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prospects, it appears that our exports are essary. In unloading a ship the work is reincreasing rapidly. India and Australia versed, but the delays are similar in nature. are buying our harvester machinery, barbed Freight steamers are normally worth from wire, automobiles, phonographs, and other $500 a day upward, with charter rates goods innumerable. As payment for our much increased since the war began. It exports it is only natural that we should is surprising that methods have not been receive the raw materials which each more generally adopted in New York country can best produce. The extent Harbor for saving every possible minute to which products of the more newly while steamers are in port. developed countries will come to New Many of these things which cause delay York rather than to England as a place of and additional expense in handling general resale will likely depend very largely on freight in New York are due to red tape the volume of our more highly manu- and lack of coöperation rather than to factured products which we can sell in the need for elaborate cranes or other those countries. It is much better for us complex freight-handling machinery. Probto export automobiles worth fifty cents or ably the worst delay of all is caused by one dollar a pound than for us to ship the United States Government. Hamburg steel rails worth a cent and a half a pound. is a free port where the customs officers If we can work our natural resources up have no authority over the goods until into a highly developed form with a large such times as they pass outside of the free value per pound and make a better or less port area. England is a free trade country, costly product than any other nation, the and accordingly goods can be handled raw materials of the world will come to from the ship directly to the railroad car New York for distribution simply as without having to be weighed by the payment for the goods exported.
customs officers. But in New York, be
cause of the methods of the United States THE NEED OF BETTER METHODS
Customs, practically all dutiable cargo New York, on the whole, has every rea- must be laid down on the pier and delayed son to look confidently to the future. In until such time as the customs officers those things which man could not alter have obtained weights and samples. It is (location, size of harbor, etc.) Nature has perfectly feasible from an engineering been generous. The only things that standpoint to unload miscellaneous packcould retard or prevent a great destiny are age freight of the average cargo by having things that man can alter, such as methods the drafts of goods lowered over the side of handling traffic and the like. In these
In these of the ship on to small electric storage things, unfortunately, New York has much battery trucks so that the goods can be to learn. But, equally fortunately, Amer- taken away as fast as the men on the inicans have a way of learning what they side of the ship can put the material into need to know. To facilitate this process slings. Once on the wheels of the electric of reform it may be well to call attention trucks, the cargo could be weighed on to some of the defects of New York's platform scales so as to obtain both cusharbor methods and to discuss some of toms weight and an independent weight if the possible remedies.
desired by the owner of the goods. SamConsider, for example, the amount of ples for customs grading can ordinarily time consumed in loading and unloading be taken without undue delay. In this a ship of miscellaneous package cargo. way the storage battery truck loads of This time definitely depends on the speed materials could often be taken directly to with which the packages are handled in a warehouses or loaded at once into freight small space on the pier opposite the hatch- cars with a procedure as rapid as that found way of the ship. In loading the ship the in even the most modern English ports. goods must be assembled in sling loads, Similar gains are possible in loading ships and if the assembling is done at the side of and also in transferring freight between the ship a large investment in ship, pier, piers and lighters. But in New York and cargo stands idle longer than really nec- Harbor at present it is not unusual to find that four separate organizations have in
distinct from the general city government. turn handled the same freight by human Whenever capital for waterfront improvelabor within a total distance of not ex- ment is desired the chances for obtaining ceeding one thousand feet between ship it depend very largely on how pressing and warehouse, ship and lighter, or ship are the requirements of other departments and railroad car. By having more of the
By having more of the in the city management. A few years operations under one organization, or in ago some of the dock property was shown closer coöperation, not only can the direct to be self-supporting, and because of this cost per ton be reduced but the augmented the borrowing capacity of the city was speed of movement will tremendously increased about ninety million dollars. increase the capacity of existing piers and This amount of money judiciously used lessen the delays to ships and cargoes. as a working capital for waterfront imIt is much cheaper to handle more freight provement would have made New York's over existing piers than to build new piers. position in foreign trade almost unassail
