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many luxuries upon which money is spent place or picture, but unless others are in times of peace and prosperity? If not, willing to buy them they are not wealth. then the wastes of war exceed those of Production and demand in combination peace only by the value of the lives des
are, therefore, necessary to the creation of troyed or rendered useless.
wealth; and it is to their reciprocal growth A powder factory is no less economic that the increase in wealth is due. than an ice factory except in that it may As the productive power of the individual aid in the destruction of life and property. increases, he comes to have new desires
If we assume that, out of 20,000,000 and is able to satisfy them because he is fighting men, 25 per cent. will be killed producing more. This is described as an or crippled-an excessively high estimate- “increase of the purchasing power" and and that the economic value of these it almost invariably accompanies an in5,000,000 lives is fairly capitalized at crease of the productive power. It is $3,000 each, the maximum loss so resulting possible to conceive of a dozen intelligent will not be in excess of $15,000,000,000 and men on an unknown and unvisited island probably much less.
starting out with nothing and rapidly Regarding the other economic wastes becoming wealthy through an interchange of war, it is probable that they are ex- of production, but the value of their acceeded by the wastes of peaceful extrav- cumulation would be restricted by the agance, and the profits derived from war limited demand for it and would be imexpenditures are certainly no less than mensely increased as soon as the markets those accruing from an equal amount of of the world were opened to them. non-military commerce.
It is plain, therefore, that the accumuAlthough $15,000,000,000 is less than lation of wealth has a very definite relathe estimated annual increase in the tion to the productive power, the number world's wealth, it is a large sum and, of producers, and their trade facilities, for though it may not produce a cataclysm, every producer is a potential buyer by such a loss may well give us pause unless whose purchases the value of the product we can see some means of quickly recover- is stabilized and enhanced. ing it. Is such a recovery possible and, In a world in which all persons-men, if so, how will it be accomplished?
women, and children-were working up In order to answer this question intel- to the economic limit of their productive ligently, it will be well to go back to first capacity, the increase of wealth would principles.
be marvelously rapid, and would be accelWealth is the marketable surplus of a erated by every labor-saving device that man's production, or increment, over his in effect increased the number of producers needs. The creation of wealth presupposes because it multiplied their efficiency. a surplus production and a demand for It is a little difficult to visualize such a it.
world, for none of us has ever seen it. Robinson Crusoe and his man, Friday,
THE UNUTILIZED ENERGY OF THE WORLD might have produced twice as much food as they could eat, but so long as there was There is hardly a man who works up to no one to whom they could sell what the limit of his capacity. There are milthey did not use, wealth was for them non- lions who try to do as little work as pospower of the United States represents crease the aggregate of productive energy millions of horse-power going to waste, by at least 10 per cent., and if it does there and that probably less than 5 per cent. of will be no cataclysm, for the immediate the available human energy in the world addition to the world's wealth will be is productively employed, we must admit prodigious. that a very slight increase in industry or
sible. The waste even in the most scienThe moment that it became possible tifically conducted industries is enormous, for them to exchange what they could pro- and there is an immense amount of energy duce but did not need for something else generated that is not utilized at all. that was valuable, not only to them but It has been jokingly said that the colto others, then they commenced to accumu- lective energy of the baby's cry would late wealth. It is plain that the value run the railroads of New York State if it of the things so accumulated depends upon could be conserved, and when we consider their desirability to others.
that only 15 per cent. of the energy of coal A man may own a beautiful country is utilized, that the unharnessed water
WAR A STIMULATOR OF INDUSTRY efficiency will recover an enormous loss of wealth.
