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must prove not only that men can rule them- should be made.” The New York Times selves but that democracies can wisely foresee chides the Nation because “in an hour of and efficiently prepare.

great peril we have been adhering to the CONGRESS AND THE PORK BARREL

ordinary programme of naval development.

The situation demands a change.” The Congress as the representative of the Na Sioux Falls (S. Dak.) Press feels that “the tion, is rebuked by a dozen or more papers United States needs a Navy of sufficient for subordinating preparedness to what strength to keep invaders away from either the Washington Post phrases as “local coast, and to safeguard the Panama canal selfishness," which “takes the form of a and insular possessions.' scramble for 'pork.' whether it is to be found in a river and harbor bill, a public

DEFECTS OF THE NAVY buildings bill, or in Army and Navy appro The Brooklyn (N. Y.) Eagle summarizes priation bills.” „The Nevada State Journal most of the defects in the Navy that are (Reno) remarks bitterly that “senators mentioned by other papers: and representatives have their millions for

We have not in the Navy a single battlecruiser, building political fences but only a paltry

a type of demonstrated value, and we have a dole to secure this nation from foreign

submarine flotilla that would be a joke if the attack.” The Quincy (III.) Herald says:

tragedy of the F-4 were not at this moment so “How simple it would be if some of the

conspicuously revived to view as to make joking pork barrel waste of undeserved pensions indecent. Our torpedo-boat squadrons are incould be used in proper sources and with sufficient to protect our battleships against subout the corruption of politics." And marine attack, and with the construction of the the Minneapolis Journal calls for a new Minneapolis and Columbia, now almost or quite national defense, “defense against the

obsolete, we seem to have definitely abandoned ship and arms lobbies and the navy yard

the idea of building up a group of swift scouts

and commerce destroyers such as have exceland army post tax-eaters.”

lently served the purposes of both England and THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE

Germany. Answering the question, What is ade

"SUBMARINES THE REMEDY" quate defense? many papers agree with the “The remedy" for the deficiencies of our St. Louis Post Dispatch that “our defense Navy, says the New York Commercial, “is against powerful foreign attack is on the the submarine." The Atlanta Constitusea." And many add, with the same paper, tion agrees: “If the war in Europe has that “we ought to have a Navy sufficient proven anything, it has demonstrated beand efficient enough to resist sea attack yond question the fact that it is upon the by the most powerful foreign navy.” Thus development and construction of the subthe South Bend (Ind.) Tribune declares marine that we need to first concentrate that “our first line of defense must be a our energies.” The New York Evening real one, large enough, modern enough, Journal declares that “our submarine and efficient enough to cope with any in manufacturers should be kept at work by the world”; and the Schenectady (N. Y.) our Government until we have enough Union Star, that “this great nation of submarines to protect every port, East and wealth and resources should at once develop West, including the Panama Canal,” addthe greatest naval strength of any nation ing that "it ought to be somebody's in the world.” The Evansville (Ind.) business to keep all the submarine energy, Press, the Norfolk (Va.) Ledger Dispatch mechanics, and engineers of this country and the Columbus (O.) Citizen call for busy until we have enough submarines of “the biggest navy on the seas.”

our own-a hundred to start with-and More moderate, if less explicit, pro then more.” grammes of naval defense are outlined The Syracuse (N. Y.) Journal, however, by other papers. The Detroit Free Press warns us to "keep the balance even," says that “the country wants to be sure asserting that, though “the 'big ship’ men its Navy will cope with attacks if they have ruled the Navy, ... it is a

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foolish man who puts all his eggs in one division of opinion among the papers that basket," and hence it counsels the Nation we find on any aspect of the whole subject to “provide for big ships and little ships.” of preparedness. Some editors place their

chief reliance on an enlarged Regular Army, THE ARMY'S NEEDS

some on an improved militia, some on Coming to the Army and its needs, there volunteers, some on the Swiss system of is, among editors, as the Buffalo Evening universal training. News points out, “a variance of opinion as to the proper ways and means. The

