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3. What is the exact meaning to be attached to
the expression “Indo-European parent-speech” ? Give examples showing by what method you would determine whether given words in Greek,
Latin, or English go back to the parent-speech. 4. What is the difference between stress-accent and
pitch-accent ? Illustrate the effects of accent on sound-change, and show what reason there is for believing that the principle of accentuation in Latin was different in the ante-classical and
the classical periods. 5. Explain palatalisation, epenthesis, compensatory
lengthening, root, voiced spirant.
6. Explain clearly what is meant by Ablaut or vowel
gradation. What principle underlies the changes connected therewith ? Trace both in Greek and Latin, and distinguish carefully the different grades of the suffix men.
7. State the phonetic laws which express the repre
sentation of the Indo-European stops or explosives in Teutonic. Give the Greek or Latin word corresponding to the following English words, mentioning the original Indo-European stop in each case - Book (O.E. bôc), quick (O.E. cwic),
loud (O.E. hlūd), guest (O.E. gæst). 8. “ Latin is a far less faithful representative than
Greek of the original Indo-European vocalism." Examine this statement, and justify your conclusion by examples.
9. Trace carefully, with examples, the development
in Greek of s, both alone and in combinations. What original sounds are represented by Latin g and b, and under what circumstances ?
10. Examine carefully the etymological connexion, if
any, between ap and jecur, Teixos and fingo, inue and satus, ápktos and ursus. Account for the forms tálas, ópós, Baivw, sido, posco, vivos.
For Third-year students only. 11. Classify the compounds of Greek and Latin
according to (1) form, (3) meaning, illustrating your classification by examples.
12. “The Greek and Latin nominal and verbal sys
tems contain scarcely any common elements which do not go back to the Indo-European parent-speech." Examine the evidence for this statement.
13. Restore the Indo-European words for 1, 4, 5, 7,
100, 5th, and twice, showing clearly the exact relation thereto of the corresponding words in Greek and Latin.
14. Trace the origin of the suffixes in taideów, xapiers,
peisovs (nom. plural), tróles (accus. plural), periculum, breviter, cognomentum, amabam.
15. Analyze fully, and trace back to the earliest
attainable form in each case, ίπποι, ερυθρός, χιόνος, touév, ilico, simus, virosus.
The Board of Examiners.
1. From what language is each of the following words
derived :- Abbot, annoy, balcony, cabal, canoe, caste, chagrin, chess, clan, fetish, folio, iceberg, paragon, programme, punctilio, rice, scimitar,
sovereign, street, whiskey ? 2. Give the history of each of the following words :
Alligator, assassin, baron, basket, battledore,
breeches, buffalo, evangelist, schooner, slave. 3. Write a note on each of the following quotations
from As You Like It :-
Of my revenge, thou present.
sight? (8) She calls me proud, and that she could not
Were man as rare as phænix.
4. The shepherds on the lawn,
Or ere the point of dawn,
Sate simply chatting in a rustic row ;
Was kindly come to live with them below;
Comment on the above.
5. Explain the following passages, referring each to
(7) Peace hath her victories. 6. In English composition is it better to use short or
long sentences ? 7. Give the substance of Landor's dialogue between
Agamemnon and Iphigeneia.
8. What do you know about Æsop, Polybius, Godiva,
Panigarola, Alexis ? 9. Give the meaning and origin of the words caviare,
posy, samphire, serpolet, byzant, maccaroni, panic, salary.
10. Comment the following passages from
far to the west of the Hydaspes.
of Ali. (3) Amidst many honourable additions won
under Wellington in Spain and Gascony. (4) Ordinary criminal justice knows nothing of
The Board of Examiners.
1. Write an account of Ben Jonson, John Bunyan,
2. What do you know about the following books :
The Anatomy of Melancholy, the Essay on Man,
the Analogy, Sir Charles Grandison ? 3. Write an estimate of the characters of Coriolanus
and Menenius Agrippa.
4. Give your own opinion of the style and arguments
of the Areopagitica.
5. Write a note on each of the following words :
Avanturine, barded, cautelous, fosset, gammuth, science, sconce, statist, sublimate, unbarbed.