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new gang. His word was law. He ap- company and saw such unmistakable pointed his staff and organized his gang glances of eager expectancy that he was in a more or less informal military manner. seized with a humiliating consciousness He and his staff of young toughs offered of the farcical character of the whole affair. their services to the police sergeant of These boys and girls came to be enterthe precinct to help suppress lawlessness. tained. It was their daily circus. SudThe sergeant saw the point and at once denly the idea flashed into his mind of accepted the offer.

turning the two remaining culprits over Before their new leader came among to their companions for trial. them with his strange ideas, these youths “Boys and girls,” said he, with great had looked upon the police and others in earnestness, I have been acting in all authority as natural enemies to be resisted these cases as Judge, Jury, and Grand and fought at every step. Their loyalty Executioner. I don't know what you was intense and primal. They were loyal have thought about the matter; I don't to their gang and their leader. Theirs know that I have really cared, but this was like the tribal loyalty of men in morning I do care. This is going to be primitive society. Their previous leaders your affair. I am going to let Lanky and had always led them against the traditional Curly tell their story to you and then I am enemy — the police and others in authority. going to let you decide whether they shall They had followed loyally. This new be punished or go free. It's up to you." kind of leader saw fit to enter into an At once there was a change in the bearalliance with the traditional enemy and ing of every boy and girl present. They declare war upon the law breakers. As straightened up and nodded their approval before, they followed loyally. Their loy- to Mr. George and to one another. There alty was personal — their morality, re- was a new light in their eyes. This light flected and vicarious. Had Mr. George pleased Mr. George. He felt that justice suddenly faced about and led them into would be done. all kinds of wickedness they would have Lanky and Curly, who were seated on a followed him in the same way — just as bench, backs to the company, did not even loyally. As great a force for good as turn around to see how this announcement personal loyalty may be, it is neither a was received. Lanky leaned toward Curly high nor a dependable virtue. It is and said in a stage whisper, “Say, Curly, therefore wise to watch the gang and its dis is a lead-pipe cinch!” leadership.

Mr. George turned to Lanky and said, The famous Junior Republic at Freeville, “Now, son, you may get up and tell your N. Y., was the outgrowth of a summer fellow citizens all about it.” fresh air camp. For the better enforce- Lanky, who was something of a humorment of the rules of the camp, Mr. George ist, rolled his eyes toward the heavens, asestablished a Court of Justice. Here he sumed a sanctimonious expression, swung acted as Judge, Jury, and Grand Execu- slowly round in a pivotal manner, and tioner. The sentences were promptly drawled out, “I hain't stole no apples. executed by the Judge, armed with a stout Oh, no, I hain't stole no apples.” birch rod, in his capacity as Grand Execu- When this effort was received with stony tioner. This daily performance was silence, instead of with the expected shout largely attended and much enjoyed by all of laughter, Lanky for the first time lowexcept the culprits and Mr. George. ered his eyes and looked into the faces of Another discouraging aspect of the pro- his companions. Every young face was ceedings from Mr. George's point of view set and serious. He saw that peculiar was that the number of culprits did not light in their eyes which had so pleased diminish. Every morning brought forth Mr. George. It did not please Lanky. its fresh quota. Crime did not decrease. He realized with confused amazement that

One morning, just before he was to use he was facing stern judges instead of conthe birch rod on the two star offenders doning pals. The angry defiance which of the day, Mr. George looked over the is so easily aroused in street boys flamed

forth, and he shouted, "Aw, every one withdrew somewhat from the others and o'youse has stole apples!”

appeared particularly absorbed in discusAfter this outburst, stage fright with all sion. Finally one of these boys, evidently its paralyzing horrors seized upon Lanky. Speaking for the others, said, “Mr. George, Like an animal at bay he stood abject and there hain't no doubt 'bout it that Curly is cowering for some minutes and finally guilty, but say, Mr. George, won't youse whined out, “Say, fellers, I didn't stole please go light on him?”. dem apples. Curly here is de bloke wot Here was a “recommendation for mercy” stole dem."

and Mr. George proceeded "to go light At this several of the boys shouted, enough on Curly," to suit the most sympa“Shame, shame!” and the wretched Lankythetic observer. realized that he had made a fatal blunder. After disposing of Curly, Mr. George With the courage of desperation he blurted said, “Before dismissal I want to tell you out, Aw, kill me, then, if youse want that hereafter all discussions of this kind ter,” and threw himself upon the bench. are going to be settled in this tent by you

Mr. George said to the company, “Is boys and girls.” he guilty or not guilty?”

The next morning there were only half There was a pause and one boy called the usual number of offenders. Mr. out in explanation of this technical phrase, George then announced that there would “He wants to know wedder he done it or be no more whippings, but that those wedder he didn't done it.”

convicted would be required to pick up With a howl came the unanimous verdict stones in the meadow for a number of of the jury, “He done it!” And then Mr. hours commensurate with their offense. George “done it” upon the person of This new method of punishment still Lanky.

further reduced the volume of business of After Lanky had left the tent, muttering the court. that he would "lay for a chance to get this incident marked the end of Mr. even with every guy in the bunch,” Mr. George's merely personal work in saving George said to Curly, "Now it's your individual boys and girls and the beginning chance, my boy."

of his great work for humanity. He had Curly had not watched Lanky's misfor- substituted loyalty to an idea for loyalty tunes in vain. He well knew he couldn't to himself. These boys and girls had "put anything across” on that jury and so dealt justly with their fellow offenders, he did not try. He said, “Yes, I took de not because of loyalty to Mr. George, but apples, but Lanky didn't play me quite because of loyalty to a great abstract square when he said I took dem all. I idea — Justice. This loyalty to Justice don't know which of us took de most. I has since become the mainspring not only guess we didn't count, but I took me share of the Junior Republics, but of many other an' I'm willin' ter take me share of de institutions and organizations for boys trashing, but I jus' wan ter tell you fellers and girls – and men and women, for dat I'll hole me right hand up an' promise that matter. dat I hopes ter die if I ever takes any more, When Mr. George founded the Junior 'cause I know it hain't right to steal an' Republic at Freeville, as a concession to me mudder she would feel orful bad if the unwise advice of wise friends he took she know'd l'd been crookin', an' dat's the office of president himself. After he all wot I got ter say." And with that he had found that this was a mistake — that dropped upon the bench, buried his head it weakened the sense of responsibility of in his arms, and burst into tears.

the boy and girl officers and citizens — he Mr. George said, “Is he guilty?” determined to resign and urge the election No response.

of one of the boys in his place. This he “Is he not guilty?” asked Mr. George. did and recommended as his successor

Again no response, except that the whole the boy whom he thought most reliable. company was plunged into an animated On the strength of Mr. George's recomconversation. A group of the older boys mendation, this boy was very properly elected. At the end of his year's term he government, wouldn't they say as how if sought reëlection and got Mr. George that was the way we acted when we had again to endorse and back him. No self-government, why then we wasn't fit to sooner had Mr. George announced his have it? Now, your Honor, I think you intention of supporting the president for ought to think about this before you give reëlection, than there appeared in the your sentence in this prisoner's case.” field an insurgent candidate. This boy His Honor evidently did “think about took for the slogan of his campaign, “Let this.” He pronounced the prisoner guilty us have no boss — not even Daddy and penalized him by prohibiting him not George!” Mr. George's protégé was over- only from taking part in the athletic whelmingly defeated and the young insur- games, for which he had been in training gent elected in his place. Probably no for some weeks, but even from attending one was more delighted at this unexpected them. