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3. What is the exact meaning to be attached to

the expression “Indo-European parent-speech” ? Give examples showing by what method you would determine whether given words in Greek,

Latin, or English go back to the parent-speech. 4. What is the difference between stress-accent and

pitch-accent ? Illustrate the effects of accent on sound-change, and show what reason there is for believing that the principle of accentuation in Latin was different in the ante-classical and

the classical periods. 5. Explain palatalisation, epenthesis, compensatory

lengthening, root, voiced spirant.


6. Explain clearly what is meant by Ablaut or vowel

gradation. What principle underlies the changes connected therewith ? Trace both in Greek and Latin, and distinguish carefully the different grades of the suffix men.

7. State the phonetic laws which express the repre

sentation of the Indo-European stops or explosives in Teutonic. Give the Greek or Latin word corresponding to the following English words, mentioning the original Indo-European stop in each case - Book (O.E. bôc), quick (O.E. cwic),

loud (O.E. hlūd), guest (O.E. gæst). 8. “ Latin is a far less faithful representative than

Greek of the original Indo-European vocalism." Examine this statement, and justify your conclusion by examples.

9. Trace carefully, with examples, the development

in Greek of s, both alone and in combinations. What original sounds are represented by Latin g and b, and under what circumstances ?

10. Examine carefully the etymological connexion, if

any, between ap and jecur, Teixos and fingo, inue and satus, ápktos and ursus. Account for the forms tálas, ópós, Baivw, sido, posco, vivos.


For Third-year students only. 11. Classify the compounds of Greek and Latin

according to (1) form, (3) meaning, illustrating your classification by examples.

12. “The Greek and Latin nominal and verbal sys

tems contain scarcely any common elements which do not go back to the Indo-European parent-speech." Examine the evidence for this statement.

13. Restore the Indo-European words for 1, 4, 5, 7,

100, 5th, and twice, showing clearly the exact relation thereto of the corresponding words in Greek and Latin.

14. Trace the origin of the suffixes in taideów, xapiers,

peisovs (nom. plural), tróles (accus. plural), periculum, breviter, cognomentum, amabam.

15. Analyze fully, and trace back to the earliest

attainable form in each case, ίπποι, ερυθρός, χιόνος, touév, ilico, simus, virosus.


The Board of Examiners.

1. From what language is each of the following words

derived :- Abbot, annoy, balcony, cabal, canoe, caste, chagrin, chess, clan, fetish, folio, iceberg, paragon, programme, punctilio, rice, scimitar,

sovereign, street, whiskey ? 2. Give the history of each of the following words :

Alligator, assassin, baron, basket, battledore,

breeches, buffalo, evangelist, schooner, slave. 3. Write a note on each of the following quotations

from As You Like It :-
(1) He lets me feed with his hinds.
(2) Three proper young men of excellent growth

and presence.
(3) Here feel we but the penalty of Adam.
(4) What's that “ducdame ?"
(5) I should not seek an absent argument

Of my revenge, thou present.
(6) Doth my simple feature content you?
(7) Who ever loved that loved not at first

sight? (8) She calls me proud, and that she could not

love me,

Were man as rare as phænix.
(9) According to the fool's bolt and such dulcet

(10) Good wine needs no bush.

4. The shepherds on the lawn,

Or ere the point of dawn,

Sate simply chatting in a rustic row ;
Full little thought they than
That the mighty Pan

Was kindly come to live with them below;
Perhaps their loves, or else their sheep,
Was all that did their silly thoughts so busy keep.

Comment on the above.

5. Explain the following passages, referring each to

the context:-
(1) With hollow shriek the steep of Delphos

(2) All in a robe of darkest grain.
(3) If Jonson's learned sock be on.
(4) The celestial Sirens' harmony.
(5) Henceforth thou art the Genius of the shore.
(6) The great Emathian conqueror.

(7) Peace hath her victories. 6. In English composition is it better to use short or

long sentences ? 7. Give the substance of Landor's dialogue between

Agamemnon and Iphigeneia.

Quote Artemidora.

8. What do you know about Æsop, Polybius, Godiva,

Panigarola, Alexis ? 9. Give the meaning and origin of the words caviare,

posy, samphire, serpolet, byzant, maccaroni, panic, salary.



10. Comment the following passages from

Macaulay :-
(1) Far to the east of the Burrampooter, and

far to the west of the Hydaspes.
(2) Sacred to the memory of Hosein, the son

of Ali. (3) Amidst many honourable additions won

under Wellington in Spain and Gascony. (4) Ordinary criminal justice knows nothing of



The Board of Examiners.

1. Write an account of Ben Jonson, John Bunyan,

and Sheridan.

2. What do you know about the following books :

The Anatomy of Melancholy, the Essay on Man,

the Analogy, Sir Charles Grandison ? 3. Write an estimate of the characters of Coriolanus

and Menenius Agrippa.

4. Give your own opinion of the style and arguments

of the Areopagitica.

5. Write a note on each of the following words :

Avanturine, barded, cautelous, fosset, gammuth, science, sconce, statist, sublimate, unbarbed.

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