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ARTHUR W. PAGE, EDITOR

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, 1916

Army Officers in the Swiss Mountains

Swiss Soldiers Wrestling and Throwing the Lance
The Swiss Officer-a Well Trained Officer

Mr. Henry P. Fletcher - - - - - - - - - - - - Frontispiece THE MARCH OF EVENTS--AN EDITORIAL INTERPRETATION - - - - 235 The President's Message

Some Wise Recommendations

Our Continental Army
THE SWISS ARMY IN PICTURES

Adequate Defense in a Democracy-the Swiss Army
Swiss Army Mancuvres

Entrenchments on the Swiss Frontier
Armor Plate Lobby vs. The Pork A Misfit in Leadership
Barrel

High Priced Bonds and British The Case with Germany

Finance
Our Money Market After the War The Madness for Peace
Combinations for Export

Booker T. Washington

A Correction THE STABILITY OF PUBLIC UTILITY BONDS - - - - - - - 251 STOCKS AND BONDS—WAR AND PEACE - THEODORE H. Price 253 MOROCCO HAS ENTERED THE WAR (Illustrated)

CHARLES WELLINGTON FURLONG 259 SHALL WE HAVE RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT? II. THE BUDGET SYSTEM VS. “R. & H.” PORK (Illustrated)

BURTON J. HENDRICK 273 THE STRATEGY ON ALL FRONTS -

286
THE OPEN ROAD TO TURKEY - -
THE FRENCH FRONT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 294
THE ITALIAN FRONT ----------------- 297
THE EASTERN FRONT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 298

THE TURKISH QUADRILATERAL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 300 ITALY AND THE GREAT WAR-11 - - - W. MORTON FULLERTON 302 FIGHTING LEPROSY IN THE PHILIPPINES (Illustrated)

VICTOR G. HEISER, M.D. 310 AMERICA, A NEW WORLD ARSENAL (Illustrated) FRENCH STROTHER 321 THE NEW FRENCH CABINET ...... George Marvin 334 THE OUTLOOK FOR AN ABOUNDING PROSPERITY - A. W. Douglas 339 COLLECTING ACCOUNTS IN FOREIGN TRADE Walter F. WYMAN 343 MAN AND HIS MACHINES (Illustrated) - - - - - - - - - - 345 TERMS: $3.00 a year; single copies, 25 cents. For Foreign Postage add $1.00; Canada 60 cents.

Published monthly. Copyright, 1915, by Doubleday, Page & Company. All rights reserved. Entered at the Post Office at Garden City, N. Y., as second-class mail matter. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcomed by the editors and are carefully read. They cannot, however,

be returned unless they are accompanied by the proper amount of postage.

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THE ITALIAN FRONT

F. N. DOUBLEDAY, Pres. H. S. HOUSTON, Vice-Pres. ARTHUR W. PAGE, Vice-Pres. S. A. EVERITT, Treas.

RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY, Sec'y.
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY

COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA THE GARDEN MAGAZINE -- FARMING
CHICAGO: Peoples Gas Bldg. GARDEN CITY, N. Y. NEW YORK: 11-13 W. 32d Street

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OT since Lincoln's time has a The President has asked Congress to
President of the United Statespass laws to enable the Government to do
been confronted with the mak- all these things.
ing of so much history as Every citizen of the United States who

has Woodrow Wilson. He was has the welfare of this country at heart elected to change the course in which the should do all in his power to see that ConNation had steered its domestic economy gress passes a programme that will set firm for fifty years. With that task he inherited in statute and in fact our desire to be a problems in Mexico and in the Caribbean nation with a single national sentiment, from which he has evolved a more specific an honest and disinterested zeal for democand a definitely disinterested Monroe racy and the welfare of our neighbors, Doctrine. And the lessons of the Euro- and a willingness and ability to defend pean war have burned into the conscious- ourselves,our rights, and our ideals from enness of the American people the necessity croachments either from within or without. of a preparation for defending ourselves Our heart is clean of the lust of conquest and our ideals that has never before existed and oppression. Let us match the decency in this country.

of our ideals with a vigor and unity in their The President is confronted with the consummation. This is a task not alone task of formulating a programme to meet for the President and Congress; they that necessity; to instil a vigorous Ameri- are the instruments through which the canism into all our people and to silence Nation works. It is the duty of every and rid us of the voices of treason which citizen; and now is the time for us to define have risen among us; to increase the Navy who and what we are, for every one of us rapidly so that it will suffice for our needs; to do everything that lies in him to make to create a trained citizen army capable of the Government set us down in history defending the country-an entirely new aright. thing in our history; and to organize a What the present Congress does will relation between the Government and pri- serve as a measure for foreign nations of vate industry that will enable us to mobil- the intelligence and ability which we have ize, transport, feed, supply, and refit our as a nation to meet a situation that comes Army and Navy instantly and perfectly- plainly before us; and it will also show also a new thing in American history. us to ourselves.

Copyright, 1916, by Doubleday, Page & Co. All rights reserved.

