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Shippers Asso. v. Chicago & N. W. R. Co., 2 I. C. C. 604; 2 I. C. R. 431. Mileage should be considered. McMorran v. Grand Trunk R. Co., 3 I. C. C. 252, 2 I. C. R. 604. Classification of freight legal. Thurber v. N. Y. Cent. & H. R. R. Co., 3 1. C. C. 473, 2 I. C. R. 742. The proportion of a through rate may be less than the local. New Orleans Cotton Exp. v. Ill. Cent. R. Co., 3 I. C. C. 534, 2 I. C. R. 777. Equitably graduated charges for like traffic having regard to amount of traffic is just. Lehman v. So. Pac. Co., 4 I. C. C. 1, 3 I. C. R. 80. In the carriage of the great staples which supply an enormous business and which in market value and actual cost of transportation are among the cheapest articles of commerce, rates yielding moderate profit are both justifiable and necessary. Re Alleged Excessive Freight Rates on Food products, 4 I. C. C. 48, 3 I. C. R. 93, 104; Mayor, etc., V. A. T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 9 I. C. C. 534; Farmers' etc., Club v. A. T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 12 I. C. C. 351, 360. As a general rule, the charge per ton mile should decrease with distance. Manufacturers & Jobbers Union of Mankato v. Minneapolis & St. L. R. Co., 4 I. C. C. 79, 3 I. C. R. 115; Hilton Lumber Co. v. Wilmington, etc., R. Co., 9 I. C. C. 17, 31. Commodity rates legal. New York Board of Trade v. Penn. R. Co., 4 I. C. C. 447, 3 I. C. R. 417. Order enforced. Int. Com. Com. v. Tex. & Pac, Ry. Co., 52 Fed. 187, 57 Fed. 948, 6 C. C. A. 653, 20 U. S. App. 1, 4 I. C. R. 408. Circuit court reversed. Texas & Pac. Ry. Co. v. Int. Com. Com. 162 U. S. 197, 40 L. Ed. 940, 16 Sup. Ct. 666. Classification and group rates legal. Coxe Bros. & Co. v. Lehigh Valley R. Co., 4 I. C. C. 535, 3 I. C. R. 460. Order not enforced. Int. Com. Com. v. Lehigh Valley R. ('o., 74 Fed. 784. Elements to be considered in fixing rates on perishable fruits. Boston Fruit & Pro. Ex. v. New York & N. E. R. Co., 4 I. C. C. 664, 3 I. C. R. 493, 604, 5 I. C. C. 1. Comparison with rates of other localities not alone sufficient to show unreasonableness. Lincoln Creamery v. Union Pac. Ry. Co., 5 I. C. C. 156, 3 I. C. R. 794. Salt requires a relatively low rate, but should not be moved at unremunerative rates. Anthony Salt Co. v. Mo. Pac. R. Co., 5 I. C. C. 229, 4 I. C. R. 33. Rates should bear a fair relation to antecedent cost of production. Loud v. S. C. R. Co., 5 I. C. C. 529, 4 1. C. R. 205. A local rate is prima facie excessive as part of a through rate. Board of Trade of Troy v. Ala. M. R. Co., 6 I. C. C. 1. Order not enforced. Int. Com. Com. v. Ala. M. R. Co., 69 Fed. 227, 74 Fed. 715, 21 C C. A. 51, 168 U. S. 144, 42 L. Ed. 414, 18 Sup. Ct. 45. Cost of service only one element in determining reasonableness of rates. Schumacher Milling Co. v. Chicago, R. I. & Pac. Ry. Co., 6 I. C. C. 61, 4 I. C. R. 373. Transportation charges on rival companies or branch lines are to be considered in fixing rates. Morrel v. U. Pac. Ry. Co., 6 I. C. C. 121, 4 I. C. R. 469, 473. The value of comparisons depends upon the degree of similarity of circumstances. Freight Bureau of Cincinnati v. Cincinnati, N. O. & T. P. Ry. Co., 6 I. C. C. 195, 4 I. C. R. 592. Order not enforced. Int. Com. Com. v. Cincinnati, N. 0. & T. P. Ry. Co., 76 Fed. 183, 167 U. S. 479, 42 L. Ed. 243, 17 Sup. Ct. 896. There is no necessary connection between rates between the same points in opposite directions. Duncan V. A. T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 6 I. C. C. 85, 103, 4 I. C. R. 385; Macloon v. Boston & M. R. Co., 9 I. C. C. 642.

