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rise to an astonishing height, with the clouds, and heard the thunders roll great coldness. However, at a de- far beneath me. All this time, while termined point above the surface of the tempeft was raging below, the the sea, the congelation is found at mountain top, where I was placed, the same height in all the mountains. enjoyed a delightful serenity t. The Thofe parts which are not subject to a wind was abated, the sky clear, and continual frost, have here and there the enlivening rays of the fun mogrowing upon them a rush, refemb- derated the severity of the cold. Howling the genifta, or broom, but much ever, this was of no very long durasofter and more flexible. Toward tion; for the wind returned with all the extremity of the part where the its violence, and with such velocity rush grows, and the cold begins to as to dazzle the fight; while my fears increase, is found a vegetable with a were increased by the dreadful con . round bulbous head, which, when cussions of the precipice, and the fall of dried, has an amazing elasticity. enormous rocks; the only sounds that Higher still, the earth is entirely bare were heard in this frightful situation." of vegetation, and seems covered with In comparison with the dangerous eternal snow. The most remarkable ascent thus described by the Spanilh of the Andes are the mountains of philosopher, a paffage over the Alps, Cotopaxi *, Chimborazo, and Pi- and a journey across the Pyrennees; chincha. On the top of the latter was appear but petty excursions. These my

station for measuring a degree of are the most lofty mountains in Euthe meridian; where I luffered parti- rope; but the Alps are little more cular hardships, from the intenseness than one half the height of the Andes, of the cold, and the violence of the fome of which we know, from geostorms. The sky around was, in ge- metrical and barometical menfuraneral, involved in thick fogs, which, tions, are upward of three geographiwhen they cleared away, and the cal miles, or 19,026 feet, above the clouds, by their gravity, moved nearer level of the sea. But lofty as are the to the surface of the earth, appeared highest mountains on the earth, it has surrounding the foot of the mountain, been demonstrated, that they are noat a vaft distance below, like a sea, thing compared to its prodigious magencompassing an island in the midt of nitude. For instance, what proporit. When this happened, the horrid tion the thickness of a human hair noises of tempests were heard from bears to a globe eighty inches diamebeneath, then discharging themselves ter, the fame does a mountain, a on Quito and the neighbouring coun- quarter of a mile high, bear to the try. I faw the lightning issue from whole globe I.

* This mountain is more than three miles above the surface of the sea. It is a celebrated volcano, one of the eruptions of which is described in Ulloa's Voyage, Vol. i. page 442. Vesuvius, and even Ætna, it is to be observed, are mere fireworks, compared to the volcanoes of the Andes, which, as they are the highest mountains in the world, are the most formidable also for their eruptions.

† Some of my readers may here recollect Dr. Young's Character of a Good Man, in his eig!ıth Night; in which one would imagine, that he had either copied, or anticipated, the description here given by the ingenicus Spaniard :

With aspect mild, and elevated eye,
Behold him seated on a mount serene,
Above the fogs of sense, and passion's storm;
All the black cares and tumults of this life,
Like harmless thunders, breaking at his feet,
Excite his pity, not impair his peace,

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| Whitehurst's Inquiry, ch. xii,


tides ;

Mountains appear, to many, de- Thus on the foil with heat immoderate fects and blemishes in the earth; but

dried, they are certainly of the greatest fer- To which the rain's pure treasures are vice to the well-being both of man The mountains more fublime in ether rise,

denied, and other animals. Many creatures Transfix the clcuds, and tower amid the cannot live but in particular situations; ikies; and even the tops of the highest and The snowy fleeces, which their heads incoldest mountains are the only places volve, where fome creatures will live: of Still stay in part, and still in part dissolve; this kind are the ibex and chamois Torrents and loud impetuous cataracts among quadrupeds, and the lagopus Through roads abrupt, and rude un

fashion'd tra&ts, among birds.--They serve as Ik reens

Roll down the lofty mountain's channellid to keep off the cold blasts of the

fides, northern and eastern winds. They And to the vale convey their foaming also serve for the production of a great number of vegetables and minerals, At length, to make their various currents which are not found in any other foil : one, they enable us to keep those mines The congregated floods together run; dry, which furnish the most useful These confluent streams make some great

river's head, metals. Beside, the long ridges and

By stores till melting and defcending fed; chains of lofty mountains, being ge- Thus from th’ atpiring Mountains of the nerally found to run from east to west,

Moon *, ferve to stop the evagation of the va- Diffolving treasures rush in torrents down, pours toward the poles, without which Which pass the fun-burnt realms and they woulů all run from the hot coun fandy Coil, tries, and leave them destitute of rain. And b? ss th’ zɛgyptian nation with their Mr. Ray adds, that they condense

Then whosoe'er his secret rise would know those vapours, like alembic heads,

Must climb the hills, and trace his head into clouds; and thus, by a kind of external distillation, give origin to And through the Rhine, the Danube, and springs and rivers; and, by amaliing,

tie Rhone, cooling, and condenfing them, turn All ample rivers of our milder zone, them into rain, and thus render ha- While they advance along the flats and bitable the fervid regions of the torrid plains,

The supply, moreover, which Spread by the showers augmented, and the they give to springs and rivers, by Yet these their fource and first beginning

rains; ftopping and condensing the clouds, is rendered more copious itill by the pro- To stores, that from the Alpine mountains digious quantities of snow by which

fio:v : their fummits are crowned. This Hence, when the snows in winter cease to last circumstance, in particular, is weep, noticed by our two philosophical And undifolv'd their fiaky texture keep,

The banks with ease their humble streams poets :

contain, When mid the lifeless fummits proud Which fwell in fummer, and those banks

disdain. Of Alpine cliffs, where to the gelid (ky.

