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the education of Negro women, 26 theo- spreads throughout his community. Not logical schools, 3 schools of law, '5 of long ago startling statements were made medicine, 4 of pharmacy, 17 state agri- concerning degenerate communities in the cultural and mechanical colleges, and more Adirondacks; and now comes a report of than 400 normal and industrial schools. a people called the “Pineys” who exist

Today, more than 20,000 Negroes are amid squalor and degeneracy in the pine in business for themselves as storekeepers belt of New Jersey. The State Departor in other mercantile pursuits; Negroes ment of Charities of New Jersey made a own 100 insurance companies and 300 thorough investigation of these folk and drug stores; more than fifty thousand among other records summarized the hisNegroes are in the professions. More than tory of 199 members of one family as 300,000 Negroes are working in the skilled follows: trades. Sixty-four Negro banks do about

Individual Recorded Male Female Total $20,000,000 worth of business every year.

Normal Negro farmers control about 42 million


Partly normal acres of land. Of these farmers, 219,647 Unknown

5 own their farms, about 20 million Normal and criminal


64 acres in all. · The total value of farm

Degenerate and almshouse

3 property owned by Negroes is more Degenerate and criminal

15 5 than 490 million dollars. In fifty years

Degenerate and almshouse and

criminal. of freedom the Russian serfs have accu

Degenerate, and illegitimate

9 15 mulated, on an average, property worth Degenerate, illegitimate, and alms

house $36 per capita. The Negroes, in the same

Degenerate, illegitimate, almshouse, time, have acquired $70 worth of property and criminal per capita.

Illegitimate, partly normal

Illegitimate, died in infancy. This year is the fiftieth anniversary of

Died in infancy. . Negro freedom. The progress of the race in that half century is, in the aggregate, a

104 95 199 remarkable achievement. And with the It is hard to estimate accurately the confident hope of its wisest leaders and fearful cost that such a family is to the with the encouragement of an increasing State. Certainly it is many times more body of forward looking white men, the

than the cost of prevention. And it is one outlook for the future is full of promise of of the most hopeful facts of our era that an accelerated advance in economic and devoted men and generous men in increaseducational development.

ing numbers are giving their time and their

means to organize rural life so that such BACKWATERS OF HUMANITY ignorance and degeneracy may not be

possible in any part of the country.
LONG the banks of even the clear-
est streams of life are backwaters of

A GREAT OPPORTUNITY dead mentality. There are country slums as bad as the worst city slums, LSEWHERE in this number are and they are accepted in good communities two articles which give a picture merely because people are used to them. of the deplorable state of a large For half a century "pore whites” were part of our rural schools, in which unlooked upon as a necessary evil in the trained teachers in unequipped buildings South. Now the cotton mills are bringing try to teach more subjects to more chilthousands of them out of isolation into dren than is physically possible. This is the main current of life again; the Hook- not meant as a criticism of the teachers. worm Commission is curing them of disease in spite of their handicaps many of them and putting new life and hope in them; and achieve marvels, yet the conditions under people are beginning to realize that the which many of them work necessarily plight of the forgotten man is not his fault doom them to comparative failure; and alone, and that his depressing influence when the schools fail in their mission they





leave a condition fertile with the possi- TO SAVE BIRDS AND MONEY bilities of "Pineys” and “pore whites," of poor living and low thinking. The poor HE last Congress included in the schools, even the worst of them, do not

Agricultural Appropriation Bill create these conditions. They merely do

what might appear to be a fannot prevent them. And the rural schools tastic and sentimental piece of legislation. are probably better than they ever have This was the McLean Bill, which delebeen. But our growing sense of social gated to the Department of Agriculture betterment demands more now than it the power to protect migratory birds did a generation ago, and in an optimistic from death at the hands of ruthless hunters. mood we look at the present state of rural But it is safe to assume that Congress education to see what tremendous things was not moved so much by sentiment as a right system of rural public schools can by statistics, and here are some of the do for the Nation. Such schools are figures in the case, based upon the fact coming. There is an ever-increasing num- that men destroy the birds that destroy ber of examples to show what a the insects that destroy the crops: mendous influence for progress the right An official census showed that the kind of a country school can be.

