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companies. Mine was Company G. there would not be officers or pastures or This was marched out into the main road, bayonets enough in the country to accomlined up, and the men placed according modate them. I never had even a glimto sizes and divided into squads of eight. mering conception of what this country These squads were placed in command of is, or by whom it was inhabited, until 1 the nearest available recruit who had ranged alongside a haphazard thousand previous experience. Then for two weeks men from its workshops, and sang in close from 7:30 to 11:30 or 12, with diminishing harmony with them of an evening. They periods of rest as the days wore on, we were all boys-impulsive, friendly, eager struggled through the formal close forma- to know and to learn, gregarious and tion drills, each day with more and more hearty. The uniform is a wonderful equipment on our backs. I would not leveller. At the end of a long march when exchange the mere exercise for any other the ranks blew in, dirty and tired and experience I have had since college days. unshaven, there was no human being could Three hours each morning of invigorating tell, and none cared to know, who was the action, the ever increasing appearance of millionaire and who was the plumber. form and cohesion to the company, and The cheerfulest man was the greatest man, the spirit of loyalty and friendship for the and the sturdiest man the leader. And men in the platoon began to give us a your squad were your comrades, your faint glimmer of what a team is-of what chance bunkies your ancient pals, and men makes an army corps.
came to know in a natural and respectful We were then told that these drills way dozens of others from distant places, were mere one-finger exercises, the calis- with different views and different conthenics of the Army, in no way a part of nections. the real game, except in so far as they And not the least of it is the discovery by accustomed men to the feel of a rifle and the layman of the soldiers of the United to respond to the voice of command. Only States. We were all enlisted men by rank one thing is of the essence: to be pro- and by costume, and with the enlisted man ficient in battle.
we fraternized. Many an hour we spent Men battle on their stomachs. From discussing the details of soldiering with that day on we spent our mornings in the veterans of our little campaigns, and extended order—which is to say in a long it should be recorded that we were received line stretched prone across the landscape, by the professionals with a friendly and a mountain on our weary backs and the hearty courtesy, were instructed by them Springfield snapping at the visionary foe. on the ranges and in the march and at odd We advanced in squads or platoons at top moments—were rendered by them inspeed for miles-we crawled over ten numerable services for nothing, and treated thousand acres, and we charged, until by them on the manœuvres as comrades dizzy, all over the country. This, my and soldiers. This is a very high tribute friend, is no easy task. It gives you an to their kindness and consideration. Comabnormal respect for the real fighting man. ing from Plattsburg, one no longer views To advance a mile on your belly, or by the Army as a mythical and unknown rushes, carrying thirty-eight pounds, be- thing, composed of officers and God knows sides shooting an eight-pound rifle the what or who. whole way, after a long march, even when Besides a modicum of health and a disno burst of shrapnel enhances the enter- turbing sense of ignorance and an enormtainment, is very strenuous business. ous respect for the Springfield rifle and
the advantage of cover and an underTHE DEMOCRACY OF PLATTSBURG
standing of what it requires to become as If the average youth throughout the one of the regulars, not to mention a first country appreciated in the slightest degree lieutenant, we gained a certain amount what he would gain in physique, in mental of definite military information, which stamina, and in broad democratic associa- it is our duty to impart to our friends tion by a month of this citizen soldiery, at home.
A DEFINITE PLAN OF RESEARCH, ORGANIZATION, AND SALESMANSHIP FOR A
MANUFACTURER WHO PLANS TO EXTEND HIS MARKET
CHARLES C. CHOPP
UPPOSE I were the president it, whether or not it suits his climate, if of a successful manufacturing not, how it can be changed, how it differs company that had built up its from your competitor's product and business entirely within the wherein yours is better and why—in other
United States and that I had words, he is going to ask the most intimate made up my mind to see if we could not details about your business and the most extend our business abroad-into South technical questions about your processes America, for example. What would be of manufacture. Mere acquaintance with the proper course for me then to pursue?” a language will not supply the place of
This question has been asked of me accurate and intelligent answers to these several times lately, so that I have had to practical questions. It is easy enough to analyze carefully my fifteen years' experi- hire translators and interpreters. It is ence in the export field to frame my reply. impossible to hire a complete understand
The first thing I should do would be to ing of your business and its product. select from my own organization the man Having selected the treasurer of our who had in the highest degree these two company to be its foreign export manager qualifications:
I should direct him to devote as much time 1. A complete knowledge of our busi- as he needed-a year, if necessary—to reness, both in its technical and manufactur- search work. By this I mean that he ing aspects and in its general trade policy. should devote his time to correspondence
2. The man whose openness of mind and with the Pan American Union, in Washflexibility of temper would seem best to ington, D. C., the National Foreign Trade adapt him to work in foreign fields. Such Council, in New York, export managers of a man might very well be the treasurer or allied and competitive manufacturing cona vice-president of the company. He should cerns, the study of the geography, civilicertainly be high in the councils of the zation, and economic conditions of the company and one of the brightest men in it. countries we propose to penetrate—in other