FOR VOLUNTEER ARMIES suggestions vary from the proposal that we The case for the volunteer system is well rely upon trained citizenry to the admoni- presented by the New York World: tion that nothing short of organized militia numbering 2,000,000 men will The volunteer system must be the main deafford us security from invasion.” The pendence of this country in case of war. Neisame paper speaks for many others when

ther the regulars nor the state troops are strong

enough in numbers to make an army for the it adds: “The pleasing feature is to see

national defense. A citizen soldiery, with all its that the old spirit of 'squirrel-gun Yankee

drawbacks from the strictly military point of ism' is passing.”

view, is the only means by which large forces, Many papers agree with the New York can be prepared for service in the field on short Times that “all that need be done by notice. Congress for the immediate improvement

In sharp contrast with this view, the of the Army will be duly set down in Secretarv Garrison's recommendations" Per Buffalo Express exclaims: haps the best concise statement of just Above all, let us have no nonsense about volwhat the “Garrison plan" is appears in the unteer forces raised for the short terms by Syracuse (N. Y.) Post Standard:

states, as was done in the Spanish and Civil wars.

The Express intends no reflection on the quality The military forces of the United States shall of those volunteers or their services. But what be, it is proposed, of four classes.

is needed now is a regular United States Army of The Regular Army will consist of 200,000 men,

not less than 300,000 men, enlisted for the sevendouble its present nominal strength. The term year period—four years with the colors and three of service, however, will be reduced, without

years in reserve. reduction in the term of enlistment. The recruit who has shown the required proficiency

FOR COMPULSORY TRAINING may, after one year's service, pass to the re

A surprising number of papers regretserves.

The reserves, steadily increased by this pro- fully prophesy the approach of universal cess of graduation from the Regular Army, will compulsory military training. Thus the be, not only subject to call for war service, but Kansas City Journal says: required to attend maneuvres. The reserve army would, under the plan proposed, grow at

"Many present-day Americans have insisted the rate of 100,000 a year.

that in a liberty-loving country the people The national guards of the states will be would make any sacrifice to preserve their freebrought into still closer connection with the

dom. The comparative lack of voluntary reFederal Government and there will be new in

cruits in the British isles is a hard blow to such a ducements offered for service in it.

belief." A new force will be organized to be called by

The Duluth News and Tribune sees the attractive name of Continentals, volunteers

such a lesson in Plattsburg: under command of regular army officers enlisted for three years, but required to do service only a Instead of 1,200 such reservists, this country month or two a year.

should have 1,200,000. Instead of waiting

until adults to take this drill, it should come in Under this plan we find “the regulars

the high schools all over this country with anand reserves constituting the first line, the

nual encampments afterward, of some ten days, militiamen and continentals the volunteer to keep in shape and acquire the late second line of defense.”

instruction. At this point we come to the sharpest This is the Swiss system; it should be ours. The Portland Oregonian, the Washing- the states by allowing their employees to ton Post, the Chicago Herald, the Boston take the time needed for necessary drill in Transcript, and the New Orleans Item, the annual encampments. The business favor the Swiss or some similar system. interests, it seems, must be aroused to the

Perhaps strangest of all, the Milwaukee value and the need of the work.” The Leader, the paper of Mr. Victor L. Berger, Kansas City Journal calls for “a federalthe Socialist leader, comes out for "a ization of the whole militia organization." citizen soldiery.” It says:

PAYING FOR PREPAREDNESS Until the American workingman shall be prepared to take the little brown brother to his

“Financing Preparedness" is the title bosom and until the American capitalist shall of an editorial in the Springfield (Mass.: manifest a disposition to surrender his advan Republican, which raises a question to tages, until the Monroe Doctrine shall be re- which many papers try to find the answer pudiated and American pretensions to the over- The Republican itself, after pointing out lordship of two continents abandoned, a reason that “the German private soldier under able amount of common sense would suggest the conscription system gets ten cents a that, at least, we should take such a reasonable day and the private in the United States and democratic measure for national defense

Army under the volunteer system gets as is found in a citizen soldiery.

nearly five times that sum,” remarks: FOR AN IMPROVED MILITIA

If the people demand a Regular Army double On the other hand, many papers declare or triple in size the present Army, they must be that American opinion will not, for the prepared to pay on a scale such as no European present at least, tolerate compulsion. people are forced to meet. ..Our total This is the belief of the Washington Post war department expenditures, omitting pensions : and of the Newark Evening News, for

in the fiscal year before the outbreak of the example. The Philadelphia Bulletin sees

