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attacks impossible, the incentive to do this is taken away. Even the very possibility of doing it has been removed by these same air scouts. Their sig. nals to the gunners of their batteries render the shell fire from distant and concealed artillery so deadly accurate that a general advance is out of the question. Hence the lines of trenches approach one another by a few yards at a time until they are only from 90 to 200 or 300


feet apart.

With troops opposed at these close quarters, warfare at once leaps backward in its methods one hundred years, five centuries, a millennium. Unable to

shoot more than an occasional in



By means of these rockets, which are fired from a pistol, the enemy's trenches are subjected to artillery fire by night, and his infantry attacks are detected before they can become dangerous

rifle bullets aimed directly at him by enemies cautious enemy that can see him plainly. Having got who may happen to himself barriered behind a low rampart of risk his head above earth, he waits for night to fall to under- the parapet of his take the more laborious, if less hazardous, trench, the soldier task of digging a trench deep enough to

falls back upon stand in and of connecting his chamber with primitive devices. those of his comrades to right and left of One of his first him; and then running back zigzag con- moves was to benections with the similar line of trenches come an inglorious behind him.

sort of grenadier, Once safely in, his commander, even heir to a weapon ten years ago, would at once have begun that was born about to calculate some decisive disposition of the middle of the his troops for a general attack that should seventeenth cen determine the result in open battle. But tury and that was to-day, with the aeroplanes overhead used with great efreporting the movements of all enemy ect on the open line troops and thereby rendering surprise of battle in those



and later days of short range flint-locks. wheel-locks, and blunderbusses - the good old days when our forefathers

on Concord Common were commanded to wait to see the whites of the enemy's eyes before they fired. Military opinion threw them overboard, however, in the nineteenth century, with the development of long-range rifles of the class of the Springfields, Lee-Canfields, Mausers, and Sniders, that were perfectly accurate up to 1,000 yards. The Russian - Japanese War, however the war in which many lessons were learned that are being practised in this war-revived the grenade. The English


To protect the men who serve machine guns; a modern analogy of the Roman

"testudo,” which protected the men who swung a battering ram


THE REVIVAL OF THE STEEL HELMET French soldiers wearing head armor of a pattern almost identical with that of helmets worn in England

after the Norman conquest. They are highly efficient in deflecting rifle bullets and shrapnel bullets


especially took up again the fruit-shaped weapon (its English name comes from the French word for pomegranate). The Hale grenade is a really formidable missile. It is a small cylindrical case of metal filled with a high explosive which is fired by a detonator, with tail attached to the case to steady it in its flight. The upper part of the case is a steel ring serrated into twentyfour sections so that, upon explosion, the ring will split into small particles that fly in all directions. Pit tests have proved that sometimes a grenade will burst into as many as 200 pieces.

Copyright by International Press Exchange The Hale grenade

GREEK FIRE COMES INTO USE AGAIN may either be fired The German “flammenwerfer” utilizes almost exactly the same ingredients as

the Greeks used in "Greek fire” in the defense of Constantinople in 1453


THE DEFENSE AGAINST MODERN STINK-POTS” The purpose of modern German asphyxiating gas and medieval Chinese stink-pots is the same—to con

fuse and overpower the enemy so that an attack can be made upon him before he recovers


AN AERIAL CAVALRYMAN Aeroplanes have supplanted cavalrymen on the western front of the Great War, both for scouting and for offensive actions that require speed rather than a large force. They have done very effective work in destroying supply depots with bombs

from a rifle or thrown by hand. The tail and the Germans perhaps half a dozen may be slipped in a rifle barrel and the other types of bombs, most of them exgrenade discharged by means of

ploded by a fuse instead of a dea blank cartridge. Fired in this .

tonator, and varying not in prinway at an angle of thirty degrees,

ciple but in details of shape, size, it will carry about 450 feet. With

charge, and effectiveness. One a heavier charge of powder and

of the most popular is a homewith the rifle more securely

made, or rather trench-made, braced, double that range is pos

bomb, improvised from a tin can sible. For shorter ranges, the

and a charge of guncotton, and grenades are held by the tail

fired from a catapult made of an and thrown by hand. However

automobile spring mounted on thrown, they are one of the dead

a log of wood. liest of missiles. They not only

Here warfare has indeed gone have the searching effect of shrapnel upon back to ancient models for its instruments. an enemy's trench, but the fragments are The catapult is one of the oldest "engines given a much greater velocity

of war”-it was described by the than are the bullets of a shrapnel

author of the Book of Chronicles shell. Furthermore, the high ex

when he told how Uzziah, ruling plosive charge detonates with

in Jerusalem, supplied his army extraordinary force — a force

with military implements, includoftentimes great enough to wreck

ing "engines, invented by cuna trench and to blow its nearest

ning men, to be shot on the occupant literally to atoms.

