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(6) It is desirable that employment should be pro

vided for all; and therefore, when the work available is insufficient to employ fully those who are willing to labour, the hours of work should

be shortened. (c) His vanity is apparent from his fondness for

fattery; for every vain man listens eagerly to

the voice of the flatterer. (d) The desire for popularity leads to the adoption

of liberal opinions. May we conclude, therefore, that among those who do not desire popularity are some who have not adopted liberal opinions ?

9. In a certain examination, all candidates taking Latin

also took Greek, and those taking mathematics took also natural philosophy. No candidate in natural philosophy took Latin, nor did any candidate entered for Greek take natural philosophy. What, on these premisses, can be asserted (1) of those taking Greek, and (2) of those_taking mathematics? Work this question by Jevons's Indirect Method.


The Board of Excaminers.

1. How would you seek to establish the utility of

Inductive Logic ? 2. Examine Mill's treatment of Relations, showing

how this affects his enumeration of Nameable Things.


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3. The syllogism is “not the type of reasoning, but a

test of it." Explain Mill's position here. 4. Consider fully the importance to be attached to

induction per enumerationem simplicem as

method of proof. 5. Investigate the claims which have been made on

behalf of the Methods of Agreement and of Difference, that they enable us to single out, from among the circumstances which precede a phenomenon, those with which it is connected by

an invariable law. 6. Are we entitled to assert that every modification of

a cause involves a change in the effect? Is this assumption made in any of the Methods of

Experimental Inquiry as stated by Mill? 7. Show in detail the connection between the Deduc

tive Method and the Explanation of Laws of

Nature. 8. Mention different kinds of empirical laws, giving

examples of each. Consider the degree of reliance which may justifiably be placed in each kind of empirical law.


The Board of Examiners. 1. By what methods may the human mind be studied?

Show that each method has its characteristic difficulties.

2. What are the general characteristics of mental

development ? Summarise the process of de

velopment of the human intellect. 3. Define perception, and examine the relation of

visual to tactual perception. 4. May a concept be properly described as a "typical

or generic image ?" Give your reasons. 5. Examine the position taken up by Kant in his

Transcendental Æsthetic, that we know not

things in themselves, but appearances only. 6. Explain precisely the function of the Categories, as

conceived by Kant, among the elements of our

knowledge. 7. Explain the importance attached by Kant to the

synthetic unity of apperception. 8. “Ultimate scientific ideas, tben, are all representa

tive of realities that cannot be comprehended.” On what grounds is this statement made by

Spencer ? Can it be substantiated? 9. Consider, critically, Spencer's definition of Philoso

phy as completely-unified knowledge.


The Board of Examiners.

1. Mention reasons which have been given against

regarding Psychology as a branch of Physiology. 2. State the arguments for and against the existence

of unconscious mental phenomena. 3. Explain the distinction which has been drawn

between Passive and Active Imagination.

4. Consider Berkeley's arguments in favour of his

Idealism based on the relativity of extension, motion, and number.

5. How does Berkeley apply his doctrine of Idealism

to the question of Immortality ? 6. Examine, critically, Kant's treatment of his First

Analogy of Experience. 7. What solution is offered by Kant, in the Critique of

Pure Reason, of the Psychological Paralo


8. Compare Spencer's doctrine of the Unknowable with

the theory of the Unconditioned held by Hamil. ton and Mansel, mentioning any points (1) in which he agrees with these thinkers, and (2) in which he differs from them.

9. Examine Spencer's argument, drawn from the

Dynamics of Consciousness," in favour of the "assertion of objective existence.”


T'he Board of Examiners.

1. What answers were given by Socrates, Plato, and

Aristotle respectively, to the question-Can
Virtue be taught ?

2. Examine the reasons given (a) by Aristotle,

(6) by Mill, for the statement that pleasures differ in kind.

3. Describe the nature of the Stoic apathy.

4. Point out the distinctive features of Christian

Ethics, as compared with the schools of morality which preceded it.

5. State fully the grounds on which Butler maintained

that “there is a natural principle of benevolence in man.”

6. Reproduce, with any comments, Kant's classification

of all principles of morality which can be founded on the conception of heteronomy.

7. On what grounds has it been held that, to attain

the greatest pleasure, we must not make personal pleasure our aim ? Is this consistent (a) with psychological hedonism, (b) with egoistic hedonism as a theory of ethics ?

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