In France, England, and Germany the This statement may perhaps be clearer war has already put most idlers at work if reduced to figures. As suggested, the and made men willing to labor longer and capitalized value of the lives lost in the more efficiently, and the fact that war alwar may be $15,000,000,000. Five per ways has this effect probably explains the cent. per annum is a fair interest on this paradox of the prosperity by which it is sum and a further 5 per cent. will amortize nearly always followed. the loss it represents in thirteen years. It comes to this: The increase of wealth This is $1,500,000,000 yearly.
is in proportion to the intensity and efIf, by greater industry or concentration, ficiency of human industry, for which war 50,000,000 men working 300 days a year is the greatest stimulus thus far known. can increase their production by the equi- War is, in fact, stimulating to mankind valent of ten cents a day for thirteen years, both physically and mentally. the resulting increment at the end of that It not only makes men willing to labor period will offset the assumed loss, interest longer hours but it leads them to devise and principal.
ways of making their labor more efficient. Is this impossible? By a little speeding With every great war there is an increase up or intensified application, practically in the use and invention of labor-saving any one can increase the value of his machinery. services or production ten cents a day, and Whether, like the alleged increase in the many more than 50,000,000 persons are proportion of male babies born in war now peacefully at work in Europe, to say times, it is a case of cause and effect, we nothing of the unnumbered millions of cannot definitely tell. Asia, Africa, and America whose energies In a previous article, I have referred to will be quickened by the demands of post- the quickened interest in economic and bellum reconstruction.
technical literature as one of the intellectual
reflexes of the war. DISASTER SOMETIMES BENEFICIAL
Probably the fact that war compels Through fires which almost wiped them economy predisposes men to the use of out, the economic renascence of Chicago, machines that economize human energy, Baltimore, Boston, and San Francisco was but whatever the reason for the coinaccomplished, and these cities are to-day cidence, the consequences are amazing. greater and richer than ever mainly because In Europe, the era of railroad building disaster put everybody energetically at work. that succeeded the Napoleonic Wars inThe war is likely to have the same result. creased the world's wealth by many times If it does and all those who can work be- the sum the wars had cost. In our own come producers to the extent of only half country, industrial coördination and the their capacity, the recovery will be amaz- use of automatic machinery was so rapidly ingly rapid.
extended after the War of the Confederacy This is, of course, too much to hope for. that our national wealth, estimated at A world in which all those who can work 7 billion dollars in 1850, had grown to shall be found working up to even half 187 billion in 1912. their capacity will be an economic Utopia Instances of this coincidence between impossible so long as men continue to be war and the subsequent increase of wealth as lazy and as self-indulgent as they are. through increased mechanical efficiency
It is, however, entirely possible that might be multiplied, but it is unnecessary national pride, spurred by need, will in- Who knows what effect in cheapening and facilitating transportation may follow the by these figures, varies from 150 per cent. military use of the aeroplane and the sub- in some cases to 2,244 per cent. in others. marine? In this country, as a result of the If it be true that war leads to the inwar, we are developing our own supplies creased use and invention of labor-saving of dye stuffs and potash and seem likely machinery, as well as greater individual to increase our national wealth accordingly. industry, then there need be no fear of its
Carlyle said that "without tools man is economic effect. Economic readjustments nothing; with tools he is everything." may, indeed, be necessary, and as soon as
In the manufacture of pins by hand, it they are completed there will be increased takes 140 hours to manufacture twelvé prosperity but no cataclysm. It is a law packages of one pound each, while the of physics that "action and reaction are machine does the same amount of work in always equal in opposite directions." The one hour and a half.
same rule applies in economics. Were it To make 100 pairs of shoes of a certain otherwise, the world would retrograde in grade takes 1,800 hours by hand and time of war, and it doesn't. 200 hours by machine, and the cost of the What surer guarantee can we have that machine-made shoes is one-fifth of the with the return of peace the productive hand-made.
power of mankind, unleashed and quickWhen gingham cloth was made by hand ened by need and competition, will speedily it took 5,800 hours to make 500 yards. be manifest in an addition to the world's It takes 72 hours by machine.
wealth incredibly beyond precedent? In agriculture the same thing is true. America at least has no reason to doubt A good man with a scythe could formerly this conclusion, for already we are by far reap one acre a day. A good reaper and the richest nation in the world and rapidly binder can do it in twenty minutes.
growing richer while the progress of our The increased effectiveness, according to competitors is retarded by an epidemic of United States reports of man labor when war madness from which we have thus aided by the use of machinery, as indicated far been immune.
