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fate another transaction to thew the man, tree, of Bristol ; the Betsey, Doyle, of Liner of obtaining flaves, a transaction which verpool; and the Wasp, House, of Bristol. took place no longer ago than August last. After dwelling some time on the atrocity Six Britisli ships were anchoring off the of such conduct, he called upon the ho town of Calabar; the captains thinking nour, the humanity, and the justice of the that 100 high a price was asked for the house, to resist and put an end to such proflaves, consulted together, and resolved to ceedings, by voting for the abolition of the fire on the town to compet them to take a trade. lower price; they sent notice of their deter The hon, gentleman next noticed the mination to fire in the morning if their of. Middle Passage, in which, he said, all ata fers were not accepted; no answer being témpts to do away the mortality would returned, the slave captains, when their prove ineffectual, until the house could word. had been given for a bloody and cruel triumph over nature, and enter into reso. purpose, kept it'i they brought their guns lutions to influence the mind. The more to bear upon a defencéless town, and fireď tality arose from a melancholy in the on it for three hours, in which time they blacks, in consequence of their being torn did confiderable execution. The chief sent from their country, from their relatives out to procure a cessation, but not offering and friends; that melancholy could never terms low enough, the captains commenced be done away. In stating the cruelties firing again, and continued until their tems practised in the Middle Pallage, he said he were accepted. By this murderous tranf. had it in his power to relate to the house the a&tion he doubted not but the Liverpool conduct of one of the captains of the ships and Bristol merchants were some hundreds he had before mentioned ; a poor negro of pounds richer, than they would have girl of fifteen, who was in such a pecu, been had it not been adopted. But bloody liar situation that induced her, from mo. and ferocious as these captains had proved desty, to fit with her body bepding down, themselves, they had not the courage to was suspended by the wrists, by order of venture on shore to purchase the slaves, but the captain, and exposed to the whole crew, sent, as was not customary, the surgeons, He afterward had her flogged; then surfrom one of whom he had his information. pended by her two legs, and again exposed The surgeon law three of the poor wretches to the crew , and not having exhausted his in the agonies of death, and was informed cruel inventions, had her suspended afterof twenty more that had been killed.- wards, firit by one leg, and then by the What rendered this transaction still more other, until, worn out by torture, the fell disgraceful to England was, that a French into convulsions, in which the continued flave ship was on the same station when the for three days, and then died, The bara bloody purpose was proposed; the French barous wretch who thus perpetrated this captain, however, would not agree to be a murderous deed, was captain Kimber. participator in it, but purchased the slaves To the Naves alone this tyranny and feroat the price offered, and failed. The Bri- city was not confined'; instances might be tish captains poltponed their purposes until produced of shameful conduct to the feathe Frenchman was gone, and then put men; as a proof of which he need only their bloody design into execution. What state that out of a whole thip’s crew fix he had stared, was no matter of secrecy at or seven only returned. Who was to reBristol or Liverpool, where the conduct of gulate a trade carried on by such agents, the captains was not considered improper, agents bred up in robbery-and murder, and but, as was to be presumed by their being whose habits and conduct could not be furnished with new births, their conduct eradicated, but which would continue as was considered meritorious, and men capa- long as the trade was perịnitted ? It was ble of such conduct considered the fittest a trade too bad to be continued ; it was a for flave Thip captains [A call of name, fystem the house ought to condem, as dif name.]- The hon. gentleman said, it had graceful to the English nation. Whichnot been his intention to name the parties, ever way it was boked at, robbery, muror to call for their prosecution, being averfe der, perfidy, and desolation, stared you in to prosecute and punish persons concerned the face; in Africa, in the Middle Pasin a trade, while that trade was counte- fage, and in the Illands, the same horrors nanced by parliament; but as he was call were to be found, and those who carried ed on to name them, he had no objection: on the trade would be found the moit The ships were the Thomas, Philips, of abandoned beings ; they were accustomed Bristol ;

the Recovery, Kimber, of Bţis- to cruel and ferocious habits, and proved tol; the Thomas, of Liverpool; the Ana-themselves to be capable of unmixed, un

