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jecting revelation for some time, they to pray for as he ought, till God have generally given up the belief should dispel the darknels of his mind; which, at first
, they profèfied to have and he seems to refer to fome inin the moral government of God here fructor, whom God might send for and hereafter. At present,' says an that purpose * And one of the eminent writer, there are, I believe, speakers in the celebrated Dialogue very few unbelievers in revelation, of Plato, relating to the last scenes of who will pretend to have any serious the life of Socrates, discoursing on expectation of a future life. jn fo- the uncertainty in which they were, reign countries, this fact is notorious; with respect to the doctrine of the imon which account, they are generally mortality of the soul, concludes, that called Atheists; and, indeed, when it is best to follow that opinion which the doctrine of a future life is aban- should appear to be the most probadoned, men may almost as well reject ble, after their most diligent enquiry; the belief of a God also.'
unless they could have a ftill more When once the belief of a future certain conduct, to carry
them through ftate is discarded, it may easily be this life, such as a divine discovery of conceived how very unfavourable to the truth would be. virtue must be the adoption of con Upon the whole, such was the natrary principles; for the motives of tural state of the heathen world, that restraint that are merely human and it cannot be doubted that a divine Retemporary, can never be so powerful velation was highly expedient, and and efficacious as those which regard even necessary, for the reitoration of futurity, and that futurity--
---- un cierni- virtue and happiness. It must have ty! It is, indeed, fcarcely pofible to been of the greatest importance, if it expect either cicarness or consistency had been nothing more than the inof moral principles upon the light of terposition of a competent authority, in nature only; and, therefore, as 'far favour of those rules of conduct which as the clearness and confitency of such right reason might have investigated, principles is of importance to mankind but which reason, in a variety of cir(and, certainly, they must be of the cumitances (under the influence, for greatest importance) they afford an instance, of bad habits and passions) evidence of the great expediency, if might alsa have evaded. not of the absolute necelity of a Di Without pretty just notions of God vine Revelation, without which such and his moral government; an important advantage was not to be a satisfactory knowledge of their duty expected.
and future expectations ; the human Whatever we may now think of race would have been little better than the fufficiency of the light of nature, brute animals. At least, a man değüsome of the most inteligent of the ture of this knowledge must be inca, heathen philosophers were not infenfi- pable of the exalted sentiments and ble of the darkness in which they were dignity of conduct, which render him involved, and of the necefsity of fome an untpeakabiy greater and happier divine revelation. Socrates, speak- being. ing of the corruption of his times, In a word, whatever ideas be
may faid, that there was no hope of formed of the natural powers of the amending men's morals, unless God human mind, it is hardly possible not should be pleased to send some other to be satisfied, from a just view of the person to intruct them. Meeting ftate of morals in the heathen world, Alcibiades, as he was going to å and of their ignorance with respect to temple to pray, he endeavoured to the doctrine of a future state, that it convince him that
he knew not what was morally impoisible they should * Clarke's Evid, of Nat, and Rev. Religion,
ever have recovered that degree of its being fo exceedingly seasonable and useful religious knowledge, which advantageous. And, therefore, it was they seem to have derived from tra- perfecily consistent with the wisdom dition, in the remote ages of the and goodness of the Great Parent of world, and much less that they would the human race, to afford his creaever have made any important addi- tures and offspring that afsistance, tions to their original stock. In such which, in their situation, they so much a state of things, the expectation of wanted, and which they were not cafome divine interposition must have pable of procuring for themselves, been even reasonable, on account of
REFLECTIONS on GOVERNMEN T. [From • Travelling Memorandums, in a Tour upon the Continent, in 1786,
1787, and 1788, by Lord Gardenstone.'] H E long continued fame and I think it is impossible to contest
prosperity of Marseilles is, I this general position in fact; “That, think, justly ascribed, in a great mea- under free and republican governfure, to the established form of go- ments, the societies of mankind have vernment. The admirers of Mr. Pope, been more intelligent, more prospera numerous class both of males and ous, happy, and famous, than under females, are very apt to quote these monarchies ;'. I mean absolute molines as excellent :
narchies. Indeed, a total subjection - For forms of government let fools contest,
under one race
power, Whate’er is best administered is beft.' or family, can with no propriety be
denominated a form of government. The línes, however, are trivial and
The Greeks and Romans most juftly pad, both in poetry and sense. Pope Owes his excessive reputation, more to