European war, was nearly the same as the ordinan escape from it in the National Guard:

ary expenditure for the whole German imperial

army: and Germany had a standing army of Before conscription is resorted to and univer 800,000 men on a peace basis, while the United sal military training enforced, public opinion

States maintained considerably less than 100,000 should insist on a practical attempt at the de

men. The Federal Government cannot possibly velopment of a compensated national army re- find the necessary money for a much larger serve, a plan that never has been tried, although military establishment under the present fiscal urged by military experts continuously. And system. the first step in that direction is the encourage

Other papers, notably the Philadelphia ment of efficiency in the existing National Guard organization.

Inquirer and the Wall Street Journal,

regard the cost as of secondary moment. Many papers, of substantially the same Says the Inquirer: mind as those just quoted, feel that the National Guard has been neglected by the

All this will cost money. Yes, but what of it? states and unfairly used by employers.

We have no debt worth mentioning. Half a

billion to be obtained by a bond issue would be For example, the Omaha World Herald

none too much to expend upon national defenses describes one reason for the small enlist

and the money would be well invested. Far ments in the Guard:

better pay the cost of an insurance policy against Members of the Guard are everywhere saving

war, such as preparedness would be, than foot

the bills of a costly war that might be forced that they enlisted to defend the l'nited States

upon us overnight. Government and as a reserve for the Regular Army. The did not enlist to defend Standard And the Philadelphia Telegraph is conOlor any other trust or corporation in contests vinced that no one could or would obiect with laborers,

to providing the means for national deThe St. Louis Chat D:47 points fense by an issue of bonds to the amount out that "one of the handicaps of proper of $500,000,000, or more, if necessary. miltid development has alwals been the But the Springfield Republican feels that refusal of businesmen in demperate with “bond issues year after year cannot be

olerated for this purpose in time of peace.” of our national failings, it makes an eloThe Richmond (Va.) Times-Dispatch finds quent plea for the personal sense of responyartisan calculation in those proponents sibility for the welfare of the country, in an of preparedness who advocate more ex- editorial, “The Struggle for Ease" in which creme measures than are outlined in it says: the President's more moderate views.”

The one thing that the average man detests is To“ those who talk about a standing Army

the idea of doing anything himself. He is willof 1,000,000, or even of 500,000," it issuesing to give up some money to hire men, away off a demand that they “stop a moment and somewhere, to man guns and sail ships that he consider the cost”; and it estimates at never saw. But when it comes to giving some once that “an Army of 500,000 would cost of his own precious time, and separating himself half a billion dollars a year in itself.” from his own precious job, in order to learn how Continuing the Times-Dispatch says: to fight if his country should need him, he balks.

He takes refuge in a cloud of words about Where is this money to come from, year by

"militarism” and “millions leaping to arms,” year, assuming that the jingoes will carry their

invokes the holy check-book, and hopes that point? Increased income taxes are not likely

nothing will happen. to be favored, and internal revenue receipts from

But that very thing-personal service by the liquor traffic will decline sharply with the

individual men-is what we must come to. spread of prohibition sentiment. There is but

Every other nation under the sun, in every age, one other considerable factor in the total of

has come to it-or else gone down in the dust Government revenue, which is the customs tax

before more vigorous peoples. As long as the on imports. Is it not conceivable that some of

American soldier is looked upon as a hired man, the strenuous advocates of enormous military

working at a job for the pay that is in it, just so expenditures are affected by the hope that the

long we shall be without an Army worthy of the country's needs would inspire-would even

name. If the safety of the country and the demand-the reimposition of the old high pro

honor of the flag are not worth Mr. Average tective tariffs? Whatever the animus of the

Man's giving a little uf his own time to military

service, then country and flag mean little. militarists, it is about as certain as anything in the future can be that the attainment of their

Trained men alone are worth anything in war; ambition would be accompanied by a strongly

and the only way to get trained men is for Mr. organized movement for the re-enactment of

Average Man, and his sons and brothers-his the Payne-Aldrich tariff law, or something

clerks, partners, and neighbors-- his employer like it.

and his employees— all alike to do their in

dividual shares toward providing for the NaNo paper of the entire 261 expressed

tion's defense.

