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the last session he denounced all attempts stand, is our greatest legislative vice. Mr. to increase it still further.
Hay's career speaks this same tendency. "I am utterly opposed,” he said, in in the opinion of the well informed, the January of the present year, “to adding a period that marked the turning point single man to the standing Army as it in the Army was during the secretarynow exists.... I am not in sym- ship of Elihu Root. Until Mr. Root's adpathy with those who want to add 25,000 ministration, our Army had been dismen and 1,000 officers to the Regular Army organized, unscientific, feeble; his work now. I want to ask the gentlemen why do transformed it into a really efficient fighting we need any more men than that in the machine. He abolished the bureaucratic continental United States? What are we system that had prevailed for generations, going to do with them?”
and established the modern staff system. In a recent magazine article on the “War In doing this, Mr. Root upset many Terror” he denounces as “militarists” cherished sinecures and discomfited many those who advocate better preparation, and ambitious Army chiefs. The new idea makes the usual Bryan arguments for re- aimed at efficiency and the destruction of trenching military expenditures-our geo- politics as a governing force in the Army; graphical situation, our potential strength the main purpose was to spend the people's in men and munitions, and the like. In money in ways that would furnish us the 1914, at the height of our trouble with best army, irrespective of the interests of Mexico, Secretary Garrison asked Con- Congressmen or of wire-pulling generals. gress for 7,500 additional men. Mr. Hay Mr. Hay has regarded his elevation to the and his committee refused to grant the in- chairmanship of the military committee as crease. “There is left in the continental furnishing a rare opportunity to destroy United States," he said, “42,000 men, which the reforms of Mr. Root and to put the will be sufficient for all necessary purposes.” Army back upon the footing that led to Although our equipment is dangerously such deplorable results in the Spanish War. deficient in artillery, Mr. Hay reduced the His favorite idea is the reprehensible plan appropriation requested for guns from of attacking these reforms in riders to the $2,100,000 to $750,000, and although we Army appropriation bill. In 1911 he introhave artillery ammunition only for a few duced such a bill, the purpose of which was rounds he reduced this appropriation from to undo the Root reforms and hand the Army $3,000,000 to $100,000. When Secretary back to its political chieftains. Washington Garrison, a few months ago, took his stand for believed that the man who inspired this legmilitary legislation at this next session, Mr. islation was General Ainsworth, regarded as Hay announced his opposition to the plan. the greatest and most active politician in
What are Chairman Hay's motives for the Army. At least this legislation would opposing such legislation? Probably they have permitted General Ainsworth to retire are mixed; in a speech made in Congress a as a lieutenant-general, although he had year ago, however, he dropped one illumi- seen no line service for twenty years. nating remark.
The legislation failed, but Chairman Hay He did not believe we should go in for still carries on his fight against General military expenditures, he said, “at the Wood. In 1912, Secretary of War Stimson expense of our harbors, of our public build- and General Wood started a campaign ings, of our roads." That is, Mr. Hay, against the management of the Army in the according to his own explanation, is an interest of the Congressional pork barrel. anti-militarist chiefly in the interest of the Concretely their activity was directed * Pork Barrel.” Congressional appropria- toward the abolition of scores of useless tions to be spent in the district where the army posts. A hundred years ago the money will go into the pockets of his con- United States began establishing army stituents, and incidentally solidify his own posts on the frontiers, mainly as bases of political fortunes, are more important than operation against hostile Indians. As the the defense of his country. This Congres- Indians advanced further west, new posts sxonal habit, as most Americans now under- were established, so that finally we had about 150 stretched from Governors Island foreshadowed Mr. Garrison's proposed rein New York to the Pacific. As hostile forms, Mr. Hay again condemned any Indians have disappeared, not many of great increase in military efficiency. More these posts serve any military end. As recently, however, he shows some signs of they “put money into circulation" in the yielding somewhat to public sentiment. places that have them, and otherwise add it is to be hoped that this mood will to community life, these localities fight all become permanent. attempts at their abolition. Their upkeep wastes millions annually, merely in the in