BLACKMORE. Snows pilec on inows in wintry torpor lie, The rays divine of vernal Phoebus play; But the benefit of mountains, in 'Th' awaken'd heaps, in streamlets from

general, is not only, that vapours on high, Rou'd into action, lively icap away,

driven againit them are condensed, so Glad warbling through the vaics, in their 25 to be precipitated through the new buing gay.

chinks of the rocks, but that afterTHOMSON. ward, in their bowels, they are pre

Nile :

in Inow;



* Moutains in Africa so called.


ferved, till they form rivulets, and times in several mouths, into the sea. then rivers. Vapours would fall in But, not to be too diffusive, I shall rain or dew, although there were conclude with observing, that these no mountains; but then they would ftupendous masses are not, as some fall equally, over confiderable places have fupposed, mere incumbrances of of the globe at once, and thus would the creation, or rude and useless exbe fucked deep in the ground, or make crescences of the globe, but, in a va. a universal puddie. On the con- riety of instances, add greatly to its trary, by means of mountains, they beauty, and answer many excellent are perpetually pouring down in par- purposes. In a word, when we conticular places, and treasuring up a template the mountains among the constant supply to the rivers. Another other innumerable displays of the considerable use of them is the deter- goodness, wisdom, and omnipotence mination of these rivers ; for if there of the Universal Creator, well inay could have been rivers without moun we exclaim with the prophet, “The tains, yet they could have flowed in a everlasting mountains were scattered straight line only, if they had flowed –His ways are everlasting * ;' or in at all ; whereas, by these eminences the sublime personification of the pialplaced up and down, they make in- mist, “ Mountains and all hills--praise numerable turnings and windings, by the name of the Lord; for His name which they water and enrich the soil alone is excellent ; His glory is above of many different countries in one the earth and heaven ti' course, and at last disembogue, some


An Account of the PRIVATE LIFE of the late John HOWARD, Esq. Having lately given in our Magazine, an Account of the left Illness and Death of

this great Philanthropist, with a Summary of his Character, by Dr. Aikin, we fball here present our Readers with a further Extrait from this excellent Work; which will evince in what a noble Way a private Country Gentleman may contribute to the Comfort and Happiness of his Fellow Creatures, even in ihe limited Exient of his own Estate. T Cardington, Mr. Howard worth. Indeed, however uncomply

steadily pursued those plans, both ing he might be with the freedonis with respect to the regulation of his and irregularities of polite life, he personal and family concerns, and to was by no means negligent of its rethe promotion of the good of those ceived forms ; and, though he might around him, which principle and in- be denominated a man of scruples and clination led him to approve. Though fingularities, no one would dispute his without the ambition of making a claim to the title of a gentleman. splendid appearance, he had a taste But the terms on which he held fcfor elegant neatness in his habitation ciety with persons of his own conand furniture. His fobriety of man- dition, are of much less importance ners and peculiarities of living did not in the view I mean to take of his chefit him for much promiscuous fociety; racter, than the methods by which he yet no man received his select friends rendered himself a blessing to the in-. with more true hospitality; and he digent and friendless in a imall circle, always maintained an intercourse with before he extended his benevolence to feveral of the first persons in his so wide a compass. It seems to have county, who knew and respected his been the capital object of his ambition,

* Hab. in. 6.

* Pl. cxlviii. 9, 13.


that the poor in his village Mould be the total want of instruction, and par. the most orderly in their manners, the taking of nothing that can dignify the neatest in their persons and habitations, human character, it is no wonder that and poffefied of the greatest share of a benevolent person of the higher the comforts of life, that could be met ranks in society Thould consider them with in any part of England. And as as creatures of an inferior species, only it was his disposition to carry every to be benefited by the constant exerthing he undertook to the greateit cise of his authority and fuperintendpitch of perfection, so he spared no ence. And I believe the fact to be, pains or expence to effect this purpose. that, from the operation of our poor He began by building a number of laws, and other circumstances, the poor peat cottages on his estate, annexing in this country are more thoughtless, to each a little land for a garden, and improvident, and helpless, than those other conveniences. In this project, of almost any other nation. Hu. which might be considered as an ob- manity will, therefore, in such a state ject of taste as well as of benevolence, of things, think it necessary to assume he had the full concurrence of his ex- the entire management of those who cellent partner.

