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Courtesy of International Marine Engineering I. WASTE IN THE WEIGHING OF FREIGHT: ANTWERP The cumbersome scales at the far side of the platform require on one side a series of weights equal to the goods on the other. This system requires that every ton of freight weighed has to be lifted on to the scales, and then lifted off again and on to a truck-an expensive duplication of labor that could be obviated by the use of platform scales. New York should have improved upon this costly method of weighing, but it has failed to do more than a very little in this direction

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WASTE IN THE WEIGHING OF FREIGHT: LIVERPOOL This English port uses the same antiquated system as that used in Antwerp. New York, as appears in the two facing pictures, has improved slightly on this method, but still wastes enormous sums by failing

II.

platform scales, which would eliminate the repeated lifting of every ton of freight weighed

to use

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III. WASTE IN THE WEIGHING OF FREIGHT: NEW YORK The Government weighs merchandise (for customs levies) by antiquated methods; the owners of the merchandise do not accept the Government weights, and to check them exactly they use the same antiquated methods. The result is a tremendous expense for extra labor and a costly delay in much of New York's commerce. These wasteful methods must be reformed before the port can become as useful to the foreign commerce of the Nation as it should be

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IV. WASTE IN THE WEIGHING OF FREIGHT: NEW YORK On these scales, which are weighing Brazilian coffee in a steamship terminal in Brooklyn, the balance is obtained with unequal lever arms, so that the metal weights weigh less than the goods. This is an improvement over the methods in use at Liverpool and Antwerp, but it still requires that all the goods be lifted twice in the process of weighing

The European war has caused so many way of Panama have a decided tendency unusual conditions that comparisons of to make manufacturers of products which harbors must be made for the period before have a national distribution consider the the war began. New York's foreign trade New York district for a manufacturing point in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, from which to reach the Nation, rather

than the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, which have been so popular for factory sites in the last twenty years. Because of the water transportation over the excellent coastwise steamship lines reaching all the points from Portland, Me., to Galveston, and the lines through the Canal covering the whole of the Pacific Coast, many manufacturers of heavy products can serve the country more cheaply than they can by manufacturing nearer to the centre of population with the necessary railroad method of distribution.

Concerns having factories already situated hundreds of miles away from the Atlantic seaboard are finding that it pays to ship their products

East by rail to tideA TOBACCO WAREHOUSE IN LIVERPOOL

water and then to the The Stanley tobacco warehouses, owned and operated by the Mersey Docks Pacific Coast by way and Harbor Board; an example of the wise provision of commercial facilities

of the Canal, rather offered by the unified system of harbor control in this great English port

than to use the long was comfortably more than 31 million rail haul overland to the Coast. When net registered tons, and this commerce the New York State Barge Canal is comwas of the most diversified character. pleted, those who have boosted it fully The diversity is proof in itself that the expect that it will have a beneficial foreign commerce of New York is not only effect in sharing with all the states around a tremendous element in the life of the the Great Lakes some of the advantages community, but of the Nation as a whole. which now accrue chiefly to the few sea

Undoubtedly the Panama Canal is board cities having terminals for the lines having a healthy effect on the volume of using the Panama Canal between the two business done in the Metropolitan district. coasts. Consider lumber from Puget Low freight rates to the Pacific Coast by Sound: There is no particular object in

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LABORIOUS METHODS IN LOADING CARS Two men required to help a truckman haul a load up an incline into a freight car from a pier in Brooklyn

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having lumber shipped rapidly, for under any circumstances it is necessary for it to season for some time after leaving the saw mill before it can be worked up into a final product. By observing the shaded area on the map on page 214 it will be seen that lumber from the Pacific Coast will probably be delivered even as far west as keokuk, la., and St. Paul Dore cheaply by way of the two canals than it can be hauled by rail overland. The American - Hawaiian Steamship Company has al

LOADING EXPORT FREIGHT ready established a The three piles of boxes represent three handlarge terminal for truck loads. Making up these sling-loads at the side

of the ship instead of using electric trucks very Pacific Coast lumber seriously delays its sailing

at Poughkeepsie to serve as a distributing point for the Barge Canal traffic and also for New England by means of the Central New England Railway. If the Pacific Coast lumber can economically be hauled westward through the Barge Canal and to the lake ports it is probable that a number of the heavier kinds of manufactured products on which there is no necessity for quick delivery will be sent eastward through the Barge Canal and transferred at New York to ocean liners using the Isthmian route.

Another thing that will add to the

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NEW YORK'S CHELSEA PIERS FOR TRANSATLANTIC LINERS Built and owned by the city, and admirably adapted to their work of handling transatlantic traffic, they were leased shortly after construction for a period up to thirty years at a rental that amounts to less than the interest on the investment. A definite harbor policy, and a continuing authority to carry it out, are needed in the management of the port of New York

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HOW LONDON MAKES A WORLD MARKET FOR MERCHANDISE This is a building provided by the Port of London Authority for the display and sale of rubber. Centralized storage and sales rooms of this kind have a great effect in determining the location of the world market for any commodity. In England, an additional service is the official grading of merchandise, which enables the owner at once to prove the value of his goods and borrow money on them

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