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against the Germans and Austrians in seems to be borne out by the general offenevery field of war, and as these lines are sive which is being thrust home against written on the first of October, that theory the subterranean German armies in France.

THE ITALIAN FRONT

T

HE situation on the Austro-Italian rumors of the transportation of 110,000

front is much as it was two months Italian troops to Turkey. This expedi

ago. The Italian army is across tionary army, which is supposed to be on the political frontier at nearly all points and the Island of Lemnos, has so far failed to in October confronts the Austrian front make its appearance on any battlefield in line permanent and semi-permanent posi- that region. As the Italians may need all tions. No counter offensive has been the men they can get on their northern attempted by the Austrians because the frontiers before many months are past it bulk of their army is engaged in Russia. seems improbable that they will send any The strategical aspects of the campaign very great number of troops away from remain exactly as they were described in home. To do so would be to play dithe World's Work for September. After rectly into Austria's hands. “Stalemate,” five months of fighting no important im- then, characterizes the Austro-Italian oppression has been made on the Austrian erations for the time being. The decisive works and defense lines by the Italians. area in this theatre of the war still lies

Since the declaration of war by Italy along the line of the Adige River or, in against Turkey there have been many other words, in the Tyrolean salient.

THE BALKANS

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OLITICAL campaigns have been the possibility of renewing that old agree

waged with growing intensity in ment seems at this writing to be very slight

the Balkans for the last two on account of the bitter antipathy of Bulmonths. From present appearances Rou- garia against Greece and Servia, due to the mania, Greece, and Bulgaria, but particu- second Balkan War and the hard terms of larly the last, are much like “men from the peace of Bukharest. Missouri” and desire with Balkan ve- In the first days of October the Balkan hemence to be shown. What impresses nations are still watchfully waiting and them particularly is the success of the willing to sell out to the highest bidder Teutonic military operations against Rus- whenever they are convinced that he can sia uninterrupted from May to September. deliver the goods he is promising. The Bulgaria appears to have come to a definite ability to deliver the goods is being deunderstanding with Turkey, accomplished termined on the battlefields of western by the Turks' ceding a narrow strip of ter- Europe and Russia. Recently there seem ritory from the vicinity of Adrianople to to be indications that Bulgaria is leaning the Ægean Sea, through which passes a decidedly toward the Teutonic Allies, railroad connecting Sofia with the seaport although after the checking of the Ausof Dedeagatch. This wise concession on trians in easternmost Galicia, and the bethe part of Turkey gives Bulgaria a port ginning of the Anglo-French offensive in on the Ægean Sea with an all-Bulgarian Flanders and Champagne, the Governrailroad to it, a long desired combination ment at Sofia, disclaiming anything but which they did not formerly possess. armed neutrality, is apparently hedging.

On their side the Entente Allies have All the Balkan nations have been, since tried to bring back to life the “Balkan August, on a thorough war footing, alLeague” of Greece, Servia, Bulgaria, and though only two have any power to take Montenegro for an attack on the Turk, but the offensive unsupported by the Allies.

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THE CRISIS IN THE BALKAN STATES—SEPTEMBER 24TH During September matters in the Balkans came to road Belgrade-Nish-Sofia-Adrianople-Constantinople a head. A convention was signed between Turkey so as to be able to give assistance to the Turks. This and Bulgaria which ceded to the latter the railroad requires that a way be hewn through Servia for a from Adrianople to the port of Dedeagatch, thus distance of about 150 miles. It is generally believed giving Bulgaria an all-rail route to the Ægean Sea. that the main line of operations will be from the In return Bulgaria promised Turkey very material Danube along the valley of the Morava River to compensations. During September alsó Austro- Nish. Possibly this advance will be assisted by a German troops in great force, their number being Bulgarian attack from the frontier northwest of estimated at about fifteen army corps, were concen- Sofia toward Nish and a seizing of the Salonica-Nish trating in the triangle Temesvár-Mitrovitza-Iron railroad so as to prevent any rail communication Gate. Artillery fire was directed by the Austro- between the Entente Allies and Servia. The sketch Germans against the Servians on the whole front shows Bulgaria's central position and the principal from the Drina River to below Semendria in order to railroad and river lines. Kraguievatz is the Servian search out the Servian positions. On September 22d military centre, where their supplies of all kinds are Bulgaria mobilized its entire army and began kept. South of this place are difficult mountains. concentrating it on its frontiers. Greece issued North, east, and west the valley of the Morava River mobilization orders on September 24th. Rou- and its tributaries form very strong natural obstacles mania still hesitated to take action; and in view of to a hostile force. The Servian army has been thorthe enveloping nature of the Austrian and Bulgarian oughly rehabilitated and numbers about 300,000 frontiers (should Bulgaria and the Austro-Germans men of all arms. The Italians occupy Aviona in make common cause) it will be placed in a position Albania with about an army corps, while the interio: of great danger should it side against them, providing of Albania is in insurrection headed by Essad that assistance cannot be obtained from Russia. It Pasha, who is favorable to Turkey and the Central is thought that the Germans desire to open the rail- Powers