So what we need and what we must have, and downright opposition to preparedness.

what we will have, is the very thing that Mr. Six newspapers were either more interested

Bryan and Mr. Carnegie and the "peace conin other aspects of our relation to the

gresses” detest and abhor-military training. possibility of war or were so lukewarm We must increase our Army. We must toward preparedness as to suggest an strengthen and improve our state troops. We opposition they did not express. These must have instruction camps like that at Plattspapers are the New York Call, the San burg, where right-minded men can learn at least Francisco Bulletin, the Florida Times- a little about military service. We must have Union, the Great Falls (Mont.) Tribune,

an enlarged national military academy to train

officers, and we must offer every incentive to the Bloomington, (111.) Bulletin, and the New York Evening Post.

rifle practice and to military exercises of every kind.

And finally we must see that our children are THE NEED FOR SELF-SACRIFICE

not fed on a diet of false ideals, but teach them Taking the broadest possible view of that citizenship means personal duty and innational defense, the Adrian (Mich.)

dividual sacrifice—that the flag not only proTelegram discusses the fundamental ques

tects but must be protected—that the Nation is

not a meal-ticket to get fat on, but a glorious tion of character—the character of the

master to be served. We have fed too long on American people, and the effects upon it the doctrine of the Nation's duty to the individof a too easy acquiescence in the gospel ual. It is time we learned that the individual's of peace. After a searching investigation duty is to the Nation, even unto death.




ONVINCED as I am that a three costly and bloody years of the Civil government is the murderer War were needless.” And General Upof its citizens which sends ton's deductions were approved by no less them to the field uninformed an authority than General Sherman.

and untaught, where they The Spanish War brought again the are to meet men of the same age and same old story. Some of the volunteer strength, mechanicized by education and regiments reported without arms, accoutre discipline for battle, I cannot withhold my ments, ammunition, or clothing. Wherever denunciation of its wickedness and folly.” the untrained volunteers were there also

These are the words of “Light-Horse were sickness and inefficiency. By con Harry” Lee after the Revolution. Wash- trast the campaign of the regulars in ington himself is on record that if he had Porto Rico was achieved with neatnes had trained troops he should not have and dispatch. had to retreat across the Delaware in the In the past we have prolonged our wars beginning of the Revolution.

murdered our citizens, wasted our re In the War of 1812, although we had sources, and suffered humiliations and de nearly ten times as many men under arms feats because we have been unprepared at one time or another as those opposed to Yet the difficulties of transportation us, we achieved only one success on land hundred years ago and the unpreparednes and that was after the war had closed-and of our antagonists since then have averte we had the humiliation of seeing the Capital any national calamity. We know tha burned by a small invading force.

other nations can strike quick and hard In the Mexican War our 'forces were We know that great bodies of troops ca successful, but more because of the be moved across the water. From ou enemy's weakness than of our strength. own past we know that "a nation whic Few enemies would allow a little army in goes to war unprepared educates its state hostile territory to await reinforcements men at more expense than its soldiers, unmolested as General Scott was allowed to We have been accustomed to think do at Puebla; or permit us to train our the Atlantic and Pacific as our main di troops as General Taylor for eight months fenses. They certainly would add tri trained the volunteers who won the battle mendously to the difficulties of an attac of Buena Vista.

upon us and limit seriously the number At the beginning of the Civil War the men that would be sent against us. TI United States was faced by a government transportation of the troops to Gallipo just coming into being whose forces were may revise our estimate of the limits necessarily little better than an armed sea transportation but it still remains tri mob. Had there been an adequate army that adequate defense does not mean t1 the Confederacy would never have had burden for us that it does, for exampl the chance it did to train its soldiers. As for France. The limits of sea transport it was, the Federal Government was no tion also make it easy for us to differe better off than the Confederacy. General tiate between an offensive and defensi Upton, in his “Military Policy of the army, for numbers that would be adequa United States,” says that the failure to for our defense would offer no menace subdue the Rebellion in 1861 was due to the armies of Europe. We can get fra "our total want of military organization our military and naval authorities t and preparation.” In his opinion “the last facts of our condition and requirement

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