actual damage done to crops by insects

in a single year (1904) amounted to DESCENDANTS OF THE DEVIL

$420,100,000, of which nearly one half

was damage done to cereals alone. ROFESSOR Paul Haupt, of Johns An unofficial estimate puts the total

Hopkins University, is quoted in a annual damage now at $800,000,000, or

newspaper dispatch as having said an average of $1.67 an acre on the improved that Beelzebub was described by the land of the United States, a sum which ancients as “the father of flies” (not of makes the farmer's taxes look small. lies, as is commonly said), for the men of The official figures also put the annual Biblical times had a proper fear of these cost of the codling moth and curculio at germ-carrying insects. Their fears were about $8,250,000 for spraying operations based upon uncertainty. Our fears are alone, and $12,000,000 as representing the founded on the fact that flies breed and shrinkage in the value of the apple crop. live in filth and carry filth with them wher- The damage done in some years by the ever they go, and that they are the great chinch-bug wheat pest and the cottonpurveyors of the germs of typhoid. boll weevil is reckoned at $40,000,000.

There is only one way to get rid of the Tree insects cost $100,000,000 a year. uncomfortable feeling that the food you Now there are birds that feed upon eat has been tracked over by the flies bred these insects, and that eat enormous in the garbage or the stable, or the fear quantities of them; the entomologists of typhoid, and that one way is to get rid have proved this. In fact, if the insecof the flies.

tivorous birds were allowed to live unTo use screens and to “swat” the flies molested, the oversupply of destructive are the defences after the enemy is on pests would be wiped out and the balance the premises. The one sure way to have of nature restored. But plumage colcomfort is to prevent them by leaving lectors and pot hunters shoot the insecno garbage or filth of any kind exposed tivorous birds, and with the decrease in for them to breed in. This is the first the numbers of the birds the insect enmove in the campaign against the filthy emies of agriculture increase. fly. The second is to get your neighbor Most of these birds are migratory and to do likewise, and the third is for cannot be protected in any one state. you and your neighbor to persuade the For that reason the Federal Government butcher, the grocer, the baker, and all the may properly assume guardianship over other dealers in foods to beware of flies. them to prevent their extermination. Two or three customers can make a better Another radical step to protect birds argument than one.

was taken when the Ways and Means cases can be cured which we formerly thought better mental environment, with almost


151 Committee of the House voted to include as favorable climate for their needs — in the new tariff bill a clause to prohibit than they are likely to find in a strange the importation of all plumes, skins, or community feathers of wild birds, other than ostriches, The commission recommends also a for sale or for use in millinery. If this comprehensive and logical plan for takclause remains in the bill to its passage, ing care of California's own tubercular it will stop at once a large share of the patients. The first step in this plan is a destruction of the beautiful and rare birds chain of dispensaries so placed that there that are rapidly being exterminated. shall be one in every city of 10,000 or more

people, and traveling dispensaries to LOCAL CARE OF TUBERCULOSIS

provide one or two days' service a month

at convenient branch stations. These NCE in a while a letter comes to dispensaries are to furnish an early diagthis office telling of the pitiful nosis and expert advice to all sufferers

plight of many hundred victims from tuberculosis and to obtain early of tuberculosis in Colorado, California, information of the existence of all cases and Arizona, people who have left their so that the spread of infection may be homes in other parts of the country and

limited. journeyed west upon slender resources

The second step of the plan proposes in search of health. Many of them .hope

Many of them hope- two sanatoria for hopeful cases, five farm fully expect to get some light work to

colonies for convalescents, and hospital support themselves during convalescence. beds for 1,500 probably incurable cases. The light and profitable work does not