termed this mode of government tyharmony and smoothness of rhyme, ranny, and its subjects barbarians. than to the extraordinary force of Learning, laws, and arts, appearing
under monarchies, have ever been degenius and foundness of judgment, which are found in the works of our of their vicinity, in all ages, re
rived from free states : the influence truly great poets, Shakspeare, Mil- of their vicinity, in all ages, reton, Butler, and Dryden. Superficial strained and moderated the most in
It beauty, however, has always many seems easy to demonitrate, that, if no
tolerable excesses of despotism. admirers. I repeat again, that the
free and well-constituted forms of gopoetry of these lines is trivial, and
vernment had ever een established, the opinion expressed in them is even A well-contrived and
the world, to this day, would have judicious form of governinent, in the continued in a general state of total societies of mankind, has ever been ignorance and barbarity: Britith goproductive of falutary and permanent
vernment has much of the republic in
its constitution; one real evidence of administration: the greatest characters
which is, that, in fact, men of extraexhibited in the whole hillory of the world, are those who have instituted ordinary abilities, and experimental wise forms of government, or those knowledge in ftate affairs, can raise who have hazarded, and, in
themselves to power and administration
many instances, have sacrificed their lives by dint of popular esteem and favour, and fortunes for preservation of good, the interest of courtiers.
in oppositior to the will of kings, and or reformation of bad forms. These great men are termed fools by Mr. vernment of France is not despotic, Pope. Butler, a better, though not though the limits of the fovereign so thriving a poet, conveys much power are not yet defined and fixed; sense in a single line; he says,
which was truly the state of Britain
before the Revolution. No argument like matter of fact is.'
ANECDOTES of the NOBILITY of ENGLAND.
peer a romance, puts the following been fince involved—for poverty ! beautiful eulogy of our nobility into Blackstone's observation on this finthe mouth of an English lord (one of gular event deserves attention : ' A his most excellent characters) whom peer cannot lose his nobility but by he represents as vindicating it from death or attainder: though there was the unjust reflections of a German ba- an instance, in the reign of Edward ron: "I should be greatly mortified IV, of the degradation of George to have no other proof of my merit Nevile, duke of Bedford, on account than that of a man who died 500 years of his poverty, which rendered him ago. The nobility of England is unable to support his dignity. But the most enlightened, as well as the this is a singular instance, which serves, bravest in Europe. It is unnecessary, at the same time, by having happentherefore, to inquire which is the most ed, to shew the power of parliament; ancient, for, when we speak of what and, by having happened but once, it is, it is of no consequence what it to thew how tender the parliament
We are not, indeed, the slaves, hath been of exerting to high a but the friends of our sovereign ; not power to' the tyrants of the people, but their Whatever rank an individual noblesuperiors. Guardians of liberty, pro- man may bear in the scale of moral tectors of our country, and supporters excellence, it is universally supposed, of the throne, we form an invincible that the first ennobled ancestor acequilibrium between the people and quired his honours by superior difthe king.
Our first duty is to the tinctions in virtue and true heroifm. nation ; our second, to the Supreme But this has not been uniformly the Magistrate ; and it is not his will and case. Philip, the fourth earl of Pempleasure, but his lawful prerogative broke, whom Mr. Horace Walpole that we regard. Supreme Judges in called That memorable Simpleton, the last resort in the house of peers, was rude, reprobate, boisterous, and ayd sometimes even legislators, we do devoted to his horses and dogs. He equal justice to the people and to the was so mean, at the same time, as to king; and we permit no man to fay, receive tamely a horse-whipping from • God and my Sword,' but only God one Ramsay, a Scotchman, at a puband my Right.' Such is our respect- lic horse-race; and, for his civility able nobility; as ancient as any other, in not resenting the insuli, was rewarded but much prouder of its intrinsic worth by the peaceful James, by being made than of its anceitors *.
a knight, baron, viscount, and earl I To this glorious character there on the same day. His mother, are, no doubt, individual exceptions. «Sidney's fifter, Pembroke's mother,' Care, however, seems to have been once taken, to preserve this illuftrious tore her hair when she heard of her body from that dependence and cor- son's disgrace. He was likewise lord ruption which poverty might produce. chamberlain to Charles I; and, as In 1478, Gcorge Nevile, duke of Osborne observes, in that office, broke Bedford, was deprived of his titles, with his white rod many wiser heads by authority of parliameilt. For than his own; but his fear always what? For high treason? No. For secured him, by a quick and ample high crimes and misdemeanours? No submission. but for that guilt (if it may be called
CURIOSUS. * Eloisa, Part 2, Let. 62. + Comment, Book 1, ch. 12.