It may be just as well to pause here and words, to a comprehensive study of everydiscuss the reasons why I would choose thing that could be found out about foreign this man rather than a man who was famil- trade in general. Armed with this iniar with the language of the countries in formation, I would then have him underwhich we purposed to extend our trade. take more specific research work in those The fundamental reason underlying this countries themselves. Suppose, for exchoice is that your foreign consumer is ample, our company manufactured pianos not buying somebody's knowledge of and that the market we proposed to enter Spanish-he is buying the American manu- was South America. A personal trip facturer's goods. And what he is inter- through the Southern republics should be ested in is not correct pronunciation or made to learn, first, whether there are idiomatic phraseology of his own tongue enough people in those countries having but the hard, practical facts about your sufficient means to purchase pianos to product. He is going to ask every con- make it worth our while to seek them as ceivable question about it—the price of a market. Second, to determine whether our pianos are a product for which there to a man in Stockholm that I used in sellis any demand or for which a demand could ing to a man in Key West and to a man in be created with a reasonable amount of Cincinnati
. The two primary qualificaeffort. Third, whether their construction tions of a salesman of anything, anywhere, is such that they will stand the conditions are that he shall have a good product to of service to which they will be subjected, sell and that he shall know human nature. including the effect of climate upon the I should expect our export manager, mechanism and finish. Fourth, if alter- then, to employ the best salesman he could ations in the standard design of our pianos afford (and I may remark in passing that be necessary, to meet different conditions a good salesman is cheap at almost any of service, and whether those alterations price and that a cheap salesman is rarely can be made without too expensive changes any good). Preferably he should be a in our factory.
man from our own organization but, failSuppose, for the sake of the argument, ing that, the best man outside of it that we assume that the answers to all these could be obtained. This man, however, problems are favorable to our entering should devote several months of his time to upon this trade. The export manager by a careful study of every process of our this time has returned to our factory hav- manufacturing work and also take a course ing in his possession the exact facts about in our office so that he will understand our where the market is, what changes we must methods of doing business and our office make in our pianos to meet it, and who methods of handling orders. His underthe principal distributors in the foreign standing of factory methods is essential countries are. His task then is to create for reasons already explained. His underan organization for gathering orders from standing of office methods is equally esthis field and for filling them after they sential because nothing is more important are received. This involves, first, a sales in the field than that a salesman should force and, second, an office force. Let us send the most accurate and explicit details consider the sales force first.
with his orders so that the home office will Our export manager has now before him not have to guess about any part of it. the choice of entrusting the salesmanship Assuming now that an adequate sales of our goods in South America to some representation has been gained in South reputable exporting agency in New York, America, what about the office corresor to a combination salesman who handles pondence? Also the question of credits, the products of several allied but non- the problem of proper packing and shipcompetitive lines, or to salesmen who de- ping, and the questions of foreign tariffs, vote their time exclusively to our concern. and foreign exchange. A good share of The first two methods are better adapted these problems is solved instantly by to small lines of manufacture. For ours employing an intelligent young South we will assume that it is desirable to have American to do the routine office work of salesmen who sell our goods exclusively. invoicing, translating letters of inquiry
This raises the question of the qualifica- from Spanish into English and the sales tions for a South American salesman. manager's replies from English into SpanI should say without hesitation that the ish, etc. The whole problem of packing, first qualification of a salesman is his shipping, routing, etc., can be solved at ability to sell goods. Knowledge of a a stroke by consultation with agencies in foreign language and knowledge of foreign New York that have specialized in this customs are entirely secondary to the business for a score of years and who are trained habit of persuading other men to perfectly familiar with all the transportaexchange their cash for the salesman's pro- tion facilities, methods of packing, details duct. Salesmanship is the same in all of custom duties, etc. countries and at all times. I have sold But before everything else in importance paints in practically every country on I place the preliminary research work and earth and I have used exactly the same the high intelligence of the manager, and methods and the same arguments in selling his familiarity with the business.
FOUR SUGGESTIONS FOR THE
WALTER F. WYMAN
The World's Work will publish every month an article dealing with the concrete problems of the increase in our export trade. The magazine is led to do this by the evident widespread interest shown all over the United States in the possibilities of export trade, and the specific interest in this subject shown by the readers of this magazine in the answers to a circular letter sent to a group of subscribers, most of whom are not directly connected with manufacturing or e::porting, in all parts of the country.—THE EDITORS.