Bills before the present session of the state materialize and they become a serious legislature, with a fair chance of passage, problem to the community.

provide for carrying these recommendaTwo years ago the State Board of Health tions into effect. The estimated first of California appointed a Tuberculosis cost is $1,160,000, and the estimated yearly Commission to make a careful study of cost of maintenance is about $1,000,000, the tuberculosis conditions in that state. which is a reasonable sum to expend to

The commission points out that the save an annual loss of at least $8,000,000 people seeking cures have made the in lost wages and cost of care, and an situation there extreme. The following incalculable amount of suffering. suggestion of the secretary of the State A similar method of meeting the tuberBoard of Health should be scattered culosis problem is suggested by Dr. E. H. broadcast through the country:

Galloway, the executive officer of the 1. Tuberculosis patients who think of Mississippi State Board of Health. His migrating should first learn all that is plan is that every county shall take care of known about the climate, opportunities its own consumptives; or perhaps, where for making a livelihood, living conditions, counties are particularly free from the laws, attitude of the people toward disease, that two or three counties shall patients in their condition, and special combine. Open air camps under comaccommodations for their care in the place petent physicians would produce the to which they intend to go. Hundreds maximum of health to the patients with of patients — probably thousands — die the minimum cost of money and suffering. of homesickness in strange communities The patients would not be far removed who would have lived in their own homes from their families and friends, and this under proper care. Many patients lose should add to their chance of recovery. their vitality under the strain of the effort Dr. Galloway concludes his recommento find work that is suited to their training dation with these words, which are as and condition. And many patients, if applicable to most of the rest of the counthey only knew it, could find better con- try as they are to Mississippi: ditions for recovery in their own com- We now know that a large number of these munities - better food, better care, and

were doomed. How much better this method

would be than to send them West, as we now thereafter to criticize what seemed his do, a great many of them without money and mistakes and hesitant temperament; and no means to support themselves, practically it opposed his reëlection last year. This outcasts, unable to work, and a care to the com- perfect freedom is the breath of life of this munity where they go, dying among strangers.


These obvious remarks it seems pardonA WORLD'S WORK ANNOUNCE- able now to repeat because Mr. Walter H. MENT

Page, who has been the chief editor of the

World's Work, has accepted a post in HE WORLD's Work, as its readers the diplomatic service. He has with

know, is under obligation to but drawn from the management of the maga

one class of persons, namely, its zine and its councils during the period of readers; and to them it is under a definite his Government service, leaving it wholly contract to publish the truth, as nearly as it free from any imaginary obligation to Mr. can ascertain the truth, and to remain Wilson's administration or to Mr. Page free — free to pass unbiased judgments on himself. The magazine will suffer no public policies and public men. For in- change, for the work of editing it has for stance, it thought it wise to approve most a long time and in an increasing degree of Mr. Roosevelt's policies during his Presi- been team-work. The editorial staff are dency; but it did not hesitate to oppose Mr. now old in its service. They work with Roosevelt last fall, when he was a candidate unity of aim and with the single purpose for a third term. It preferred Mr. Taft's of fairly and freely interpreting our manyelection in 1908; but it did not hesitate sided life to its generous readers.




WOMAN, living out in a thriv- money at the bank, she determined, ing Nebraska town, came into reluctantly, as a last resort, to sell her possession, through the death stocks. She found, moreover, that the of her husband about a year local banker could not help in that trans

ago, of an estate which consis- action. So she sent to this magazine a ted of a small mercantile business, a credit list of her securities, and asked to be balance of a few hundred dollars at the advised how to proceed to market them, local bank, and some stock certificates of and how much cash she could reasonably the total face value of several thousand expect them to bring. dollars, representing "investments” that The list was made up entirely of a kind had been made by her husband from time of stocks about which there was a good to time in a half dozen or more companies. deal of inquiry a few years ago, but which

