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society, standards of morals, and — differ- On the other hand, the new leaders of ence of race. And where that difference China have even more difficulties to overenters in, any problem becomes not only come than the framers of our Constitution more immediately troublesome but fraught had. They have a much greater territory with untold possibilities in the future. and a much larger population to govern,
and the means of communication in China THE GREAT EXPERIMENT IN are still woefully inadequate. Wagon CHINA
roads practically do not exist; the rivers
are greatly used, but of course serve only O EVEN hundred earnest men of the commerce that originates along their
mature years, nearly all of them courses. Railroads have made great pro
dressed in European fashion, met gress in China during the last ten years, recently in Peking and with simple and but they are not extensive enough to solemn ceremony opened the first Chinese carry more than an infinitesimal proportion Parliament, thus making the oldest nation of the nation's internal commerce. The in the world into the youngest republic. telegraph and postal services are not in They were elected by 40 million voters to popular use, nor is the telephone. Morebegin a new era in the government of 400 over, the language of the common people million people. With this Parliament of one province is not spoken in another: begins popular government upon a larger even from one valley to the next there scale than has ever been tried in the are changes. Nor is China racially homohistory of the world. Our population is geneous. The five colors of the new flag about one fourth that of China. No other are symbols of five races which the Chinese republic approaches China in population count among themselves. To make China even so closely as this. As an indication a governable republic there is need of a of the spirit with which the great task is common language and efficient communibeing undertaken, the Government ap- cation-a public school system, wagon pealed to all the Christian churches in roads, railroads, telegraphs, telephones, and China to set aside a certain day of prayer newspapers. Until these things come for the success of the new régime.
through the slow processes of educating a The twenty-two provinces of China are people, the machinery of government will nearly as autonomous as our states were be clogged by ignorance and prejudice. before the adoption of the Constitution. In the meanwhile, the immediate probThese provinces collect tariff dues upon lems would be critical even for a people goods passing from one to another. long practised in the use of the machinery They are not used to acting in coöperation; of democratic government. The Manchu and even in their relations to the former government, derived its revenue from what Imperial Government at Peking they often practically amounted to tribute money showed a feeling of independence. Under from the provinces. For the conduct of the Manchus, China was a loose confeder- the multitudinous affairs of a modern acy with a weak central government that government, this tribute money is pitifully had neither the power nor the money to inadequate. It was hardly enough to become effective. To clothe the central support the Manchus' medieval court. government with power and credit is the The salt monopoly is practically the only immediate task before the framers of the other source of revenue for the central new constitution. The foundation upon government. The customs duties, colwhich they can build is (as it was with us a lected under English supervision, are used century and a quarter ago) the knowledge to pay indemnities of one kind and another and practice of local self-government. It which the European countries have imis now and has been for centuries a funda- posed upon China, to repay loans. Thus mental part of Chinese life. This, and the the country's greatest source of revenue, inherent ability of the Chinese in agri- the tariff, is used chiefly for the benefit of culture and commerce, is a solid ground foreign nations. The immediate problems work for an effective national government. before the Republic are to get control of its finances; to get an adequate source of more to realize what his interests are and revenue, so that it will not be subject to his power to enforce them. In Germany, the demands of the money-lending coun however, the natural military spirit in tries; and to build up an army and navy the people, the memory of their successful that will prevent further encroachments by wars with Austria, Denmark, and France, foreign Powers, for no government will long and the Government's continual propabe popular in China that is forced to make ganda for more battleships and more ignoble concessions to other nations. And soldiers, have combined to prevent any the new leaders are already beset. Russia, effective popular protest against the on the northwest, has practically taken Kaiser's ever-increasing expenditures for Mongolia; and England, on the southwest, warlike purposes. has given notice that it has acquired an B ut, unhappily for the Government, interest in Thibet. And money for China's almost simultaneously with its proposal urgent needs is offered by foreign countries for an extraordinary war measure, comes only upon humiliating terms, the accep- the disclosure that at least a part of the tance of which creates a popular feeling demand for greater armaments is manuagainst the new government.