able. Most of the ninety million dollars WHERE ENGLAND EXCELS
was, however, used for the construction of Here is where New York could learn new subways. Now there is danger that much from Europe. The ports of Europe, the Dock Department may have to get with their centralized control and manage along on a hand-to-mouth policy for some ment, have been able to give more com- years to come. Every strap-hanger who plete service than is found in any of the has a vote appreciates the difference which ports of America. At Manchester, all rapid transit makes in his own daily life. the work of unloading a ship, handling the The pressure on city officials is thus much goods to freight cars or warehouses, as greater for improving rapid transit faciliwell as loading the outbound cargo, is ties than for developing the waterfront. done by the Manchester Ship Canal Com- Probably not one citizen in ten thousand pany and billed for in accordance with the realizes that, though new subways affect published rates. Somewhat the same con- the comfort of the citizens, the very future ditions prevail at Liverpool, but private of the city itself depends on the proper enterprise enters more largely there than development and enlightened manageat Manchester. A properly managed cen- ment of its harbor. tral organization can give better service The ordinary corporation would develop than several unrelated organizations waterfront property by taking a lease for handling different parts of the work. The a pier and building the pier afterward. large private terminal companies of New So long as each unit of construction were York are giving more complete service self-supporting there would be no difficulty than is found in other American seaports, for the corporation to obtain capital as but even these terminal companies do not needed to proceed with new development. handle as many phases of the work as the Many plans for improving New York oentral organization of a modern Euro- Harbor would be self-supporting from the
beginning, and it would seem only reasonDocks in London and Liverpool are able under these circumstances that capiwwned and operated by special corpora- tal for the development should be obtained tions authorized by Parliament. These as needed. A state or a municipality can organizations have the power to issue their borrow money more cheaply than any own bonds. As they have managed the corporation. Probably the most desirable dock properties with sufficient skill to plan for developing the port of New York make them pay the interest on the invest- would involve a partnership of public ment, there is practically no difficulty in capital for waterfront ownership and pier obtaining capital by the issue of more construction with centralized private corbonds when additional harbor construc- poration management of the waterfront tion is necessary.
facilities. If one or two large corporations The New York City Dock Department could operate all the waterfront faciliis not treated as a separate organization ties in New York Harbor, under proper
supervision of a public service commis- Manhattan Island. A bridge across the sion to protect the interest of the public, Hudson at Fifty-seventh Street is feasible there could be very great economy in from an engineering standpoint, but the operation with much improved service uptown location required by the need of to shippers. England obtained the Amer- high land for approaches would result in ican carrying trade largely because Eng. the bridge being used chiefly by pleasure land was building steel ships when we vehicles, for which the huge investment of persisted in building wooden ships and forty-two million dollars does not seem because England adopted the screw pro justifiable at the present time. Team peller while American shipyards insisted tunnels across the Hudson downtown are upon retaining the paddle wheel. Like- not only feasible, but if tolls equal to wise, unless New York Harbor is developed ferry tolls were charged they would beto keep pace with and even surpass the come practically self-supporting at once. A development of European harbors, this westbound and an eastbound team tunnel, nation's wonderful opportunity for foreign each having a width sufficient for double trade cannot be utilized to the utmost. lines of vehicles, can be built across the