I His brother William, third earl of Pembroke being then living, he was created, for this meritorious submission, earl of Montgomery,
An Account of the important Debate in the House of Commons, on
Monday April 2, on Mr. Wilberforce's Motion for the ABOLITION
a committee, Mr. Wilberforce rose, ed. No man more than himself lamented and expressed much fatisfaction, that in the them; and no man inore ardently hoped, motion he was about to make, it was not that similar mischiefs in our own inands necessary to trouble the house fo long as on might be averted; for that reason he wished a former occasion. He could not speak of his motion to be adopted, for preventing the system of the llave trade, he said, with the further importation of Africans into out warmth and reprobation ; for he was our islands, well knowing that we had at convinced that it was a system cruel, un present as many as we could manage withi just, and tyrannical; it was a system which safety, there being, upon a moderate comcreated the worst tyranny, the tyranny of putation, 300,000 blacks in Jamaica, to the low-minded, the ignorant, and the base; 20,000 whites : the former were continue for the man who could raise forty pounds, ally increasing by importation, and the latmight obtain dominion over a llave; ter number continued nearly stationary. He a system that degraded and debased our fel- was convinced that an abolition of the trade low-creatures to a level with beaits ; for would be attended with the happiest effects; they were kept in fields to work under the that it would be felt by the planter, by the whip, and were frequently branded. It islands, by this country, and bay the blacks; was unnecessary, he faid, for him to go the negroes would become attached to their into arguments to prove that regulations masters; the islands would be improved ; for the better treatment of Naves were fu, and every moment would tend to render the
the evils that had existed, and that blacks happier : the increase of their hapdid exist, could not be cured but by an a- piness would make the planter richer, and bolition of the trade; an abolition alone the illands more flourishing. If, thereoffered a radical cure. Colonial regula- fore, the islands were the only object of the tions would be of no avail, when the evi- present question, he was convinced that it dence of a negroe was not admitted, and would be for their interest and safety that when the connexion and interest of the the motion should be carried ; for, by rewhites inclined them to screen each other in moving the evils that did now exitt, the the commission of cruelties.--He was increase of the population of the blacks 'ready frankly to declare, that he did not would be rapid and decisive, and do away yet think the negroes were in a fit ftate for every argument in support of importation. emancipation, but was convinced that It had been argued, he said, that the flavemeasures could not be too fpeedily adopted trade was of importance to our navy; but to bring them to such a state, for their own this was controverted even by the mustera happinels, and for the security of our rolls of the persons who supported the trade; illands. True liberty was the child of rea- which documents proved, that, instead of son and order ; it was his with that the ne- being of advantage to this country, it was groes might have their minds opened, and extremely injurious, by the mortality it ocby reason and order be brought to the porc casioned among our feamen. - The hon. fesfion of liberty. The hon. gentleman took gentleman said, by a comparison of the notice of the insurrection in St. Domingo, West India trade and the Nave trade, it which, he said, had not been occasioned, as would be found by the muster-rolls, that had been insinuated, by discussions, or by out of 12263 men employed in the Navesocieties in this country, nor had it been trade, 2640 died in the average of twelve occasioned by a dispute between the blacks months. But that out of 7640 employed and the whites of that island, but by the in the West India trade, on an average of oppressive conduct of the whites to the peo- seven months, 118 only died; but deaths ple of colour, who armed for their own des alone in the slave trade was not the whole fence : the blacks then rose, and were led loss of our seamen, for it would be found on by people of colour, who made them that numbers quitted their lips, and that instruments for their purpose. The vari- not more than half the number hipped from ous contradictory decrees, and the agree- England ever returned. It had also been ments made and broken, in consequerice of argued, he faid, that the abolition would the disorder, were fully fufficient to ac- be injurious to our commerce and general