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sophisticated wickedness. He who loves that opinion was well founded or not; juftice will condemn the trade, for that while in the West Indies, he was convinced man who loves justice must love mercy. that the negroes were not in a fit condition The hon. gentleman noticed the resolution to be reltored to freedom. Freedom geneof Denmark to abolish the trade, as an rated certain mental wants. Slavery posargument against the assertion of its sup- fessed oply bodily wants. If they were porters, that if quitted by this country it now to be emancipated, they would imwould be taken up by others. The pre.' mediately degenerate into idleness and wick., sent, he said, was a time Great Britain edness. Their situation certainly might be was peculiarly called upon to abolish the meliorated, but it was by no means lo bad trade ; possessed of prosperity and happi- as had been asserted. He had also been ness, we were called upon to promote that convinced that they were not ill used, and of our fellow-creatures; we were called flavery and particular circumstances of cru. upon to promote it, not by gifts, but by, elty excepted, their situation was certainly ceasing to inflict on them evils. The peo- as comfortable as that of the lower orders ple of England had expressed their sense of the people of Great Britain. The preagainst the trade, and had addressed the sent stock of negroes could not be kept up, house, as they valued the favour of Hea. on account of the decrease of population. yen, to abolish it. If the petitions of the This decrease was stated to be owing to people of England were attended to, and cruelty, but the fact was otherwise ; it the trade abolished, we should be enabled was to be attributed to celibacy, and to to establish another of greater profit with the small nuinber of females compared with the natives of Africa. By abolishing the that of the males. trade, the house would do good in every

Mr. Thornton conceived that both the part of the world. He invited all those gentlemen who had {poken against the therefore who were inclined to do good by abolition had totally forgotten the main wholesale, to vote with him for the abo- point, by omitting all allusions to the lition. He hoped gentlemen were at length manner in which flaves were obtained. convinced of the wickedness of the trade, Mr. Bailey had stated the negroes to be and that the house would that night come as comfortable as they could be, and Mr. to an unanimous vote for its annihilation :

Vaughan had acknowledged that their fituaa. He thought the recent enormities had been' tion might be meliorated. This was an permitted by the providence of Heaven, for argument that only enforced the necessity the purpose of rendering it impossible that of an immediate abolition, which could any one should dare to rise in defence of alone produce that melioration. He rethe trade.- He concluded by moving, lated some nefarious practices that had been

• That it is the opinion of this com- adopted near the settlement of Sierra Leone. mittee, that the trade carried on by British The relations of a king of a neighbouring subjects for the purpose of procuring Naves district had been kidnapped by a captain from Africa, ought to be abolished.' And Coxe, and sold in the West Indies.

• That the chairman be directed to move There was one view of the subject which the house for leave to bring in a bill to pre- had not been itated by Mr. Wilberforce, vent the future importation of Naves into It was of the utmost importance that the the British Inands.'

credit of parliament should not be suffered Mr. Bailey asserted, that the slave trade to decay.' It was apparent that the people implicated in its feveral departments a were for the abolition of the trade, to great part of the trade of Great Britain, which, if their representatives refused to which trade would of course be materially accede, a fufficient ground might be given affected, if the motions received the con to those who wished to prejudice the con"currence of the house; that that discussion ftitution in the eyes of the nation. of lant

year had occasioned all the distur Colonel Tarleton observed, that the bances in St. Domingo žtehat the witnesses present question, which had so often met who had given evidence in favour of the abo- the adjudication of that house, was not lition were a set of low, ignorant wretches, now to be decided by ftudied eloquence selected purposely from the refuse of man- and pathetic diction. The measure rested kind.