THE GENTLEMAN FROM OREGON terests of the pork barrel; the more serious In the Senate the situation is better. fact, however, is that they menace military Senator George E. Chamberlain, chairman efficiency, as the scattering of the Army in of the Committee on Military Affairs more than a hundred places prevents quick here, is a politician to his marrow, is by mobilization. In 1912, Secretary Stimson no means unacquainted with the pork submitted a report to Congress, de- barrel, and has popularly been described as scribing this situation, and asking for the “best hand-shaker west of the Missisthe abolition of many of the posts. He sippi River.” Though he spent his early showed how the Government could life in Mississippi, he represents in the save more than $5,000,000 a year by Senatethefar northwestern state of Oregon. taking such action. It is no secret And Mr. Chamberlain really represents in that General Wood prepared this report. all details this vigorous commonwealth. Among other things it recommended the He is a product of the radicalism which abolition of Fort D. A. Russell and Fort signifies Oregon's revolt from the era of the Mackenzie in Wyoming; what made this land thieves who for so many years domirecommendation especially daring was that nated its public life. Mr. Chamberlain owes these posts were the particular pets of his political success to the initiative and Senator Francis E. Warren, Republican referendum, the recall, woman's suffrage, chairman of the Senate Committee on the popular election of United States Military Affairs, who had induced Congress Senators, and the other things that make to spend-uselessly-about $6,000,000 on up what is known as the Oregon System. them in the preceding ten years. Soon Mr. Chamberlain is honest, he has great after Congress received this report, Chair- political sense, and no man responds so man Hay introduced, as a rider to the immediately to public sentiment. NaturArmy appropriation bill of 1912, a measure ally his attitude on military preparation the immediate effect of which would have hardly duplicates that of Congressman Hay. been the retirement of General Wood. In the Sixty-third Congress he took the midAnother would have been the promotion dle ground between those who advocated of Senator Warren's son-in-law, General a great standing Army and those who Pershing. Chairman Hay and Senator believed in maintaining it at its present Warren succeeded in getting this outrageous size. Concretely he came out for a force measure through both Houses. When it of 125,000. “With such an Army propcame up to President Taft his position was erly officered and an efficient national an awkward one. To veto it meant holding guard as a nucleus," he said, "and the up the whole Army appropriation; yet, as establishment of a reserve, which can be Mr. Taft said, “the Army is too vital to be created with little, if any, expense, there is made the victim of hasty and imperfect no question but that we will be in a position legislation.” The President, therefore, dis to meet all the dangers that are likely to approved the bill-thereby cutting off for a come upon us from foes without or within." time all money for the service. Mr. Hay Recent utterances indicate that Mr. denounced Mr. Taft viciously for his act, Chamberlain may go further than this. but all men interested in freeing the Army Last session he introducd a bill providing from the dirtiest kinds of politics applauded for a council for national defense and anthe President's courage.
other increasing by 10,000 men our forces Last summer, when the newspapers at coast fortifications. “In my opinion,"
he said in a letter to the War Department cornfield lawyer and pitchfork statesman, last winter, "the time has come when a will have charge of our naval interest. A definite Army policy should be adopted. more unsuitable representative, of course, ... As chairman of the Military Affairs we could hardly have. Mr. Tillman has Committee I am ready to do my part in served on the Navy committee for many making adequate provision for defense years; in all that time his leading idea of based on the recommendations of the naval defense has been to secure as large apGeneral Staff.” Certainly that is an en- propriations as possible for the Charleston couraging contrast to Mr. Hay's attitude. Navy Yard. This enterprise has become a
Mr. Lemuel P. Padgett, chairman of the classic illustration of our great national House Naval Committee, has a rather un- vice-the use of public money, not for satisfactory Navy record. A few years national purposes, but merely as patronage ago he was making "little Navy” speeches for localities. As a result of Senator Till-speeches which the present Congressional man's excursions into the national treasury, enemies of the Navy have recently been we have spent about $6,000,000 in building casting in his teeth. As a minority mem- a dry dock for battleships at Charleston; ber of the Navy committee, Mr. Padgett this despite the fact that modern battleships worked against the large plans of President cannot reach this dock even at high tide! Roosevelt and others. In 1911, he in- Senator Tillman at least has the merit of troduced a resolution for one battleship in- being frank. “While all this stealing is stead of two-a resolution that, fortunately, going on," he once said in the Senate, refailed. When he became chairman of the ferring to