factured clandestinely by the ordnance The new Republic is in a most difficult and armor plate manufacturers for their situation. It is entitled to our sympathy own profit. The great Krupp Steel Works and support, to the formal recognition that are charged with bribing Government the United States Government has prom- officials in Germany, and another great ised it, and, so far as we can insure it, armament concern with sending an agent a fair chance to work out its own salvation. to Paris to induce a French journal to pub
lish a report that France was about to THE PRICE OF WAR
double its orders for field guns, so that the
German Government would feel that it, HIS year, the one hundredth anni- too, had to do the same. The armor plate versary of the political uprising manufacturers are accused of subsidizing
and the new birth of Prussia and German newspapers to conduct crazy of the twenty-fifth year of the reign of the campaigns of hatred against England and present Emperor of Germany, finds him France, all the while selling weapons to sponsoring the addition of 4,000 officers these nations — playing one nation off and about 130,000 non-commissioned against another for their own profit. officers and men to the present tremendous In the words of President Jordan, of German army. The increase by itself Leland Stanford University, written six is 30 per cent. larger than our whole army. months ago: With it the German army is seven and a
There can be no doubt that the most powerhalf times as large as ours. To put its
ful lobby in the world is that employed by the fighting force on this new basis the Govern
great armament builders of England and Germent proposed to raise $240,000,000 by a
many. It is equally plain that these huge single extraordinary war contribution of
rival war trusts consciously and purposely play per cent. upon private fortunes above into each other's hands. The war scare as $2,500 and of 2 per cent. upon incomes of promulgated through the “Armor-Plate Press" $12,500 and above, and, after that, for of these countries is the chief agency for affectthe annual expense of maintenance, an ing public opinion and controlling the action extra $45,000,000 a year.
of Reichstag and Parliament. The greater A military policy of this kind. promul- and more imminent the danger, the louder the
journalistic noise, the greater the appropriagated when Germany is at peace with the
tions are likely to be. But when one rememworld, shows how far removed the Ger
bers that the financial resources of all the man Government is from the great
nations concerned are already strained to the democratic forces which have made over limit of exhaustion by war expenditures in So many governments in the last fifty time of peace, and this in spite of the interreyears. War is against the interests of the lations and mutual dependence of the civilized common man and he is coming more and world which render war impossible, one can
see no reality in these clamors. They would like its present extent if we had had an be simply ridiculous were it not for their adequate trained army when we went to malicious efficiency in wasting the substance war in 1846, 1861, or 1898. Somewhere of the people.
between these two extremes lies the path From 1881 to 1910, six nations (Ger- of common sense and statesmanship. many, England, France, Austria, Italy, and Russia) have spent $31,930,000,000.
FIFTY YEARS OF FREEDOM Germany, with no wars during this period, spent $6.000.000.000, or about as much as IT IS fifty years since the Emancipaone fourth the capitalization of all the in tion Proclamation was issued. It is dustrial and manufacturing corporations in 1a fair time to strike a balance sheet the United States in 1910. And now, just of the Negroes' condition and progress. after a $500,000,000 war in the Balkans, There is no better judge of the condition when money for the constructive work of of the American Negro than Mr. Booker the world is scarce, the German Government T. Washington. He has traveled and proposes its $240,000,000 increase in its taught and talked and worked among his war establishment. This can hardly be people from one end of the South to the classed as twentieth century economic other, and in the North as well. For statesmanship, for certainly no nation comparison, not long ago he made a trip whose foreign affairs are well managed to study the conditions of the lower strata should be on such terms with its neighbors of society in Europe. As a result of these that it has to levy such extraordinary war investigations he says, in his book, “The taxes.