One of the greatest obstacles to the Hudson opposite Canal Street at a total development of the port of New York is cost of about eleven million dollars. The the state line which bisects the harbor. effect of these tunnels to increase the busiOn the New Jersey side there are more than ness of New York through the development forty municipalities facing the waterfront of the New Jersey waterfront and factory of which only two are likely to be large districts can hardly be over-estimated. enough to undertake any comprehensive Since there are so many municipalities plan of waterfront ownership and improve- on the Jersey side and no likelihood of their ment. There are three square miles of being concentrated into one great city, mud flats between Bayonne and Jersey the chief hope for a broad scheme of Jersey City which are potentially the best com- waterfront improvement is for the State mercial waterfront New York Harbor will of New Jersey to provide the funds just ever have. Almost unlimited areas of as the State of Massachusetts made apmeadow land are waiting to be filled and propriations for the improvement of the made available for deep-water factory port of Boston. To secure money for a sites. In the meantime dirt from New proper development it will be necessary York subway construction and thousands to obtain the approval of the voters of New of barge loads of ashes are hauled far out Jersey. The waterfront improvement would to sea and dumped. From an economic unquestionably be a benefit to New Jersey standpoint the material should be utilized as a whole, and it would seem that the for filling waterfront lowlands. It is to obtaining of the consent of the voters be hoped that the average resident of should not be impossible. the City of New York will come to a The New York side and the New Jersey realization that the development of the side of New York Harbor should be develNew Jersey side of the harbor cannot butoped harmoniously. “Service” should be aid the prosperity of Manhattan and the watchword of the port of New Yorkevery one of the other four boroughs. service to the seller and to the buyer alike, Each new pier or factory built in Jersey service to the inland factory as well as to means a larger volume of business of every the tide-water manufacturer. Increasingly kind and more customers for the mer- numerous steamships sailing from New chants and manufacturers established on York to all corners of the earth provide the New York side of the Hudson.
facilities to the average exporter or imIt seems likely that a solution of the porter that he cannot obtain in any other problems regarding New York's commerce port of America. If the present opporwill ultimately involve freight tunnels tunities are utilized to the utmost, New across the Hudson River so that the New York can become the acknowledged marJersey railroads may all have access to ket-place of the world and give real service a marginal railroad on the west side of to all the nations of the earth.
THE DRAMA OF THE DYESTUFFS
HOW GERMANY'S CONTROL OF THE MANUFACTURE OF COAL-TAR DYES ALMOST
BEING DONE TO FOUND A BIG NEW AMERICAN INDUSTRY
MERICA'S purchases of color- sidering the uses to which he puts coal-tar
ing materials for textiles, inks, dyes. First, practically everything that leather, and other manufac- men and women wear except white goods tures were the direct cause of is colored with these dyes-suits of clothes,
a great deal of Germany's fine silks, neckties, hose, shirts, hats, linens, success in the first year of the war. The -all apparel, in short. Nearly every article connection is simple: all these things are of leather is dyed-gloves, shoes, saddles, nowadays colored with coal-tar dyes; Ger- harness, book bindings, upholstery, and so many controls the coal-tar dye industry of on. Almost all inks are colored with the world; the United States is the largest dyes—writing inks and printing inks, incustomer of this industry; benzol and cluding those that make gay the covers of toluol, the basic materials of these dyes, are magazines and books and the wall papers also the basic materials of the famous “high that hide our naked walls. House paints, explosives” which wrecked the forts of furniture stains, and varnishes owe their Liège and Namur and so made possible the charm to the same coal-tar product. "rush to Paris” that came so near to de- Imagine what a dull world we should live ciding the fate of Europe in the first month in without them-a world of people clad of the war.
in uncolored garments moving about in But the German control of the dye indus- dingy houses among furnishings of lifeless try has come even nearer home to this grays and browns. country. Though the outcome of the True enough, before ever coal-tar dyes European war will most profoundly affect were discovered and they are only about the future of the United States, the imme- sixty years old—the world was fairly colordiate effects of the stoppage of German ful. But for every tint that was available dyes are more acutely felt at this time. then, a dozen tints may be had now that They are felt most noticeably in the great were then undreamt of—and every one of textile industry. In that industry, thous- the dozen a fresher, more brilliant, and ands of operatives are out of employment, more lasting color. And these modern thousands more are working on half time colors are cheap, reliable, easily accessible or quarter time, millions of dollars' worth staples of an industrial system that could of plant and machinery stand idle—all not long tolerate the uncertain and more because women and men, too, for that difficult supply of the older coloring matmatter) will not buy clothing that is not ters. In the United States, that industrial brightened by color. And should Ameri- system includes all the great textile mills can enterprise not make good the loss of of New England and the Atlantic South, foreign dyestuffs-as, fortunately, it seems all the silk mills of New Jersey and Pennin a fair way to do-we should look forward sylvania, all the shoe and leather manuto a drab future indeed.