She assumed at once the responsibilities is rarely mentioned nowadays in this of the management of the business, hopeful magazine's investment correspondence. that, with the help of her two grown chil- The records showed that two of the comdren, she could continue to make it yield, panies represented had gone out of busias it had in the past, a comfortable living ness in 1906, apparently without sufficient for them all. But, to her dismay, she assets to have made any accounting worth made the discovery shortly afterward while. Two were found to have lost title that the business was burdened with debt, to their properties through failure to pay and that the creditors were not of the in- taxes, and were classed as “dead". And dulgent sort.

three were found to have been promotions Failing to obtain an extension of time of men who had been gathered into the in which to meet the creditors' claims, and net of the post-office authorities, and confinding that she could not borrow enough victed on charges of using the mails to

defraud. The stocks were all useless as are being noticed widely in the current a means of saving the woman's business. news, similar instances can be recalled

This story is typical of the kind most from the older records. Appraisers of the frequently heard about unwise investment. $66,000,000 estate of Russell Sage, who It has become a more or less common died in 1906, reported as worthless a habit to think of the surplus of the un- miscellaneous lot of stocks and bonds, wary country merchant, the mite of the amounting to about $1,000,000 par value. widow, the legacy of the orphan, the Among the securities in the $75,000,000 hard-earned savings of the parson, or the estate of Jay Gould, who died in 1892, spare dollars of the self-sacrificing school there were worthless issues of the face teacher, as the only funds that get ear- value of $2,000,000. marked for the promotion of precarious But, however striking these examples of enterprise. One reason for this notion is unwise investments made by men so able that the records of such cases are the most to command investment wisdom, there easily found. For instance, one may pick is little in them that should cause the up one's newspaper almost any day and investor of more limited resources to find an account of the financial misfortunes despair. From the lists of worthless of credulous investors of small means, who securities held by almost any wealthy have been called to bear witness against investor like a Harriman or an Astor, it is the promoters of "get-rich-quick" schemes. necessary to make a good many elimina

Though it is undoubtedly true that the tions to get at an estimate of the amount losses of investors of this class, lured into which measures actual error of judgment. mistakes by extravagant advertisements Many stocks and bonds of strange names in conscienceless newspapers or by cun- and characteristics find their way into ningly written circular letters, run into the possession of such investors, bringing many millions yearly, they are probably little, if any, expectation of return. The exceeded in amount by the losses that are percentage of their capital which such men made in securities of doubtful merit by put deliberately into ventures of the even the shrewdest and most successful essentially risky type is in most cases business men. Not infrequently, a case small indeed. The records show that, of the latter kind comes to light, where the after all, the "rich man's gamble," pure "victim” is found to have been some man and simple, is not as big by comparison of great prominence in the financial world. as it is frequently made to appear. By He may even have been one of those way of contrast, consider the difference commonly credited with some mysterious between the principles of distribution faculty for achieving success in the invest- observed by the man who, out of resources ment markets — perhaps, one of those of $70,000,000, stakes a million or so on whose successes are sometimes ascribed to enterprises of honest conception, which "inside information” and other like ad- turn out merely to have been misguided, vantages that are not possessed by the and the principles oberved by the invesaverage investor.

tor who, like the Nebraska lady, stakes For example, it was shown by the nearly everything on enterprises that are expert appraisal of the $70,000,000 estate as likely as not to be wilfully fraudulent. of the late Edward H. Harriman that that Just ordinary business prudence will great railroad genius and financier had usually tell any investor how to discrimiamong his holdings of securities worthless nate for himself between these two kinds stocks and bonds of the par value of more of enterprise, and how much, if any, rein than $4,000,000. Several millions of such he can properly give to his inclination to securities were reported by the experts who take a chance for large returns. Business completed in April last their appraisal of prudence will allow the small capitalist, the real and personal property of the in mighty few instances, to go far afield possessor of the great Astor fortune, who from the safest of standard investment lost his life in the Titanic disaster in the securities, and invariably it will prescribe for spring of 1912. And while these instances him the most competent banking counsel.

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