on the grounds of its own impoffibility. Mr. Vaughan declared himself to be a The voice of the minister in the last year West Indian and a merchant. In the had caused a necessity of an additional çarly part of his life he was for the aho- number of troops being sent out to Ja. sition of the slave trade. He went to the maica ; and it was to be apprehended, that West Indies on purpose to prove whether if these discussions were often repeated, the


whole of the British troops in Europe may such a despotism tended to corrupt hearts possibly find employment in the West Ina naturally good, and to vitiate and debale dies!

the best understandings. On the subject of the petitions on the

He proceeded to vindicate the authenti. table, the colonel indulged himself in a city and respectability of the petitions on vein of ridicule. They were all, he said, the table, as speaking the general sense of so much in the fame style, that it was an intelligent majority of the nation. If evident they were fabricated in the same they were alike in substance, it was only mint. To his knowledge many of them because there was but one plain tale to be had been procured by mendicant physicians told. If doubts were to be suggested of and itinerant clergymen. He said, that the their authenticity, much more might be Town Halls had been feldom visited on

stated respecting the weight of the letters this occafion, but well-meaning men had' which had been read, the writers of some been induced to fign not only their own of which the hon. colonel (Tarleton] him names, but those of their neighbours ! Even self did not profefs to know. the grammar schools had been visited, and

With respect to the disturbances in St. the boys who could write were solicited Domingo, they had been unfoundedly said for invented signatures,

to arise from the discussions on this subject To give to airy nothings

in Europe. The fact was, that in every • A local habitation and a name !!

human bosom a line was drawn, beyond

which human patience could not proceed!, After reading one or two letters to prove Mr. Milbank made an emphatic dethese assertions, he said, that the popular claration, that where there was slavery mind had been inflamed by unfair and there must be oppression, and therefore he mutilated extracts from the printed evi- would vote for the motion. dence.

Mr. Dundas professed to agree in opinioni Mr. M. Montague contended that there with Mr. Wilberforce, but to differ widely were evils in existence, in consequence of as to the mode. He felt some difficulty, the African trade, which had been proved he said, to Ihape his conduct, where both to the house, and a remedy ought to be parties argued in extremes. He was free applied to them efficiently. They had to admit, that the trade was neither foundnot been met fairly, he said, in their argue ed in policy, 'nor ultimately essential to ments by the gentlemen who had spoken the Welt India islands ; nor was there any against his hon. friend's question. He good cause assigned why the propagation challenged those gentlemen to discuss the of the Creale flaves should not be made to real merits of the question, and replied to keep pace with the consumption; but he many parts of Mr. Vaughan's speech, de- had ftill his doubts as to the prudence and claring that the suffering a Nave to give practicability of the mode which was now evidence would be a worse evil to the before the house. planters than the motion of his hon. friend, He had no doubt of the goodness of the if carried.

head or heart of the gentleman by whom Mr. Whitbread said, that if all the it was produced; but he feared that it other arguments in favour of the motion might run too directly counter to the ha. had failed; if it were made to appear that bits and prejudices of those whose interests the flaves in our Welt India illands were were at stake, and excité an alarm on ac. treated with all possible humanity; if it count of the patrimonial rights of indiwere proved that by their removal from viduals. The cultivators, the mortgatheir native climate they were rescued from gees, and the purchasers in the islands, had danger and from death; if it were proved all acted under the fan&tion of parliament, that their lives were spent in ease, and that and it would not be fair to proceed without on their death-bed their eyes were closed consulting the intereft of those whose proby content, still he must vote for an abo- perties had been thus milled. lition of the traffic.