These are Roumania, whose field army is greatly during the last year that neither efficient and numbers about 500,000 men, the great Powers nor her Balkan neighand Bulgaria, equally efficient, whose field bors consider her as seriously as they did army numbers more than 400,000 men. before. We may therefore take Greece's Greece can maintain a force of about value as 3, Servia's as 5, Bulgaria's as 8, 150,000 men in a field army and Servia at and Roumania's as 9. the present time can probably muster If Bulgaria and Roumania were fighting 300,000 men. The Servian army has been each other independently either one should strengthened by the addition of French be able to keep the other off because so artillery, French and English staff officers, much advantage lies in the defensive along and a few troops of both these countries. their straight and contiguous frontiers. But against such a large country as Austria If Greece and Servia attacked Bulgaria they are entirely incapable of large offen- alone, Bulgaria by a judicious handling sive operations alone.

of her troops should easily whip them both Of all the Balkan states Bulgaria is in because she has the central position if the strongest strategic position, no mat- nothing else. This advantage allows her ter which side it may eventually join. It to concentrate superior forces wherever she holds the "inner line," has well fortified cares to exactly the situation in the secborders, and good communications within ond Balkan War, nullified in that case by itself. As no shots have been fired by the Roumania. If Greece, Servia, and RouBalkan states against each other, up to mania jumped on Bulgaria untroubled by October, what they are going to do remains any other enemies, they should probably a matter for speculation. The effect of triumph in short order because they have a their entrance on the war in Turkey would military value of 17 to 8 and have a combe great, but their effect elsewhere would pletely enveloping frontier over Bulgaria. not be immediate, no matter which way So much for the nominal military value of they might jump.

the Balkan states themselves, which is

only a very small part of the present THE MILITARY STRENGTH OF THE BALKANS

“Balkan Question." Now as to their The value to any of their supporters or strategic disposition, what is their respecabettors which any of the Balkan nations tive relative value? might have is entirely a question of how To begin with, Servia is eliminated by much military strength they can turn out. the central empires right at the start beMilitary strength is a very hard thing to cause they can easily concentrate superior explain because so many elements enter military strength against her. into it. Numbers, geographic position,

TURKEY'S MILITARY POWER which includes natural military obstacles such as mountains and rivers, character- Next a greatly rehabilitated Turkey has istics of the people, and organized re- a military value of twelve, four units of sources, all have to be taken into consider- which are being used in the Caucasus, one ation. Every one of these states, with the on the Euphrates, one in Egypt, and four exception of Greece, might be termed a around the Dardanelles and Bosphorus. "fighting" nation; that is, they have fought Two units of strength at least are therefore hard and steadfastly throughout most of available for helping a “friend” if this their history. Greece has not showed much friend should be Bulgaria. Turkey's help military ability of a high order in the last would be almost enough to neutralize twenty years. Everything else being equal, Greece and might be even more of a dethe various Balkan states may be consid- ciding element, depending on what pressure ered to have the following military weight, the Allies can apply directly against Turin which the units mean army corps and key. If the Allied forces are driven away auxiliaries which can be put into the field from the Marmora theatre of operations, and maintained there for a period of time. Turkey's power can be applied to a very Incidentally it might be mentioned that much greater extent to help Bulgaria. Servia's power has been impaired so Now if Bulgaria and Roumania decide to

remain neutral, Servia and Greece to- might be able to swing the balance of gether could oppose a Teutonic invasion military strength in the Balkans. This with eight units of military power, Servia situation, however, as has been indicated

Roumania, as its territory above, would be materially varied by the lies on the other side of Bulgaria from sending of French, British, or Italian Servia and Greece, could not join them troops to whichever country sided with the directly unless Bulgaria sided with Rou- Entente Allies. mania. Should all the Balkan states join Such Allied troops, for example, might together-that is, Greece, Servia, Bulgaria, be sent across a small strip of water from and Roumania—they would have a mili- the Island of Lemnos, the British-French tary efficiency figure of twenty-four, a very base in the Ægean Sea. Providing Greece formidable amount of military strength. approved, such troops could easily be sent To take the offensive, however, against the to Servia over the railroad from Salonica central empires and hope for any rapid to Nish. It is of course possible that the success, in view of the obstacles offered by troops said to be for use against Turkey the Carpathian Mountains and the Dan- that are, at the first of October,on the Isube River, is another matter, as the Teu- land of Lemnos, are intended for use against tonic Powers can spare probably enough Bulgaria, or to help Servia on the north. military units to hold these positions A strength of several well equipped and against any military pressure that these trained army corps is necessary in such an little states can exert.

