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THE GALLIPOLI PENINSULA CAMPAIGN-SEPTEMBER 24TH On the 6th of August the British began landing a amount to nearly the strength of the force they force of about 50,000 men at Cape Suvla. As soon landed, and the Turks suffered in proportion. There as the Turks found this out, they launched their has been little change in the lines since the 22d of reserves at this force. The fighting was the most August. The Allies hold a front of about three miles severe that has so far occurred on the Gallipoli in front of Sidd-el-Bahr and a front of approximately Peninsula. The losses of the Allies are estimated to twelve miles from Cape Suvla to Ari Burnu
have taken place during this period, al- all varieties in the Sea of Marmora, have though steady fighting has been going on actually gone right up into the Golden in the last two fields. In view of the Horn and torpedoed vessels lying at the threatened descent on Servia by the cen- wharves of Stamboul. These daring extral Powers in an attempt to open up a ploits have had the effect of partially inroad through that country to Turkey, and terrupting traffic through the Bosphorous Bulgaria's friendly attitude to this oper- and the Marmora, thus greatly complicaation, the British are exerting themselves ting the supply arrangements of the Turks to form other expeditionary forces for duty for their forces on the Gallipoli Peninsula. in this new and most complicated theatre The Turks are still somewhat short of munof war. It has been reported that three itions but not as yet desperately in need of army corps of a total strength of 110,000 them. The Russian Black Sea fleet has are now on Lemnos Island in the Ægean, been able to control the Black Sea to a whence they can be used either against sufficient extent to prevent the transport the Turkson Gallipoli or in Anatolia of coal to Constantinople by water, thus or jammed northward across Macedonia causing a coal famine in the Turkish capito stop the Austro-German drive on tal, since all its supply has to be brought Servia. Success in the Turkish field will overland now from Anatolia. require the use of sufficient military It is important to remember all the strength by the Allies in a concerted attack time that the Turkish campaign is indiswhere the Ottoman army will be com- solubly involved with developments in the pelled to come out and fight on terms as Balkans, and the fate of the whole Allied nearly equal to their adversaries as possi- attempt to force the Straits depends on the ble. So far the Allies have depended upon international situation north of them. piece-meal attacks which have netted them If the Bulgars side with the Teutons and practically nothing; and they have suffered Turks, even should Greece and Roumania enormous casualties.
both side with the Entente Allies, the The action of the British submarines in latter's chances will be none too good. the Sea of Marmora has been notable. The ultimate fate of Turkey depends on They have navigated the difficult Strait of the outcome of the campaigns now being the Dardanelles, sunk ship after ship of waged in western Europe and Russia.
THE WESTERN FRONT
URING the last two months velopments had occurred since Septemthere has been a notable ber, 1914.
ber, 1914. The centre of activity in the strengthening of British forces few weeks preceding September 19th on the continent. About 400,- was in the area around Verdun, where the
000 men are now fighting on Germans took the initiative. Fighting a line the extent of which was prolonged has also occurred in the area around and from 30 miles in July to about 50 miles in north of Arras in the same region, where September. This leaves the French ap- during May the French tried to break the proximately 400 miles of front to hold, and German line. It was there, in fact, that the Belgians occupy 8 miles in Flanders. what passed for the much-heralded “Spring The accessions to the British troops in Drive" was actually begun and thrown France have more than made up for the back so definitely that it had not been French losses during the last five months, renewed for three months. and in addition the French have called out In September of this year the French the class of recruits for the year 1917, which and English were still at a loss to know will net them about 250,000 youths of from where the next German stroke might fall. 17 to 18 years of age. These will not be In the meanwhile the French and English fully trained until about March, 1916. looked forward to a tremendous German
Along this front no new strategic de- offensive, because when the present Rus
sian campaign is completed, no matter On September 25th tremendous inwhether it ends in the destruction of the fantry attacks were launched at the GerRussian army or the taking up of defensive man lines, particularly against the areas positions of such strength that most of the which had been subjected to the maximum Austro-German troops can be released artillery fire. In the Champagne area from the eastern frontier for duty else- the French gained on a fifteen-mile front where, the Germans could be counted on a slice of ground formerly held by the to turn and strike immediately on one or Germans of from one half to a maximum of more of three other possible fronts. As the two and a half miles in depth. In the French theatre is that in which the most British front around Ypres, after initial decisive results can be obtained, it was success, the attacks were thrown back. presumed that the Germans would be apt Slightly south of La Bassée near the end to attack there, following the principle of of the British line where it joins the French strategy that the most dangerous opponent, an advance of a few hundred yards took if there be any possibility of destroying place and in the vicinity of Souchez, north him, be attacked first. If, therefore, the of Arras, the French made gains which in Germans felt that they could gain the one place indented the German position ascendancy over the French, they could be for a distance of a mile and a half. This expected to attack this front.