N PLANNING a campaign to obtain tricts of the Amazon than there would be a export trade many questions as to the market for such luxuries in the Canadian advisability of undertaking such an Northwestor Labrador. But the big enterprise naturally arise in the mind cities would use these goods just as much
of the careful manufacturer. He as our great metropolises. So that domeswants to know just what trade conditions tic methods in selling apply similarly to are in the South American republics, what foreign fields of endeavor. the feeling is toward buying goods manu- A second important point is whether the factured in the United States, what are the Latin-American dealer will buy goods unbest means to bring his products before known to him, and what inducements may the public, and whether he should appoint be necessary to make him do so. a representative or deal directly with the Once more it is a question of common merchant himself.
sense, and the answer is to be found at Consider the question "What is the home. Certain localities will take up new attitude of Spanish-Americans toward goods ideas where others will not. Western made in the United States and do they merchants are more apt to take up new want to buy them?"
schemes than are the conservative New The South American continent is almost England ones. So the characteristics of the as large as the North American; vast countries must be studied, but first of all, mountains and rivers divide the country and this holds good in any locality, the into sections whose people are utterly article which is to be sold must offer more unlike in tastes, characteristics, and even advantages in selling than the goods the in speech. Though Spanish is the language dealer already carries. No dealer is going of the majority, Portuguese is spoken in to burden himself with an unknown stock Brazil. Therefore it should be borne unless it can be definitely proved to him in mind that in studying the attitude that it is to his advantage and profit to do of the South American countries it is so. And if there is no demand for the hardly fair to classify them under the one article the manufacturer must set to work title “Spanish-Americans;" each nation and coöperate with the dealer in creating a must be considered separately. Thus pro- demand. Such a demand, once created, United States feeling may be the keynote automatically shows the dealer that it is in Peru while the opposite may hold true to his advantage to carry such articles, and in Paraguay, due, possibly to the same he determines to keep a sufficient quantity act of the United States Government. If of them on hand to meet the demand. the product be in the nature of a luxury it for creating a demand for the product, can readily be seen that there would be no advertising, in the local papers chiefly, more sale for it in the region of the Andes must be indulged in. Then samples must Mountains or in the sparsely settled dis- be generously used, and window displays for the stores, until the public's attention doubt, been the correct solution. The has been aroused.
merchant as a rule generally asks for more A third and important point to be raised than he can handle. Furthermore, the is the advisability of appointing an exclu- agency should begin with a small yearly sive agent to represent a firm, or whether guarantee but with a promise of increase it is preferable to sell directly to merchants based on the volume of future sales, an themselves.
agreement which stimulates the dealer's The class of articles to be sold must interest in selling the goods. But in condecide this question. If the products are sidering the volume of sales made by the automobiles, sewing machines, phono- various agents the condition and size of graphs, or other high priced articles on the population of the territory which each which there would be a good profit for the represents should be given due heed. One agent himself, then the exclusive agent plan could hardly expect an agent in Cohoes to is the better; but on lower priced articles, sell as much as in Chicago, nor could one which are more or less staples, the profit expect the sales of the agent in the little which the agent would make, would town of Waracapuri in Colombia to equal be so small that his desire to sell them those of the agent in Santiago, Chile. might be problematical, and it is prefer- The question of samples is a most imable to sell these directly to the merchant, portant one and deserves careful investigaaiding him, as has been said, with adver- tion. The sample is a great sales argutising and samples. In the appointment ment, but it must be effectively employed of an exclusive agency careful consideration By means of a sample a dealer can easily should be given to the extent of territory test and determine the merits of a product over which the agent is supposed to sell. and its value to him in handling it. But He should not be given sole representa- the sample is no magician's wand to turn tion over an area which he could not cover. a rabbit into a gold watch or an inferior No sane manufacturer would give a Boston product into a superior one, as some manuwholesale or retail merchant the agency facturers seem to think. Its chief value for the entire United States except on
lies in the fact that it demonstrates at proof of his ability to cover the territory, once the qualities of an article which make yet cases are of everyday occurrence in it superior to its competitors, or else it calls which even the most careful manufacturers attention to some new convenience in size give the agency for all Brazil, or all Ven- or shape of package. And in sending a ezuela, even all South America, to a firm who sample specific reference should be made probably could not sell goods outside of their to the particular points of advantage of own city. It is indeed a temptation for a the product and not to the whole. firm who has never made a single sale in Furthermore, the size of the sample Brazil to agree when a dealer in Manaos should not be too small. One manufacsends in an order for $500 worth of goods turer of food products complained bitterly on condition that he be given the exclusive that his miniature samples were money agency for his republic for ten years. The wasted, for although he had sold goods to a manufacturer, knowing that in the ten number of dealers in South America and years preceding he has never made a sale, supplied them with samples for gratuitous and feeling that the order and implied distribution he had not received a second promise of far larger ones is a godsend, order. Investigation proved that the smallseldom bothers to consult his atlas. Even ness of the sample was the reason for the failif he does, and of course finds that Manáos ure. The remedy was the use of a full sized is a thousand miles up the Amazon, he package instead of the miniature sample. blinds himself to the impossibility of the However, if a manufacturer desires to would-be agent's covering the entire coun- introduce goods which are of such a type try-all because the order cannot be
be that time alone can prove their advantages, shipped unless the manufacturer agrees it is money wasted to distribute samples; to the terms. A short cable offering the instead, advertising, testimonials, and techagency for Manaos alone would have, no nical arguments should be used.