appropriations for navy yards, “I Naval Affairs Committee, however, Mr. want my share.” At another time he Padgett's attitude changed. In 1912, the described the Charleston Navy Yard as new Democratic majority voted in caucus “my slice.” not to authorize any battleships at all that A s to his attitude on the American Navy year. The Republican Senate held out for Mr. Tillman, in 1912, was the only man on two. Mr. Padgett assumed the leadership the Senate Committee to support the is opposition to his own party, and, by Democrats in the House in their vote for no hard work, succeeded in obtaining one. battleships. In the same year he introSince then he has supported all the Admin- duced a resolution that embodied his ideas istration's policies; in 1914, indeed, Presi- on naval reform. The United States, this dent Wilson wrote thanking him for his resolution suggested, should stop wasting excellent services to the Navy. An act money on many dreadnaughts; instead it that must be placed on the other side was should build one ship infinitely bigger, his resolution, introduced in 1914, appro- swifter, more heavily armed and armored priating $200,000 for opening the New than anything afloat. “Let us find out Orleans Navy Yard. This was pork- just how far we can go,” the resolution read, barrelism of a particularly vicious kind. “and go there at once. Let such vessel be Secretary Meyer had closed this yard, on named “The Terror,' and become the peacethe advice of Admiral Dewey, Admiral maker of the world ; let us have some money Fiske, and other experts that it served no in the Treasury for more necessary and useuseful purpose; its only aim was to dis- ful expenditures, such as good roads, contribute a certain amount of the Govern- trolling the floods of the Mississippi, drainment's money at New Orleans. Secretary ing the swamp lands of the South, and Daniels, determined that the South should irrigating the arid land in the West." In not be deprived of this graft, opened the the present year Mr. Tillman has someNew Orleans yard, and Mr. Padgett un- what modified this opera bouffe attitude. fortunately has abetted him. At present He has recently announced his willingness Mr. Padgett, like Secretary Daniels, stands to coöperate with the Administration on for a "conservative and ample Navy strengthening the Navy. Thus, though policy." Just what that means the forth- Mr. Tillman will probably lend little real coming session will show.
assistance, there is the comforting likeliIn the Senate, Mr. Benjamin R. Tillman, hood that he will not be an obstruction.
Fish advice over had closely vicious por
THE PRESS ON PREPAREDNESS
A POLL OF 261 NEWSPAPERS, IN ALL PARTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OF ALL COMPLEXIONS POLITICALLY, ON THE NEED FOR STRENGTH
ENING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE (The World's Work undertook this poll of the press primarily to ascertain the percentage of papers that favored preparedness and the percentage that opposed. Its idea was to publish a statistical article. But of the 261 representative newspaper editors whose views have been obtained, only 6 showed any doubt of a need for stronger national defense. As statistical comparisons of views thus became absurd, the following article was undertaken with the purpose of selecting some of the most interesting and most representative expressions of opinion on the various aspects of our military situation from the wealth of material supplied through the courtesy of the papers.—The Editors.)
I F THE newspapers accurately reflect Papers great and small, from California to
public opinion, the people of the Uni- Maine, echo these sentiments; the phraseted States are practically unanimous ology, but not the idea, varying from place in their wish for improvement of the to place. The Cleveland Plain Dealer
national defenses. The degree to sees in preparedness “a grave national which they would prepare, the methods by necessity”; the New York Times, “a too which they would prepare, differ. Some long neglected, inescapable, instant duty”; demand the biggest navy in the world and the Indiana Daily Times (Indianapolis), some think more submarines and coast “our pressing and immediate business" defense guns will suffice. Some favor a the Boston Evening Record sees "the need big standing army; some, an enlarged for better preparation patent on every national guard; some, universal compulsory side,” and declares that "the sentiment training. The majority opinion favors a that we must as a nation prepare ourselves navy second in power to Great Britain's for any emergency that might occur is and a reorganization of our land forces to spreading from one end of the country to give us an increased standing army and the other. It will not be checked by ultimately a reserve of a million men. charges of jingoism. It is not jingoism. The papers treat the question of prepared. It is not militarism. It is common sense." ness as the most important subject before the new Congress which convenes in
WHY WE MUST PREPARE December, and warn that body that the Many reasons are advanced to explain country demands prompt and adequate just why preparedness is essential. The measures to meet the situation.