WHAT I LEARNED AT PLATTSBURG
THAT PHYSICAL FITNESS IS THE GREATEST OF ALL THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS
STRENUOUS PROFESSION OF THE REGULAR SOLDIER
RALPH W. PAGE
HE American Newspaper is ceed with the narrative of his impressions
constitutionally incapable of and benefits received with the conception presenting even the first ele- presented by the press as a background. mentary accurate impression I neither saw, nor heard of, nor have any
of the training camps recently thing to relate about the camp I have been held at Plattsburg Barracks for the benefit reading of in the Sunday editions. To my of the plain armchair citizen. A peaceful mind the attitude of the place has been student like myself, recently Number 3 in totally and ignorantly distorted and misthe second rank of Squad 15, Company represented in the best of American G, second battalion of the provisional journalistic style. regiment, finds it quite impossible to pro- To begin with, from the papers one might suppose this regimental drill-the Now this was the case exactly. I went incessant and thorough routine, the stren- to Plattsburg as ignorant of military life uous manœuvres and the dead level of as I am of celestial life, but with a schoolthe same uniform and the same diet and boy respect and pride in the Army. I the same contempt for all precedents and came away tired and awakened, but with a authorities extant in the world not em- firmer and deeper respect for the West bodied in the corporal, the sergeant, and Point graduate and the enlisted man. the captain of the company—was really They mean business, and it was a treonly the masquerade of a society function. mendous satisfaction to have been forced
The news of this great athletic camp, of to play a real game for all it was worth. this team composed entirely and exclusively
THE DAY'S WORK AT PLATTSBURG of fighters and marchers and sharpshooters in the making, was ridiculously larded However, the perspective of the reporter with the names of insignificant privates and the camera man was probably at its and amateur corporals, whose place in the worst with regard to “propaganda.” Let scheme of things there was that of the us suppose you had been called from a novice. There is an obvious parallel be- dreamless sleep making careful headway tween a football team and an army, and toward about eleven o'clock by the clear between the training of a fullback and a tones of a bugle blasting at sunrise, had first-rate squad leader. And any graduate lined up with your neighbors like a picket of Yale or Princeton, with the vaguest fence and proceeded to exercise every limb memory of the rigor of the early season and crick in your body with the violence and the discipline of the second team, would of a drowning man, merely as an eyerightly receive with unmitigated disgust opener-had played valet, chambermaid, any attempt to report the training of his bootblack, garbageman, barber, and policeUniversity eleven which dwelt exclusively man, eaten your breakfast and cleaned on the abortive efforts of the heir apparent your gun, and like the tortoise put your of some celebrity in the fifth scrub to drop house and your kitchen and your arms and on the ball without fracturing a rib. No your bed in a neat bundle on your back one on earth is concerned with the pedigree and proceeded down the big road at a lively or the floral home surroundings of the dirty trot by seven-thirty; had strained both urchins that charge up and down Soldiers your intellect and your tendon of Achilles Field in November in preparation for the in fantastic endeavor to obey the crisp annual battle with Yale, least of all the final orders of a Czar involving every head coach. His eyes are directed exclu
His eyes are directed exclu- possible turn and gait, standing, kneeling, sively to the selection of nerve and stamina, crawling, and extending over miles of of steady eyes and strong wills and tough territory; that you arrived back barely in muscles and daring dispositions. And the time for the necessary swim before dinner sixty-yard punter is the hero of them all. and the cavalry drill; that one o'clock
Now the most important and funda- found your aching legs plastered to a horse mental thing about this Plattsburg camp with the habits of a fiddler crab, whose is that from start to finish this was action for two hours you were supposed exactly the attitude of the officers and of to conform to the vagaries of the comevery private I saw. It is of enormous mander; and let us suppose, which is the moment to the people of the United States case, that you got back just in time to that the men they have trained and rely empty the vaseline can and mop your brow upon for the making of their Army, and and shoulder your Springfield and tie on in the last ditch to revive the Spartan your belt and bayonet and march left spirit and remold us into the stern stuff front into line around and around and our soldiers are made of, should be thor- around while the band played and the ough, efficient, and determined; that from divinity at the head of the column carried the instant the roll is called the drab of conviction that you were an ignoramus and superficial distinctions and the froth of a mollycoddle. histrionic interest be eliminated.