Man Farthest Down": If Germany expects war — in that case such preparations are justified. The last If I were asked what I believed would be two wars, the struggles between the Allies the greatest boon that could be conferred upon
the English laborer, I should say that it would and Turkey and between Japan and Russia, as well as the Franco-Prussian war,
be for him to have the same opportunities for
constant and steady work that the Negroes point the same military moral. Modern
now have in the South. war is intense and short; and the victory goes to the side that is prepared. And
Germany is taking no chances of unpreparedness. It is so well prepared that its
The Negro in the South has opportunities in very preparation has become a menace to
another direction that no other man in his
position has, outside of America: he has the the peace of Europe. The country and its
opportunity to get land. army have become, not insurance of peace, but a continual threat of war. This Another record of Negro progress comes state of preparation of the German people in a recent bulletin of the Hampton costs $400,000,000 a year. The United Institute, prepared by Mr. Monroe N. States is at the opposite extreme. So far Work. The following are a few striking as the army is concerned we are unpre- statistics of the Negroes' material advance: pared for war and always have been. We In 1867, there were only 111,442 pupils believe in that policy. When war comes and 2,087 teachers in schools for Negroes. upon us we send our unprepared citizen Of these teachers, only 699 were colored. soldiery into the field to get their training Last year, 1,700,000 Negro pupils were at the hands of the enemy. This is an taught by 31,000 Negro teachers. In 186. expensive method also. The citizens of only 4,661 Negroes were studying in higher the United States pay now approximately institutions of learning; last year more $460,000,000 a year (more than the Ger than 100,000 students were enrolled in mans will pay even after the proposed normal schools and colleges for colored increase) for a scattered, unprepared army folk. In 1863, there were only four inof 100,000 men, an efficient though under- stitutions in the United States for such manned navy, and a pension roll of citizen advanced study. Now there are in the soldiers which would not exist in anything South alone 50 colleges, 13 institutions for
the education of Negro women, 26 theo- spreads throughout his community. Not logical schools, 3 schools of law, 5 of long ago startling statements were made medicine, 4 of pharmacy, 17 state agri- concerning degenerate communities in the cultural and mechanical colleges, and more Adirondacks; and now comes a report of than 400 normal and industrial schools. a people called the “Pineys" who exist
To-day, more than 20,000 Negroes are amid squalor and degeneracy in the pine in business for themselves as storekeepers belt of New Jersey. The State Departor in other mercantile pursuits; Negroes ment of Charities of New Jersey made a own 100 insurance companies and 300 thorough investigation of these folk and drug stores; more than fifty thousand among other records summarized the hisNegroes are in the professions. More than tory of 199 members of one family as 300,000 Negroes are working in the skilled follows: trades. Sixty-four Negro banks do about Individual Recorded Male Female Total $20,000,000 worth of business every year.
. . . Negro farmers control about 42 million
10 3 13
Partly normal .... acres of land. Of these farmers, 219,647 Unknown ...: ... 2 5 7 own their farms, about 20 million
Normal and criminal . . . .
. The total value of farm acres in all.
Degenerate and almshouse. . . 3 property owned by Negroes is more Degenerate and criminal . . . than 490 million dollars. In fifty years
Degenerate and almshouse and
criminal . . . . . . of freedom the Russian serfs have accu
Degenerate, and illegitimate . . mulated, on an average, property worth Degenerate, illegitimate, and alms
house. $36 per capita. The Negroes, in the same
Degenerate, illegitimate, almshouse, time, have acquired $70 worth of property and criminal . . . per capita.
Illegitimate, partly normal ... 1
Illegitimate, died in infancy. .. 1 This year is the fiftieth anniversary of
Died in infancy . . . . . . . Negro freedom. The progress of the race in that half century is, in the aggregate, a
104 95 199 remarkable achievement. And with the It is hard to estimate accurately the confident hope of its wisest leaders and fearful cost that such a family is to the with the encouragement of an increasing State. Certainly it is many times more body of forward looking white men, the than the cost of prevention. And it is one outlook for the future is full of promise of of the most hopeful facts of our era that an accelerated advance in economic and devoted men and generous men in increaseducational development.
ing numbers are giving their time and their
means to organize rural life so that such BACKWATERS OF HUMANITY ignorance and degeneracy may not be
possible in any part of the country.