Other nations, it had been said, would No mildness in practice could make right take up the traffic which we were about that which was fundamentally wrong. No to relinquish; but that did not weigh thing could make him give his assent to the with him, if the derelictions were proved original sin of delivering man over to the to be safe and prudent on our part; but despotism of man. It was too degrading until this is made apparent, he should to see, not the produce of human labour, regret to see the trade of Liverpool moved but man himfelf made the object of trade; to St. Euftarius, and that of Briftol perand this was the more mortifying when it haps to Oftend. was recollected, that the known effect of

He professed himself to be therefore for

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no objects at home of the latter, it could

After some reniarks on the unfair use

of lord Rodney, lord Macartney, and THE UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE a system of moderation and regulation, hon. gentlemen (Mr. Dundas and the not a regulation which should continue speaker) had professed to execrate the the trade, but a system of regulation crime, and yet would not vote for its av which thould bear in its bofom the feeds bolition. If they adhered, however, to of abolition. This fyftem' he explained their own principles, they must yote for it confifted merely in the abolition of the the resolution generally, and afterward import of negroes after a time to be lic discuss the proper period for carrying it mited, and in what he termed the termi- into effect. One of the gentlemen had nation of hereditary slavery. By the lató gone out of his way, to suggest a bounty ter, he did for mean that every negro on the ini portation of females into the child thould be free on the death of its islands for a given time. He could wisk parents, but that, the importer of the par for his part to see how such a clause was rent should pay for the maintenance and to be penned, and in what words a Bria education of the child, the expencas of tish parliament would, vote a reward for which were to be repaid by ten or fifteen the tearing, away an additional number years fervitude, after which time the Nave of helpless women from their homes and was to possess his freedoin.

connections. This system Mr. Dundas contended was The scheme of Mr. Wilberforce, he Jess vifionary, and more practicable, than contended, was more practicable and less what had as yet been offered.

vifionary than that which was now proHe argued against the opposition which duced by Mr. Dandas. The former was excited against the abolition, by quote proposed that which was immediately in ing the resistance which had been made in the power of a British parliament; the the year 177.5, in the extinction of the latter fuggested"

, that which could only villenage existing in the salt-works in Scot- tend to involve them in a quarrel with Jand, and latterly to the regulation of the all the colonial legislatures. He had fug, Middle Passage.' Both these measures, he gested in his terminaron of hereditary observed, had been pronounced in the first tavery, a scheme the most theoretical and instance to be as ruinous as they had since complicated that perhaps had ever been been proved to be beneficial ! He repeated offered to a committee of that house. In his confidence that every moderate man the plan the Have was to be educated at would agree with him, and instead of ac- the expence of the importer of his parents

. ceding to a measure which may conyullë It was then recollected, that this expence the ffate, would adopt a middle fine be- mult in some way be defrayed. This it tween the zeal and obstinacy of the oppo. was proposed to do by a servitude of ten fing parties.

or fifteen years, after which time the obMr. Addington (the speaker) declared, ject of the regulation must be as comthat he felt a folid fàtisfaction on hearing. pletely a slave, as if he never had enjoya what had fallen from the right hon. se ed a portion of ideal freedom! In speaking cretary. He had felt much previous dif- of the unfairness of the trade, Mr. Fox ficulty on this subject. While he turned observed on the crimes which were imwith disgust from the hateful trade, he puted to the 22,000-unfortunate creatures faw the necessity of considering the oppo- who were yearly purchased. fite claims, and was also fearful that the

A great part

of these was punished for trade, if relinquished by us, inay be car, the crime of withcraft, which, as it ap; ried on in a manner more repugnant to peared, we execrated with such a sacred the interests of humanity. Ảe thought horror, that, left it should escape from these opposite interests would be in a great punishment,' we degraded ourselves into degree reconciled by the seheme of a gra- executioners. The next crime was dual abolition. He suggested, that the dultery, which we lent our aid to punih imports of slaves into the islands, should also; but there was this difference between be limited to ten or twelve years, and that these leading crimes, that we appeared to in the mean tine bounties should be. al- punish the former merely becaule we had lowed" on the import of females, and on the number of children reared to matu- only be said, perhaps, that the objects at sity. He confesled, that he did not con- home were lo numerous that we were at a sider this commerce as a trade but as a loss with which to begin. crime ; and observed, that it had in fact forft discussion.