That is a long sentence. But it is not hypothetical. It is the exact record of the terrifying possible circumstances—and to eighth day until mess call. Now I wish acquire by practice the habit, equal to to ask this: Suppose, having occupied second nature, of obeying a few fundayour day thus, and eaten dinner, and then mental commands. The rest is hardihood, been lined up again and marched to listen courage, the will to fight, and the spirit of to a lecture on ordnance as terse, accurate, the team. definite, and instructive as a demonstra- Now the very essence of this is physical tion in calculus—and then some pleasant condition. That as a nation we are ingentleman had arisen to make some dividually not in such condition was very ordinary remarks from the outside world strikingly shown at the manœuvres. This about things in general and “prepared- Plattsburg regiment was recruited largely ness” and such, wouldn't you be dis- from athletes-polo and football players, gusted if your evening paper hailed him as militiamen, big game hunters, and such the great card and listening to him as the people, probably far above the average of day's work?
our citizens. They had a month's very It was a mistake to have any "propa- vigorous training. And yet ten miles was ganda” at all. But the confusing of this the utmost limit they could cover as a month of shooting and marching and dis- body in march in one day. Yet the 30th cipline with a talkfest is a crime.
United States Infantry two days before
the amateur war began arrived at camp THE MAKING OF AN OFFICER
about 4.30 in the afternoon, the band The most biased observer would be com- playing “What the hell do we care,” pelled to admit that the provisional regi- having covered thirty-two miles to a man ment received the most thorough and since reveille. rigorous possible month's training in the school of the soldier. It is supposed that
TEACHING THE ART OF SOLDIERING this training is to fit the men to be officers Here is the way they set about making in volunteer regiments in case of necessity. soldiers of us: We rolled into camp in a To the layman engaged in this course it is string of automobiles and trucks, with very plain that the training could not con- one armored car, heralded far and wide ceivably make a competent officer of any as the only armored car in America, civilian. First of all one must be a soldier. Captain Reynal Bollings, provisional capAnd then be leader of a few men. And tain, in charge of Captain Smedburg, at this point the art of war, of the tactician United States Army expert in the matter and the strategist, the ordnance officer and of machine guns. We were equipped the engineer, begins. These branches were with nothing but an olive drab uniform, a quite beyond the possibilities of the in- tin can, called a mess kit, a blanket and a struction provided. But it must be of poncho, an automatic and a bolo. We great interest to thousands of countrymen were provided a dozen tents and a box of ignorant of what it is all about to know pegs, and proceeded to combine these into exactly what a normal recruit in this game an orderly row of habitations. did, and what he learned, and what good We slept soundly, six in a tent. The he received
trumpet called us forth at 5:30, and at 6 To begin with, neither you, nor I, nor o'clock we were lined up in full regalia, the moonshiner in the mountain, nor the and no time wasted in teaching the manual moose hunter on the lakes in our normal of arms, squad formations, and those state could be called of any use whatever details of the parade ground familiar to all. as a soldier. I've heard this said. But We proceeded at the double quick to the now I know it. And this is worth knowing. main camp half a mile away for breakfast. On the other hand, it is not such a com- This breakfast was excellent and wholeplicated thing. In the end it comes down some and quite plain and satisfactory. to these things pure and simple—to be Then at 7:30 the assembly call brought physically fit to march any distance; to the infantry companies to attention. be able to shoot straight under the most Every man belonged to one of these eight