polity, but against both those arguments a former occasion he had stated, that several he thought fufficient had been advanced latt negroes had been feized and taken from the year; he was convinced that when we coast of the Cameroon river, by British should quit the trade, we should soon be ships; a different colour had been attempt. enabled to export more of our manufac- ed to be put upon that transaction, but it tures for honest.commodities, than we did remained unrefuted. A transaction of a pow for the blood and flesh of our fellow. fimilar kind had come to his knowledge; an creatures. It was idle, and injurious to English thip, Naving off the Cameroon, the character of the country, to assert, that had sent away one cargo to the Welt Indies, the abolition would be contrary to the ge- but the captain wilhed to take another; he peral polity of the country; for the trade to sent a few white men on a watering party, Africa forined but a very trivial part of the and with them one black man; a native general trade of the kingdom, and even trader seized him for a debt, which being but a small part of the trade of Liverpool made known to the captain, he took a and Bristol. If the house consulted the strange kind of revenge ; he formed all his principles of humanity and justice, they crew on the deck, and told them to blacken would at once decide in favour of his mo their bodies, and babit themselves like netion : but on humanity he did not reft a. groes, to execute a plan of his to revenge lone the merits of his cafe; he looked to the seizing of the negroe. He armed them, the situation of Africa; that arrested his and went to the house of the unfortunate heart, and was a cause he never would give trader, who, hearing a noise, beat a drum, op. Africa, by our means, was rendered to collect his friends. The captain's party a scene of horror that no tongue could ex. fired, and killed three of the trader's child press, or mind conceive.. General reason- dren, and wounded his wife in fo desperate ing had always satisfied his mind, that the a manner that the died in three hours. One constant purchase of slaves made it the in. of the failors was killed, and the others terest of the princes and chiefs of Africa to wounded, and they with difficulty regained procure them by any means, by war, by their ship. The captain, however, resapine, or by perfidy, by a promotion of mained trading as usual for feveral weeks, conduct that had rendered a naturally fine as if nothing extraordinary, or out of the and productive country, a continued scene common train of his business, had happen, of devastation and flaughter for more than ed; but the Africans proved that they had three or four thousand miles along the coast. feelings, and were capable of taking opThis was proved by the evidence laid be. portunities to thew them. One of their fore the last parliament; by that evidence chieftains came, with his usual familiarity, it was incontrovertibly proved, that wben to ask for muskets, and powder and ball, kings or chiefs wanted laves to fell to the to go up the country to procure flaves, half British ships, they frequently set fire to the of which the captain was to have; the cape villages at night, and seized the natives as tain complied, as ta in a court of justice they were endeavouring to escape. Slavery protested he had frequently done before ; he was made the punishment for the most tri- gave the chieftain what he desired, and vial offences; and part of the money ari- proved himself to be a true Guinea captain
, fing from the sale of a lave was the perqui. whose avarice was gratified by blood, mifite of the judge who condemned, and the fery, rapine, and daughter. The chiefman who accused; the laws were there. tain, however, and his party, had no sooner fore turned to oppression, and the judge was obtained the muskets, and powder and hot
, interested to condemn. If he were to go than they seized the captain, threw him into into a detail of the cruelties occasioned by the boat, and took him to the shore; where our trade, he should never have done; they compelled him, on promise of pero many of them have been stated in the last mitting him to return to his ship, to.
give year, but one or two of a molt atrocious an order for all his goods; the goods hav. nature, and aggravated by their having ing been obtained, they released the capbeen committed lince the discussion in that tain, and out-did him in faith and in mercy, house, he thought it would be neceffary to These transactions came out in a fuit com. ftate: they would prove that our veffels menced by the failors against the captain hovered on the coaits of Africa for the pur- for a recovery of their wages. The facts pose of promoting war and rapine, and were given in evidence by the captain him. were like vultures hovering over a field of felf, as matters not uncommon; but they prey. The transactions, he would prove, were circumstances which fully proved the
as would shew the whole fyltem manner in which the trade was carried to be founded in robbery and in blood. Upon on.The hon. gentleman faid, he would