remember his re can neither think nor act for their lating, that once, having settled his own good ; and will direct and overaccounts at the close of a year, and rule all their concerns, just as it would found a balance in his favour, he pro- those of children and idiots. In short, posed to his wife to make use of it in it will aim at such a kind of influence, à journey to London, or any other as the Jesuits of Paraguay established, gratification the chose. • What a (perhaps with the fame benevolent pretty cottage it would build,' was views) over the simple natives. her answer; and the money was fo But is this state of pupilage to be employed. These comfortable ha- perpetual ? And, in a land of liberty bitations he peopled with the moit in- and equal laws, is the great body of du trious and sober tenants he could people always to exist in a condition find; and over them he exercised the of actual subjection to and dependence fuperintendence of matter and father on the few? Are they never to be combined. He was careful to furnith intruiled with their own happiness, them with employment, to alift them but always to look up for support and in fickneis and distress, and to educate direction to those who in reality are their children. In order to preserva less independent than themselves ? their morals, he made it a condition This is an idea which a liberal mind that they should regularly attend their will be unwilling to admit; and it several places of worship, and abitain will anxiously look forward to a pefrom public-houses, and from such riod, in which meanness of condition amusements as he thought pernicious; shall not necessarily imply debasement and he secured their compliance with of nature: but those of every

rank in his rules by making them tenants at society, feeling powers within themwill.

selves to secure their essential comforts, I shall here beg leave to digress a lhall rely upon their own exertions little, in order to make some general and be guided

by the dictates of their observations on the different methods own reaion. That this is not an imathat may be proposed for bettering ginary state of things, the general the condition of the lowest and moit condition of the loweit classes in some numerous class among us. In the countries, and even in some parts of ftate in which they too frequently ap- England, where the working poor, at pear, depressed to the extremeit point the same time that their earnings enaof indigence, unable by their utmoit ble them to procure the comforts of exertions to obtain more than the bare life, are inured to habits of fobriety neceffaries of existence, debased by and frugality, is a fufficient proof. 3


There are few counties in England attend public worship in the way their which afford less employment to a nu- parents approved. The number merous poor than that of Bedford; of brought up in these schools was flaccourse, wages are low, and much dif- tuating, but the institutions were una tress would prevail, were it not for interrupted. In every other way in the humanity of the gentlemen who which a man thoroughly disposed to reside upon their eftates. Among do good with the means providence these, Mr. Howard distinguished him- has bestowed upon him, can exercise self by a peculiar attention to the his liberality, Mr. Howard ftood a. comfort and improvement of his de- mong the foremoft. He was not only pendents; and he was accordingly a subscriber to various public schemes held by them in the highest respect of benevolence, but his private chaand veneration. I may add, that he rities were largely difuled, and repossessed their love; which is not al- markably well directed. It was, inways the case with those who render deed, only to his particular confidents essential services to people of that class. and coadjutors that many of these But he treated them with kindness, as were ever known; but they render well as with beneficence; and he par- him the most ample testimony in this ticularly avoided every thing ftern or respect. His very intimate and conimperious in his manner toward them. fidential friend, the Rev. Mr. Thomas Whatever there might appear of strict- Smith of Bedford, give me the fole nefs in the discipline, he enforced, it lowing account of this part of his conhad only in view their best interests ; duct, at a time when he was deeply and if under his protection they could engaged in those public exertions which pass a tranquil old age in their own might be supposed to interfere with comfortable cottages, rather than end his private and local benefaétions. their lives in a work-house, the sub- . He still continued to devise liberad ordination to which they submitted things for his poor neighbours and was amply compensated. It is cer- tenants; and, considering how much tain that the melioration of manners his heart and time were engaged in and principles which he promoted, his great and comprehensive plans, it was the most effectual means of even was surprising with what minuteness tually rendering them more independ- he would send home his directions ent; and I have reason to know, that, about his private donations. His latterly at least, he was as well af- schools were continued to the laft. fected to the rights, as he was solici- 'It is impossible any fronger proof tous to augment the comforts, of the can be given, that the habit of doing poor.

good was wrought into his very naHis charities were not confined to ture, than that, while his public acthose more immediately connected tions placed him without a rival for with his property; they took in the deeds of philanthropy, he should fill whole circle of neighbourhood. His be unable to satisfy his benevolent debounty was particularly directed to fires without his accustomed benefits that fundamental point in improving to his neighbours and dependents. the condition of the poor, giving them Another early feature of that chaa sober and useful education. From racter which Mr. Howard afterward early life he attended to this object; fo conspicuously displayed, was a dcand he established schools for both termined resistance of injustice and opfexes, conducted upon the most judici- preilion. No one could be more firmly ous plan.

The girls were taught relied on as the protector of right and reading, and needlework in a plain innocence against unfeeling and unway: the boys reading, and some of principled power. His indignation them writing, and the rudiments of was roused by any attempts to enarithmetic. They were regularly to croach or domineer ; and his spirit

A a


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