factories centering in Boston and New Just how much color does mean to York, which, with other industries affected, modern man may be gathered from con- involve hundreds of millions of dollars of American capital and hundreds of thou- coal-tar industry which has been built up sands of American employees. The losses in the last sixty years and which includes which that system of industry has already not only dyes but a large proportion of the endured are enormous; they have been the drugs listed in the pharmacopæias, the most cause of acute suffering to many an Ameri- powerful explosives, many perfumes, phocan family.
tographic developers, an excellent auto
mobile fuel, and dozens of other indispenGERMANY'S GREAT DYE INDUSTRY
sable products of modern life. The German dye industry, the disloca- But though Perkin succeeded financially tion of which has thus rudely disturbed and died rich, famous, and a knight of the the smooth current of American business, British Crown, his countrymen let the is the pride of Germany and one of the fruits of his labors slip from their hands. wonders of the world. In the “Pennsyl- Not England, but Germany, grasped the vania of the Rhine”—that smoky and significance of his discovery and developed populous region of coal and iron of which its full possibilities. A German firm began Essen is the Pittsburg—are twelve of Ger- the manufacture of these dyes on a modest many's twenty-one coal-tar dye factories. scale at Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine, emThey are huge establishments, the biggest pioying a few workmen. By 1906, the of them covering hundreds of acres and Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik was employing thousands of workmen. Col- employing 7,500 workmen, 197 universitylectively they represent an investment of trained chemists, 95 engineers, and 709 four hundred million dollars of capital, and clerks, and was the biggest dye manufactheir yearly product is valued at one hun- tory in the world. The Bayer Company, dred million dollars. They constitute Ger- at Elberfeld, is almost as big, and these many's best equipped and most profitable two are closely followed by Cassella & manufacturing industry. Germans are Company, of Frankfort-on-the-Main. and proud of it not only because it is a triumph by Meister Lucius & Brüning, of Höchst. of German science and German engineering Seventeen other concerns, all large, are in a complex technical art but also because scattered through Germany, most of them it is a triumph of German financial organ- in a region only about 130 miles square, in ization and of German commercial skill the valleys of the Main and Rhine. that have won Germany practically a world monopoly in one of the most vital elements
A TRIUMPH OF SCIENCE AND BUSINESS of modern life. And they are especially Germany succeeded with the industry proud of it because, in developing it, they only by a remarkable coöperation of techhave beat England at its own game, for nical, financial, and commercial forces. coal-tar dyes are an English discovery. The aid of the universities was enlisted to
In 1856, William Henry Perkin, an solve the complex problems of chemistry English chemist, tried to produce an arti- involved in the preparation of the dyes and ficial, or synthetic, quinine. He used for in the discovery of new colors. Gradually this purpose some of the distilled products a corps of chemists was built up that was of coal tar. His experiments were a failure, almost unbelievably patient in research but they produced something that he had and painstaking in manufacture. Back of not dreamed of when he began them, and them stood a group of bankers singularly something the value of which would have far-sighted and patient. And selling the escaped even most chemists. This product product was a commercial organization, was mauveine, the first aniline dye, from highly efficient in itself, that had, besides, which the delicate shade known as mauve the coöperation of the Government to was first obtained. Young Perkin recog- encourage it with permission to form a nized the practical utility of his discovery, monopolistic system of distribution and to and, with capital supplied by his father, give it an effective tariff barrier against went at once into the business of manu- foreign competition. facturing artificial dyes.
Thus fortified, the German dye makers That was the foundation of the amazing went out to conquer the world. Every