the coaft of Africa, Mr. Fox proceeded tirely. He thought the true course was to notice the justification which had been an immediate abolition. He repeated his attempted of this system of cruelty. These old ftatements, to thựw that the stock in were all resolvable into one, namely, the the islands would be maintained without difference of colour. It was said, though recruits by this abominable trade, againft he trufted the reports were exaggerated, which the feelings and the philosophy of that there, was much riot and'anarchy now the age revolted. He next came to the prevailing in several parts of France. injustice of continuing a trade that had But if it were proposed, that English fo long disgraced the country, and which vefsels mould be fent to the ports of that could not be too soon put an end to. He kingdom to purchase the democrates of then went to the different reaforings of the aristocrates, and vice versa, every the friends to the fave trade, and those man's blood would run cold with horror who wished it might be gradually abolilaa Yet the leading difference between the ed; all of which he refuted in a clear and parties confifted merely in their colour; argumentative manner.

Having, gone and a more vain, unphilosophical, irre- through the injustice of the trade, he religious, and blafphemous distinction could plied to what had been said, as to the pronot well be supposed to exift. He should priety of a gradual, and not an immediate therefore hold it his duty to persevere in abolition of it. He called the attention of

motion, if it hould now prove un- gentlemen to the situation of their owa successful. If it were said, that other country in the earlier stages of its history; nations may not adopt the example, he, and he read a quotation from Rapin, to and those who voted with him, should prove that the practice of selling fellowhave the fubftantial confolation of having creatures for llaves, had once prevailed done their duty; and of glorying to lead, in this island, and that in the time of where others did not dare, even in such pope Gregory, a number of fine Britita a cause, to follow.

youths were seen upon sale for faves in Mr. Dundasmoved, as an amendment, the publick market place at Rome., Mr. * That it is the opinion of this committee, Pite commented on this fact with grea that the trade in slaves, between the coast force and ingenuity, making use of it as of Africa and the West India islands, a most powerful appeal to the heart of fhould gradually be abolished.'

every Briton, whether, after lo striking Mr, Jenkinion went decidedly against a proof of the happy change that had tathe original motion. Such a measure, in ken place in this country, which had his opinion, could not diminish the evil; made us the seat of Arts, the centre of to extirpate it, as proposed, was iinpor. commerce, and the happiest and the freelt fible.

nation on the habitable globe, enjoying He concluded with reading an address liberty governed and secured by law, and to the king, praying, that the governors living under a constitution the envy of of our colonies may be ordered to issue surrounding nations, and the constant obbounties for the rearing of flaves, and ject of their imitation, we had a right ta that every negro woman, having borne say that Africa might not emerge from five children, should be declared free.' the state of barbarism and ignorance, in He moved, that for the purpose of taking · which the was at present involved, if we this address into future confideration, the were to put an end to a practice which not chairman do now leave the chair.'

only disgraced ourselves, to a degree beThe chancellor of the exchequer rose yond all powers of description, but put to support all the oblervations of Mr. Fox, it out of the power of the Africans to beexcept where he lamented the principles come an enlightened people, as long as of Mr. Dundas and the speaker. Though that infernal practice was continued. Mr. he differed from them, was pleased to Pitt pursued his speech to its conclusion, see that neither they nor Mr. Jenkinson in one continued blaze of oratorical splens. actually approved of the trade, but differed dour. only as to the mode and time of abolith The question was then loudly called for, ing it. From this hour, the sentence on and the house divided on Mr. Jenkinson's this trade was sealed. It was gone paft; motion for adjournment, nothing remained but to arrange and settle Ayes 87, Majority 147. the plan of ending it; to do this, they Then on the amendment moved by Mr. must examine the opinions of his right Dundas, ayes 193, noes 125, majority 68. honourable friends, and he would do this And lastly, that the motion as amended rigoroully. He differed from them en do pass, ayes 230, noes 85, majority 145.


Noes 2343

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