A GREAT OPPORTUNITY I dead mentality. There are country slums as bad as the worst city slums, LSEWHERE in this number are and they are accepted in good communities two articles which give a picture merely because people are used to them. L of the deplorable state of a large For half a century "pore whites” were part of our rural schools, in which unlooked upon as a necessary evil in the trained teachers in unequipped buildings South. Now the cotton mills are bringing try to teach more subjects to more chilthousands of them out of isolation into dren than is physically possible. This is the main current of life again; the Hook- not meant as a criticism of the teachers. worm Commission is curing them of disease In spite of their handicaps many of them and putting new life and hope in them; and achieve marvels, yet the conditions under people are beginning to realize that the which many of them work necessarily plight of the forgotten man is not his fault doom them to comparative failure; and alone, and that his depressing influence when the schools fail in their mission they
leave a condition fertile with the possi- TO SAVE BIRDS AND MONEY bilities of “Pineys” and “pore whites," of poor living and low thinking. The poor "T HE last Congress included in the schools, even the worst of them, do not
Agricultural Appropriation Bill create these conditions. They merely do T what might appear to be a fannot prevent them. And the rural schools tastic and sentimental piece of legislation. are probably better than they ever have This was the McLean Bill, which delebeen. But our growing sense of social gated to the Department of Agriculture betterment demands more now than it the power to protect migratory birds did a generation ago, and in an optimistic from death at the hands of ruthless hunters. mood we look at the present state of rural But it is safe to assume that Congress education to see what tremendous things was not moved so much by sentiment as a right system of rural public schools can by statistics, and here are some of the do for the Nation. Such schools are figures in the case, based upon the fact coming. There is an ever-increasing num- that men destroy the birds that destroy ber of examples to show what a tre- the insects that destroy the crops: mendous influence for progress the right An official census showed that the kind of a country school can be.
actual damage done to crops by insects
in a single year (1904) amounted to DESCENDANTS OF THE DEVIL
$420,100,000, of which nearly one half
was damage done to cereals alone. D ROFESSOR Paul Haupt, of Johns An unofficial estimate puts the total
Hopkins University, is quoted in a annual damage now at $800,000,000, or
newspaper dispatch as having said an average of $1.67 an acre on the improved that Beelzebub was described by the land of the United States, a sum which ancients as “the father of flies” (not of makes the farmer's taxes look small. lies, as is commonly said), for the men of The official figures also put the annual Biblical times had a proper fear of these cost of the codling moth and curculio at germ-carrying insects. Their fears were about $8,250,000 for spraying operations based upon uncertainty. Our fears are alone, and $12,000,000 as representing the founded on the fact that flies breed and shrinkage in the value of the apple crop. live in filth and carry filth with them wher- The damage done in some years by the ever they go, and that they are the great chinch-bug wheat pest and the cottonpurveyors of the germs of typhoid. boll weevil is reckoned at $40,000,000.
There is only one way to get rid of the Tree insects cost $100,000,000 a year. uncomfortable feeling that the food you Now there are birds that feed upon eat has been tracked over by the flies bred these insects, and that eat enormous in the garbage or the stable, or the fear quantities of them; the entomologists of typhoid, and that one way is to get rid have proved this. In fact, if the insecof the flies.
tivorous birds were allowed to live unTo use screens and to "swat” the flies molested, the oversupply of destructive are the defences after the enemy is on pests would be wiped out and the balance the premises. The one sure way to have of nature restored. But plumage colcomfort is to prevent them by leaving lectors and pot hunters shoot the insecno garbage or filth of any kind exposed tivorous birds, and with the decrease in for them to breed in. This is the first the numbers of the birds the insect enmove in the campaign against the filthy emies of agriculture increase. fly. The second is to get your neighbor Most of these birds are migratory and to do likewise, and the third is for cannot be protected in any one state. you and your neighbor to persuade the For that reason the Federal Government butcher, the grocer, the baker, and all the may properly assume guardianship over other dealers in foods to beware of flies. them to prevent their extermination. Two or three customers can make a better Another radical step to protect birds argument than one.
was taken when the Ways and Means
alone, age in the yone in somed the com
emies on bers of ind with hoot the