ground was taken in the first rush. Now this would be exactly what the Since that time up to the end of the French desire because under such circum- month the battles in these areas have constances they can fight a defensive battle tinued with the greatest intensity. The on their own soil and among positions of advance lines sway back and forward, in their own construction and choosing. So some places one side or the other gains or long as there was any possibility that the loses. The lines are constantly reinforced Germans would attack them in force the by fresh troops and a general battle is on French could well afford to wait unless The reasons that make it seem possible compelled to attack by political conditions that this could be a main offensive are that or the military situation of their allies on the Germans and Austrians are about as other fronts. This condition existed until widely distributed in the various theatres September 19th, at which time a new of war as they will be, and that the conactivity sprang up all along the British ditions in Russia and the Balkans are and French fronts, clear from Nieuport such that something must be done by on the English Channel to the Swiss way of diversion, or the consequences will frontier. This took the form of large be very serious for the Allies. In other movements of troops, supplies, and am- words victories must be won on the western munition to all points of contact, sure front and a lot of men used up, to show signs of an impending attack. The Ger- Russia definitely that something is being mans on their side also brought up accomplished. If it is a main operation, additional personnel and material to to hope for success it must be pushed strengthen their resistance. On the 20th, without interruption probably for months. artillery activity began on the French Under these circumstances the operations front, especially in the area between Ypres, are being inaugurated at a time of the on the British front, and Verdun. The year which offers the least advantages for artillery fire kept increasing in intensity the attacker; within a very few weeks the until by the 24th it had attained propor- rains will begin, followed by the cold and tions never equalled in this theatre of war. inclement weather of winter, which renders The maximum fire was directed at the offensive fighting much more difficult German works between Arras and La than defensive in this theatre of war. Bassée (the Artois district) and on a We constantly hear the word "line" fifteen-mile front which centred roughly applied to the positions of the contenders at the town of Souain, in the Champagne in France. This word does not properly district, a position situated about half way express what these positions really are between Rheims and Verdun.
“Line" signifies a strip of troops and positions of a limited depth, which, when a heavy line protected by large wire enpierced, opens up an undefended space tanglements and semi-permanent points behind it. This is by no means the case in of support, and all the important road France. The German positions consist centres and positions of great tactical of line upon line of trenches of a more or value partake of the character of fortresses. ess temporary character. From three As soon as a permanent series of lines such to five or more of these lines, all connected as this is passed another is encountered, by communicating trenches, cover the and so on back for many miles. In fact, front, then behind these light works lies the whole area occupied by the Germans
THE WESTERN BATTLE FRONT BEFORE THE “BIG DRIVE”—SEPTEMBER 24TH The positions of the lines in France underwent such French held the rest of the 450-mile line. During small changes during the two months ending Sep- August there was heavy fighting in the Verdun area; tember 24th that they do not show on a map of or- and early September witnessed fighting near Rheims dinary size. The principal thing to be noted is the and a heavy artillery bombardment along almost all reinforcement of the British army in France. This the whole line, with the Allies taking the initiative force held a front of 50 miles, the Belgians 8, and the apparently for a main attack
in France is entirely organized for defense. captured a couple of the advanced French Railroads connect all needed points, which lines of trenches in the Argonne and the requires little transportation of other kinds fight continues there as well. The French to be used. Under such conditions the appear to be trying to cause the Germans German position partakes of the character to reinforce heavily their troops in the of a solid which must be carved to pieces area from Verdun to Ypres; then, if they in order to destroy it.
succeed, to launch a great attack from the So far (up to the end of September) the line of Verdun-Toul against the Germans French in the Champagne area have
have in the Lorraine area, with the idea of reached the first main line of German de- eventually blasting a way to the Rhine fense in a few places. They have captured which would cause the whole German the outlying trenches. The battle rages force in France to fall back to protect in front of this main line. In the Artois its communications. region this first main line has not yet been These are merely the strategic concepopened up for attack. Now the direction tions of what the French are aiming to acof the main French attacks indicates that complish. Whether they will have any sucthey are striving to squeeze the German cess or not remains to be seen. So far the salient in France at its two extremities. French have gained a small strip of front It will be remembered that this line is from which renewed assaults may be bow-shaped, from Ypres to Verdun. Could
launched. Up to October ist no German the French and English make sufficient positions of importance or lines of comheadway opposite the points where their munications had been taken or destroyed. main attacks have been launched, i. e., at The losses of the contenders have been Arras and at Soissons, the apex of the Ger- heavy, an incident of this kind of warfare. man salient would be forced to fall back or Exactly what they are cannot yet be detersqueezed until all its railroad and other mined. The French appear to have capcommunications were cut and its isolation tured nearly a whole German division in became complete.
the Champagne fight on the first day. To counteract this move the Germans On the whole Allied front they claim a have made counter attacks in the Argonne capture of a total of 23,000 German region immediately adjoining the right prisoners, whereas the Germans claim to flank of the main French attack in the have captured less than half that number. Champagne region. Should the French These losses, though large, are nothing to make headway, their right would be ex- what the losses in killed and wounded have posed to a flank attack. The Germans been and will be if the offensive is kept up.
THE BEAR AND THE EAGLES
P TO the middle of July, Field right from the direction of Ivangorod,
which they accomplished successfully by was fighting its great battle for July 28th, throwing this main Russian the possession of the railroad force back in full retreat. The Russians
line from Lublin to Kholm. In saved their communications, however, this contest the attempt was made by the
which enabled them to escape disaster. Germans to envelop the Russian left flank While these battles were taking place so as to cut off the great Russian force in southern Poland, Von Hindenburg, in from a northern retreat by seizing their
East Prussia, had assembled all his colcommunications with Brest-Litovsk. So umns in their appointed places for the strenuously, however, did the Russians main advance. He had, apparently, been defend this flank that the Austro-Germans so slow in making this move that many were compelled to envelop their enemy's persons in countries pertaining to the