SOME WISE RECOMMENDATIONS fulfilment of a plank in the Democratic

platform, but beyond the fact that it is SIDE from the main programme for an effort to fulfil a pledge it has not much

national preparedness and the to recommend it. Secretary Garrison's I raising of money therefor, and for very able demolition of Mr. Taft's attack, laws to deal with treason, the President upon the present Administration in the made several other recommendations in his Islands is likely to gain adherents for the message to Congress:

Administration's proposals, but it has in 1. The passage of a shipping bill. fact little to do with the Filipinos' ability

2. The passage of laws increasing self- for increased self-government at present. government in the Philippines and in The granting of federal aid to industrial Porto Rico.

and vocational education is much needed, 3. The passage of bills granting federal and it is as proper a function for the Govaid to industrial and vocational education. ernment as the aid it has long extended to

4. The passage of rural credit legislation. agricultural education. Education is one

5. An investigation of the transportation of the fundamental duties of a democracy. conditions in the country.

and our experience has proved that the The President is voicing a very wide- Government can give money to teach its spread popular feeling when he demands citizens without favoritism or scandal. that the American merchant marine beW hen the Federal Reserve Act was revived. There is little difference of opin- passed it should normally have been folion upon this. The differences of opinion lowed by an act to facilitate rural credit. arise over how it shall be done. In the In all likelihood this would have happened last Congress these differences killed except that certain members of Congress. Secretary McAdoo's ship purchase plan. in their zeal to help the farmer, endeavored The main difficulty of the situation is to pass a bill to institute a rural financial that in normal times American shipping charity. This bill was killed, but it had lived has been unable to compete with foreign long enough to block proper rural credit shipping. There are but two ways of legislation. The American farmer does overcoming this difficulty: either the not need financial charity from the GovernGovernment must run the ships itself, ment. He does want and should have presumably at a loss, or it must subsidize established a rural banking machinery that private individuals to do it. As a nation will take from him his various mortgages, our experience with the Government in consolidate them into salable form, and industry is not encouraging, nor have we find a public market for them. There are ever been able to give subsidies or even a number of mortgage bankers who do tariff protection to private industries with this very successfully now, but their activiout discrimination if not corruption. What- ties are limited. The Government can ever shipping bill is passed, and some bill supply a more extensive system. seems likely of passage, will contain the The President recommends an investievils of one or the other or both of these gation of the transportation problem in expedients — Government industry or sub- the country in the hope of bettering the sidy. The President recommends that the conditions under which the railroads labor, Government's aid, in whatever form it for “it is obviously a problem that lies at takes, be continued only while the shipping the very foundation of our efficiency as a industry is in its infancy and that any people.' artificial restraints which now hamper our “Our efficiency as a people!” It is the shipping be removed. Both of these keynote of the entire programme. With recommendations, if carried out, would the exception of the Philippines laws, tend to reduce the seemingly necessary every recommendation in the message is evils attendant upon the re-creation of our directed toward increasing our efficiency merchant marine.

as a people. The enlargement of the privileges of The last paragraph of the President's self-government in the Philippines is a message reads:

For what we are seeking now, what in my believe universal service is necessary but mind is the single thought of this message is that does want an adequate army. These national efficiency and security. We serve a people look to the Administration great nation. We should serve it in the spirit

gramme as the solution of their needs. of its peculiar genius. It is the genius of com

Secretary Garrison's plan provides for a mon men for self-government, industry, justice,

Regular Army of 141,800 men, a force of liberty, and peace. We should see to it that it

Continentals of 400,000 men, and a higher lacks no instrument, no facility or vigor of law, make it sufficient to play its part with energy,

standard for the militia than is now mainwafety, and assured success. In this we are no tained. The militia now amounts to about partisans, but heralds and prophets of a new age. 120,000 men.

Irrespective of any plan for the defense OUR CONTINENTAL ARMY

of the Nation against the attack of a first

class Power, we need the increase in the HERE are three points of view con- Regular Army. The garrisoning of our overcerning the proposal to put the seas possessions, including the Panama

Army upon a footing of prepared- Canal), and the manning of our coast fortiness. Colonel Roosevelt and many other fications takes so large a part of our present people believe that we should have uni- Army that we did not have sufficient men versal military service. A one-year ser- to meet properly the obligations which we vice with our population would provide narrowly missed having to meet in Mexico. an active army of from 750,000 to a million On our present basis we can hardly get tomen-with a reserve, after a few years, gether more than one properly equipped of two or three times that number. Be- and properly proportioned army corps of hind this, in time, would grow up a whole mobile troops. country trained in arms.

If we mean to provide against the exSuch a military system would practically igencies of a possible invasion, we must insure us against attack, for there is no have at least 400,000 men in the Continnation that could transport enough troops ental line. Under Secretary Garrison's verseas to have a chance of defeating plan these men will be trained on an averuch an army. The other advantage of age of two months a year for three years. universal service is that it brings a con- After the men serve their three years they crete realization to the mind of every citi- will automatically go into the reserve, so zen that citizenship does not consist that in the course of time we should have merely in privileges but that it involves not only 400,000 men in the active Conduties as well, one of which is the defense tinental Army but at least an equal number of the country. There is no more reason in reserve. why this duty should be voluntary and Besides the Regulars and the Contin

ptional than that the duty of paying taxes entals there will be the militia. At present should be optional.

this force is about 120,000 strong, but its The disadvantages of universal service efficiency varies greatly in the different are that it takes more men from profitable states and not much of it could be conindustry than are strictly necessary for sidered as immediately available for modnational defense; and for the Government ern warfare. to arm and equip such large forces would be the main test of Secretary Garrison's extremely expensive.

plan is whether the new Continental force Directly opposite to this point of view will be sufficiently trained and adequate in is that of the pacifists who want no more numbers. army but wish to leave the defense of the With two months' training a year for auntry to our ability to convince other three years the Continental line could not nations that we have only good intentions rank in efficiency with the French or Gerand that they, also, ought to have only good man troops. They might, perhaps, equal intentions.

the improvised British troops, though these Between these two extremes is the larger troops have had more training than this body of the American public that does not and had it continuously. On the other

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