No. 86. Friday, June 8, 1711



Heu quam difficile est crimen non prodere vultu !
-OVID., Met. ii. 447.

HERE are several arts which all men are in



some measure masters of, without having been at the pains of learning them. Every one that speaks or reasons is a grammarian and a logician, though he may be wholly unacquainted with the rules of grammar or logic, as they are delivered in books and systems. In the same manner, every one is in some degree a master of that art which is generally distinguished by the name of physiognomy; and naturally forms to himself the character or fortune of a stranger, from the features and lineaments of his face. We are no sooner presented to any one we never saw before, but we are immediately struck with the idea of a proud, a reserved, an affable, or a good-natured man; and upon our first going into

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1 Addison's papers upon Chevy Chase' were ridiculed in A Comment upon the History of Tom Thumb,' a pamphlet printed in 1711, and elsewhere.

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2 Which every man is in some measure master' (folio).

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