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ROM one end of the land to the There is no reason to fashion armies on a other there is a call for a na- scale out of keeping with what any possible tional defense. National de- enemy can bring across the ocean, for we fense means men and money, are talking of defense, not of aggression.
ourselves and our money, On the other hand an unnecessary fear personal service and higher taxes (unless, of the word “militarism," a belief that even perhaps, we shall find the courage to abol- universal military service is un-American ish the pork barrel).
or contrary to the spirit of a democracy, a There is no short cut to an adequate feeling that volunteer armies are essentially army. A standing army of professional Anglo-Saxon-none of these things is soldiers is a fine nucleus, a good police founded on historical fact. force, but under modern conditions no The danger of tyranny from a trained country can afford to hire enough regulars citizen army is no greater than from a to defend itself. We must have citizen mercenary army like our regulars or the soldiers and they must give their time to British army in peace times. Compulsory be trained.
military service is not essentially unThere is no short cut to an adequate American. It was adopted in principle navy. It would be fortunate for us if a by the Continental Congress in 1778 and fleet of submarines were all that were was actually put in practice by the Connecessary, for they are comparatively inex- federacy. Such service is not contrary to pensive. But if we relied on them we the spirit of democracies, for it is in use in could be cut off from the outside world France and Switzerland. Nor do Angloeven as Germany is now. If we are to Saxon states necessarily depend mainly have an adequate Navy we must be willing upon the voluntary system: witness New to pay for it.
Zealand and Australia. Let us realize just what adequate na- We are, then, free to adopt any plan of tional defense means-personal service national self-defense that seems to us to be and greater expenditures—and then let us adequate. We can get men to take the show that we really appreciate our citizen- necessary military training as volunteers, ship in the United States by doing our full or make it a compulsory part of a citizen's duty toward its defense.
duty. Any method is open to us that will There is no reason to be stampeded bring the desired result. But we must into military training as an end in itself. have the result.
Copyright, 1915, by Doubleday, Page & Co. All rights reserved.
DEMOCRACY AND WAR: • Russia holds no menace for us, for her
abilities at sea are small and her ambitions T HERE is much talk' io certain cir- in the East and Far East are so great
cles that the present war is a war that she would have no object in envying
of autocracy. 'ágainst democracy, us anything we possess. Austria, too, and this leads many people to believe that though having a government that is capathe Allies are fighting our battles—a phrase ble of anything from forgery, as in the which isinuates that our neutrality gives Friedjung trial, to starting a world-wide us somewhat the position of a shirker. war, does not disturb us. Germany has a
How far is this true? To begin with, government which in the last fifty-five 'Is this a war of autocracy against democ- years has deliberately started three aggresracy? On the one side Germany and sive wars and pushed Austria into beginning Austria are certainly autocracies. Eng- a fourth. We have Bismarck's testimony land, France, and Italy are essentially dem- for the first three and sufficient documenocracies. But Russia, of course, belongs tary evidence for the fourth. Along with to the other category. But despite this, this kind of a government Germany has a it is certain that an Allied victory would fleet larger than ours and the strongest tend to put the democratic forces in Ger- army in the world. Moreover, she has many and Austria in control, and that a world-wide ambitions. Teutonic victory would mean autocracy Japan, also, has an autocratic governwherever the Germans could succeed in ment. Her wars with China and Russia imposing their kultur. It is, then, essen- show that she is capable of picking a quartially a struggle between autocracy and rel at a convenient time and striking quick. democracy.
Her recent demands on China show a Does it follow that the Allies are fighting disposition to take advantage of a neighour battles? This much is true: auto- bor's weakness. Japan has an army incratic governments like those of Germany finitely stronger than ours and a navy and Austria can prepare for war and start not much smaller, and her progressive war suddenly. They are well fixed, there- programme of building for the next four fore, to make offensive war. A dem- years includes four superdreadnaughts, ocracy, on the other hand, can prepare for twenty-four destroyers, two scout ships, war only after thorough and open discus- eight submarines, and an aero depot ship. sion, and democracies consistently refuse to We have islands in the area in which Japan prepare for anything but defense.
would like to be dominant, and we have It is not conceivable that a French offended the Japanese by our racial feeling Administration would plan to start a war against them. against Germany, because it would lose If we have little to fear from the democoffice before it could declare an unpro- racies of the world because they prepare voked war. It is not conceivable that only for defense and because they give either party in England would deliberately long warning in talk before they can go start an unprovoked war against Germany, into offensive action, we are for other for such a move would cause the loss of reasons in a position of relatively little danthe control of Parliament. But the Teu ger from the autocracies of the world extonic kaisers have power over their govern- cept perhaps two: Germany and Japan. ments which enables them to start wars One is on one side of the present war, the without the risk of being thrown out of other on the other. Of the two, of course, office. It is true, then, that an Allied vic- Germany is the more dangerous, and she is tory would tend to abolish the dangerous allied entirely with autocratic governments. autocracies, and a Teutonic victory would Japan is of itself less formidable and is strengthen the war makers of the world, — allied with countries which we feel would which would be a disadvantage to us. not back any Japanese moves against us.
The existence of autocracies is a menace I f, therefore, we should wish to take a to the world's peace. How does this purely cynical view of the situation we affect us? Russia is an autocracy, but might accept the opinion that the Allies are
MR. OCTAVE HOMBERG AND MR. ERNEST MALLET THE MEMBER OF THE FRENCH TREASURY AND THE REGENT OF THE BANK OF FRANCE, OF THE FRENCH DELEGATION WHICH NEGOTIATED THE ANGLO-FRENCH LOAN, WHICH IS ALMOST UNIQUE IN ALLOWING PUBLIC SUBSCRIPTIONS WITHOUT ANY UNDERWRITING PROFIT