Wichita (Kan.) Beacon points to "the The instant need of preparedness is astounding lesson of German system and sharply felt by all but a few newspapers, efficiency,” and the Binghamton (N. Y.) regardless of their geographical position Press bluntly adds: “We have been nearly or political faith. Thus the New York drawn into war with a nation fighting to Herald sees in preparedness “the greatest the limit of its strength. Within ten problem now confronting the Government years we may be confronted by that nation and the nation"; the Portland Oregonian at the height of its power.” The Philadeplores the "lamentable fact that we are delphia North American declares that so utterly unprepared that we are too weak "there has never been in history, we think, to fight”; and the Chicago Herald ex- a more striking example of temerity than presses its “conviction that the great ma- has been furnished by the United States jority of Americans desire adequate pre- during the last half year in formulating paredness for national defense, and that the demands which at any time may involve opposition is more noisy than numerous.” it in war, while neglecting the most ele
mentary precautions to enforce its high- the inquiry, “Is the United States threatsounding words or even to resist further ened by the possibility of invasion?” The aggression." The Philadelphia Record Chattanooga (Tenn.) News thinks not: observes that “the present war teaches But the Albany Knickerbocker Press gives that war may happen in a week. It credence to the picture painted by Colonel teaches the enormous advantage of pre- Edwin F. Glenn, chief of staff for the paration in men and munitions to meet an eastern department of the Army: onset." The sentiment of those numerous papers
Addressing citizen soldiers of the camp of
instruction at Plattsburg, he declared a foreign which demand an armed force to back the
army of invasion would have no great difficulty Monroe Doctrine is perhaps best voiced in smashing its way through the eastern section by the Minneapolis Journal, which asks, of the country and fortifying along a line from "Will Europe Let Us Alone?” and adds: Lake Erie to Chesapeake Bay, building up an
impregnable defense that it would be impossible We are dragged into foreign complications by
for this nation to dislodge for years, at least. the hair, so to speak. Nevertheless and notwithstanding, we are continually dragged in. Cuba The New York World, however, though dragged us in, and Mexico, despite our best in favor of preparedness, is as impatient endeavors, promises to do the same. · · · with this extreme view as it is with the We have become accustomed to having our wishes, in the Western Hemisphere at least,
peace-at-any-price party. It speaks the
sentiments of some of the most influential tenderly considered by Europe. This war, however, may change the situation
papers in all sections of the country in an for us, should its outcome, as is possible, leave
editorial, “The Most Eminent Cowards:”
editorial no effective buffer between ourselves and the
The most eminent cowards in the United more ambitious Powers. We should consider
cd States to-day are the extremists in the campaign
s the possibilities in such a changed estate...
t.... for military preparedness. They are afraid of “War is sometimes the resort of a everybody. They live in quaking and abject desperate monarch”—the phrase is from terror of everything. · · · the Baltimore News-is one expression of a
We do not mean that the Nation ought to fear that besets many editors. Many
rest smugly satisfied with inadequate means of
national defense or that its military resources acquiesce in the view of the Chicago News,
should be left to chance and improvisation. that "the condition of the warlike but we have no more regard for Colonel Bryan's bankrupt nations will be so desperate that complacent army of 1,000,000 which is to spring this country will need to be well prepared into being overnight than we have for Colonel against a sudden and overwhelming at Roosevelt's froth and fury against every Amertack.” Thus the Memphis Commercial ican whose teeth do not chatter in terror when Appeal declares that “we are to-day the he looks at a map of the world. richest country in the world and we are
To say that the United States must immedithe most defenseless. When this war is
ately spend $500,000,000 on the Navy and sup
port an Army of 1,000,000 men is just as silly as over a lot of nations will be money hungry.
to say that the country should learn no lesson They will have a superb military organiza
whatever in military defense from the war that tion and we will be among them like a fat has wrecked Europe. Between the lunatics spring lamb among a lot of hungry wolves.” and the fools, there is a broad plateau of sanity
Replying to the claim that Europe will which we hope that the Administration and be too tired of war and too weak to attack Congress will seize and occupy. us, the Binghamton (N. Y.) Press adjures us to “let no one imagine that Europe is
High moral ground is sought by the poing to be so exhausted by this conflict
Chicago Herald as a mandate for preparedthat no nation there could afford to affront
ness. That paper declares that "the this defenseless country.” And the To
world cannot afford to lose the spectacle, ledo Blade recalls that "Servia fought two
the encouragement, and the example of a exhausting wars and with a shout entered tree, competent democracy, and adds: upon a third."
... we must now show that democratic This thought suggests to many papers institutions respond to every national need; we