event to bring about anything decisive. It must be held in mind that these small Montenegro has not been mentioned bestates would be acting as a confederacy cause it is so small a country that its with many points of difference between military strength can make very little them in language, customs, aims, and mil- difference. Its terrain is mountainous and itary system. Against great military na- hard to traverse and its strategic position tions like Germany and Austria their is not especially good for large operations power of offence would not be very great against Austria. Albania offers some adin proportion to their numbers, and it vantages for a move from Italy through therefore is a very great question whether Avlona or Durazzo, but the absence of railthey could force the lines of the Carpathian roads makes this a difficult field for large Mountains and the Danube River. Besides operations also. this consideration, it must be remembered The Bulgarians, as they have since that if Germany were successful in smash- the beginning of the war, hold the key. ing up Russia before the Balkan states had Roumania can remain neutral or run the succeeded in getting across these great risk of being attacked in front by Bulmilitary obstacles, and the central empires garia and in rear by the Austro-Germans: could turn a great army against them, the In this case, with the addition of help from result could not be long deferred. In Turkey, Bulgaria would have a military addition, Turkey also, would neutralize strength figure of at least ten, which with their combined military strength to an ap- an Austro-German addition of five from preciable degree.

the rear against Roumania would probably

mean the defeat of the latter nation. An WATCHING RUSSIA'S FATE

invasion of Servia and Greece, with a The importance of Bulgaria's decision strength figure of eight, would need an adis, therefore, apparent, as is also the reason ditional application of about twelve by the why the Balkan states do not fly into the central empires or, on the outside, seventeen arms of the Entente Allies. They want against all the Balkans, except Bulgaria, to see what is going to happen to Russia. to win. This number the central empires To gain anything big they must be willing appear to have available, depending, of to take a small amount of chance and course, on the success of their campaigns gamble a little on who is going to come out in Russia and on the western front, and on ahead. If Bulgaria sides directly with the the military help given to Servia by Engcentral empires and Turkey, Roumania land, France, Italy, or Russia.

TURK AND BRITON
HE position of the Allied expedi- Turkish main force north of Maidos both

tionary forces on the Gallipoli in flank and rear. To be successful this | Peninsula during August was a movement would have had to be a commatter of very serious concern to their plete surprise. governments. They had to be reinforced The landing began at Cape Suvla on the or get out. To help them small reinforce- night of the 6th of August and continued ments of both French and British were on the 7th along the beach between that sent from time to time and in addition a point and Ari Burnu. At the same time new unit of British troops was organized the Allies at the tip of the Peninsula on the Island of Lemnos during July for launched strong attacks against the Turks the purpose of making a surprise attack on the Krithia front, while the troops at against the Turks on the Gallipoli lines. Ari Burnu also attacked strenuously. The During the first days of August a force of Turks were slow in bringing up their about 50,000 men was embarked on trans- reserves, as they did not wish to commit ports of all sorts at the island port of them to the contest until there was no Mudros. The equipment for the landing doubt of what the Allies' intentions were. operations was very complete in all details The result was that the forces landing at and the troops had been well instructed in and near Suvla Bay not only accomplished what they were to do. Several days prior their disembarkation successfully, but adto this time demonstrations had been made vanced a considerable distance inland, in by the Allied warships on the coast of the some places as much as three miles. The Gulf of Adramyti, about 50 miles south of Turkish reserves were then brought up and the Dardanelles, and also at various places attacked the whole of the British lines, along the coast of Anatolia for the purpose breaking them at many points, and hurling of diverting the Turks' attention to those them down the slopes of the hills, taken areas and making them move troops south- in front, flank, and in some places even in ward in those directions.

For about twelve days the fightOn the night of the 6th of August the ing was of the most desperate nature, at expedition left Lemnos and, proceeding to the end of which time the British had been the Gulf of Saros, made a feint at a landing driven back to a line running from Cape near Kara Tehali, not far from the head of Suvla to their old position of Ari Burnu, a the Gulf. A small detachment was put front of about twelve miles. In this posiashore and, after an encounter with the tion they have held on up to the present Turks in which a few men were killed, the writing, October ist. rest reëmbarked. The Turks appear to The losses in this fighting were tremendhave been uncertain where the main land- ous on both sides. The Turks claim that ing was to be made because only small the British losses during the twelve days groups of them were encountered by the amounted to nearly as much as the whole landing forces at Suvla Bay, toward which force that they landed from Lemnos. actual objective the whole British force Although the exact casualties incurred are now proceeded.

the rear.

not as yet known, we do know that they The British colonial troops have held a were, on both sides, the heaviest of the footing at Ari Burnu, called by the British whole Turkish campaign. In the operations the “Anzac" position from the letters of around the Dardanelles during the last the different contingents, Australian, New two months, i.e., up to October ist, while Zealand, and Canadian, composing the the Allies have extended their lines on the landing forces. This position contains Peninsula of Gallipoli, nothing at all decian area of about one square mile. Now sive has yet been gained there, whereas the landing at Suvla Bay was designed to enormously disproportionate losses have connect up with this foothold at Ari been incurred. Burnu as a pivot from which, by swinging In the Egyptian, Euphrates, and Cauaround from the left, they hoped to take the casian theatres of war no great changes

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