towers and upon the bulwarks, soldier in the trenches can easily

to shoot arrows and great stones. carry six or eight of the grenades

The Greeks and Romans used slung in his belt or in a bag

Copyright by International

them; Philip of Macedon emhanging from his waist.

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oved them at the siege of ByzThere are in use by the Allies AERIAL BOMBS antium 340 years B.C. Practically the identical weapons are in use in the was conveyed through a hollow tree trenches in Flanders to-day. They con- trunk." A Roman, nearly eight hundred sist substantially of a trough, correspond- years later, A.D. 350, added naphtha to the ing to the barrel of a cannon, a heavy bow- recipe for "Greek fire" and came very


, string, a spring mechanism to work against close to the composition now used in the the pull of the string, and give the pro- German flammenwerfer, which sprays out pelling force a ratchet and windlass device on the enemy's trenches, following it with to wind the bow-string taut, and a trigger a spray of living flame. The flammento release the string for the throw. A werfer, or flame projector, consists of a light catapult in Roman times could throw reservoir containing gasolene mixed with a one half-pound arrow 400 yards; a heavy a small proportion of kerosene to give it "ballista” had no greater range, but it body, a cylinder of highly compressed air, could throw weights up to ninety pounds. a pressure gauge, a starting valve, and an Both this range and this weight limit are electric battery with induction coil. A greater than are needed for bomb-throwing piece of flexible tubing connects the reseras it is practised to-day in the trenches. voir with a spraying tube which can be

The Germans improved on the catapult pointed at any angle. Two electric wires by the invention of the minenwerfer. run to the end of the spraying tube, with This is a small trench cannon that fires a a spark-gap between their ends. When spherical bomb much after the fashion in

the apparatus is operated, the compressed which the Hale grenade is fired from a air forces out the gasolene under high common rifle. It proved to be relatively pressure, and the sparker ignites it. The ineffective in use because the missile often flame projector can throw its stream of fell short and back-fired with disastrous fire about ninety feet. Its use gained for effects to the Germans themselves.

the Germans temporary possession of The minenwerfer is, indeed, only an some British trenches north and south of intermediate step between the rifle and Hooge in Belgium, and it has been used the true trench mortar. Weapons of this in other parts of the line, notably in the latter class have been used throughout the Argonne region; but it seems not to have war, on both fronts, with good effect. They been so widely nor so effectively employed are real mortars, with an extremely short as bombs and grenades have been. barrel set at a high angle and using a small charge of powder. Different patterns are

THE USE OF GASES designed for spherical and cylindrical shells, The asphyxiating gas that the Germans and for weights of shell varying from thirty used with such deadly effect at "Hill 60, " to seventy pounds. These shells

shells are

near Ypres, last May does seem to be a charged with high explosive, and as they novelty of warfare. The French, however, fall into the enemy's trench almost ver- have since used an asphyxiating but not tically they are very effective missiles.

poisonous gas which is analogous to the

stink-pots which the Chinese long used to THE REVIVAL OF “GREEK FIRE"

overcome their enemies by pungent odors British newspapers speak indignantly until a rush attack on them could be made. of the liquid fire thrown on their trenches The French gas causes coughing and an by the Germans as an evidence of the in- intense smarting of the eyes and the tissues fernal ingenuity of the chemist united with of the nose, but it leaves no evil afterthe soulless cruelty of a barbaric soldiery. effects. The German gas, on the other Its cruel character speaks for itself; noth- hand, is deadly when inhaled in large ing, however, could be more erroneous quantities. Hundreds of British soldiers historically than to imagine that the idea were killed by it in the fighting around is new. "At the siege of Delium (424 Ypres. This gas is the product of the B.C.), a cauldron containing pitch, sulp- volatilization of liquid sulphurous acid hur, and burning charcoal was placed and liquified chlorine, a process that against the walls and urged into flame by disengages enormous quantities of vapor. the aid of a bellows, the blast from which

This vapor, being heavier than air, settles

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