Rates on steel and iron equal to the average rates unjust, different cost of manufacturing the same product, no reason for different rate. Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. v. So. Pac. Co., 6 I. C. C. 188, 515. Order not enforced. So. Pac. Co. v. Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., 101 Fed. 779, 42 C. C. A. 12. For a comparison in rates to be of any value there must be substantial similarity. Evans v. U. Pac. Co., 6 I. C. C. 520. Rates must be relatively as well as absolutely just. Page v. Delaware, L. & W. R. Co., 6 I. C. C. 548. Financial necessities of carrier entitled to weight but not controlling. Jerome Hill Cotton Co. v. Mo. Kan. & Tex. R. Co., 6 I. C. C. R. 601, 622. Uniform blanket rate from all stations held unreasonable. Milk Producers Protective Asso. v. Delaware, L. & W. R. Co., 7 I. C. C. 92, 164. Distance an important element in determining reasonableness of rates. Freight Bureau of Cincinnati v. Cincinnati, N. 0. & T. P. Ry. Co., 7 1. C. C. 180. Group Rates applied to cities considerable distance apart prima facie illegal. Commercial Club of Omaha v. Chicago & N. W. Ry. Co., 7 I. C. C. 386. Interstate rates are not required to conform to those fixed under state laws. Savannah Bureau of Freight & Transportation v. Charleston & S. Ry. Co., 7

I. C. C. 601. Principles of rate making discussed. Grain Shippers Asso. of Northwest Iowa v. Ill. Cent. R. Co., 8 I. C. C. R. 158. Rate per ton mile while valuable is not controlling. Gustin v. A. T. & S. F. R. Co., 8 I. C. C. 277. A rate can seldom be considered “in and of itself." Tileston Milling Co. v. N. Pac. Ry. Co., 8 I. C. C. 346, 361. Basing point system of the south disapproved. Board of Trade of Hampton v. N. C. & St. L. R. Co., 8 I. C. C. 503, 521. Order not enforced. Int. Com. Com. v. N. C. & St. L. R. Co., 120 Fed. 934. Storage is a service rendered and must be reasonable. Penn. Millers Asso. v. Philadelphia & R. R. Co., 8 I. C. C. 531. A rate long in existence prima facie reasonably high. Holmes & Co. v. So. Ry. Co., 8 I. C. C. 561. Must consider all circumstances affecting rates. Mayor and Council of Tifton v. L. & N. R. Co., 9 I. C. C. 160, 179. Reasons for a general advance not sufficient to show advance on particular commodity reasonable. National Hay Asso. v. Lake Shore, etc., Ry. Co., 9 I. C. C. 264, 304, 305. Order not enforced. Int. Com. Com. v. Lake Shore, etc., Ry. Co., 134 Fed. 942. Cost of service may legally produce a higher rate on less than carload than on carload shipments. Business Men's League of St. Louis v. A. T. & S. F. R. Co., 9 I. C. C. 318, 358. Transportation is not controlled by the law of supply and demand and is not to be sold to the highest bidder. Re Proposed Advances in Freight Rates, 9 I. C. C. 382. See also discussion of principles at pp. 395, 402, 405, 413. Presumption that a rate is reasonably high does not apply to a rate established by the Commission. Proctor & Gamble Co. v. Cincinnati, H. & D. R. Co., 9 I. C. C. 440. Order enforced. Int. Com. Com. v. Cincinnati, H. & D. Ry. Co., 146 Fed. 559, 206 U. S. 142, 51 L. Ed. 995, 27 Sup. Ct. 648. May compare a rate with a lesser rate for a longer haul. Mayor, etc., of Wichita v. A. T. & S. F. R. Co., 9 I. C. C. 534, 552. May not refuse carload rating because consignee obtained title from different consignors. Buckeye Buggy Co. v. Cleveland, etc., R. Co., 9 I. C. C. 620. Rates may differ in reverse direction. MacLoon v. Boston & M. R. Co., 9 I. C. C. 642, citing Duncan v. A. T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 6 I. C. C. 85, 42 I. C. R. 385. May require purchase of tickets in order to obtain a reduced fare. Cist v. Mich. Cent. R. Co., 10 I. C. C. 217. Rate according to valuation of fruit unreasonable and unjust. Georgia Peach Growers' Asso. v. Atlantic C. L. R. Co., 10 I. C. C. 255. Cannot distinguish in rates on commodities, because of method of loading. Glade Coal Co. v. B. & O. R. Co., 10 I. C. C. 226. Under the circumstances of this case, there should be no higher rate on cattle and hogs than on their products. Chicago Live Stock Exp. v. Chicago Great W. Ry. Co., 10 I. C. C. 428. Order not enforced. Int. Com. Com. v. Chicago Great W. Ry. Co., 141 Fed. 1003, 209 U. S. 108, 52 L. Ed. 705, 28 Sup. Ct. 493. Effect of prosperity of shipper, increased cost of transportation, long continued rate and a combination to advance rates discussed. Central Yellow Pine Asso. v. Ill. Cent. R. Co., 10 I. C. C. 505. Order enforced. Ill. Cient. R. Co. V. Int. Com. Com., 206 ('. S. 441, 51 L. Ed. 1128, 27 Sup. Ct. 700. Tift v. So. R. Co., 10 I. C. C. 548, 123 Fed. 789, 138 Fed. 753 ; So. R. Co. v. Tift, 148 Fed. 1021, 206 U. S. 428, 51 L. Ed. 1124, 27 Sup. Ct. 709; Tift v. So. Ry. Co., 159 Fed. 555. Effect of long continuance of rate and of financial condition of carrier considered. Re Class and Commodity Rates St. Louis to Texas, 11 I. C. C. 238. Facts considered in arriving at a conclusion as to reasonableness of rates. Cattle Raisers’ Asso. of Texas v. M. K. & T. Ry. Co., 11 I. C. C. 296. Classification must have reference to general shipments and not to a special shipper. Planters Compress Co. v. Cleveland, etc., R. Co., 11 I. C. C. 382, 606. Cost of service may not be ignored, but there are other matters of equal importance. Cannon v. M. &0. R. Co., 11 I. C. C. 537. Volume of traffic an argument for comparatively low rates. Farrar v. So. Ry. Co., 11 I. C. C. 632, 640. Single rates should be considered as part of the whole system. Hastings Malting Co. v. Chicago, M. & St. P. R. Co., 11 I. C. C. R. 675. Expense of delivery should not increase the rate more than such expense. Society of American Florists v. United States Exp. Co., 12 I. C. C. 120. Existence of a lower rate in remote past no probative value. Enterprise Mfg. Co. v. Georgia R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 130. Distance cannot be made the sole factor in rate inaking. Wilhoit v. M. K. & T. Ry. Co., 12 I. C. C. 138. Revenue per ton mile over other routes and lines not conclusive. Dallas Freight Bureau v. Gulf, etc. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 223. Mere fact that an advance was the result of a commination not sufficient to condemn it. China & Japan Trading Co. v. Georgia R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 236; Maycr of Bristol v. Virginia & S. W. R. Co., 15 I. C. C. 543. Rate fixed by a state Commission not binding on Interstate Commerce Commission. Hope Cotton Oil Co. v. Texas & Pac, R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 265. Grain a desirable traffic and entitled to low rate. Roswell Commercial Club v. A. T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 12 I. C. C. 339, 360, citing Mayor of Wichita v. A. T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 9 I. C. C. 534. Long existence of a rate not conclusive against the carrier. Warren Mfg. Co. v. So. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 381. See Green Bay Bus. Men's Asso. v. B. & 0. R. Co., 15 I. C. C. 59. Cotton waste should bear a lower rate than cotton goods. Riverside Mills v. So. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 388. Expedited services charged for must be supplied. American Fruit Union v. Cincinnati, N. O. & T. P. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 411. Prohibitive rates cannot be established. Poor v. Chicago, B. & Q. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 418. Mere comparisons with other rates under different conditions not sufficient to establish unreasonableness of rates. Dallas Freight Bureau v. M. K. & T. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. R. 427. Rates unreasonable. Farmers Warehouse Co. v. L. & N. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 457. May in some cases charge more where a line is composed of two roads than when it is composed of only one. Loup Creek Colliery Co. v. Va. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 471. Can make no general ruling that thrc.agh rates must not exceed the sum of the locals. Coffeyville Vitrified Brick & Tile Co. v. St. L. & S. F. R. Co., 12 I. C. C. 498. Not unlawful to refuse to carry at car load rates mixed cars of mineral water and beer. Milwaukee, etc., Brewing Co. v. Chicago, M. & St. P. R. Co., 13 I. C. C. 28. Ordinarily joint through rate should be lower than sum of the locals. Laning-Harris Coal & Grain Co. v. Mo. Pac. R. Co., 13 I. C. C. 154; Flaccus Glass Co. v. Cleveland, etc., R. Co., 14 I. C. C. 333. Burnham, etc., Dry Goods Co. v. Chicago R. T. Co., 14 I. C. C. 299; Gump v. G. & O. R. Co., 14 I. C. C. 98; Payne-Gardner Co. v. L. & N. R. Co., 13 I. C. C. 638; Randolph Lumber Co. v. Seaboard A. L. Ry. Co., 14 I. C. C. 338; Sylvester v. Penn. R. Co., 14 I. C. C. 573. A railroad constructed for a special purpose is entitled to have that fact considered in making rates. Am. Asphalt Asso. v. l'intah Ry. Co., 13 I. C. C. 196. Capitalization and

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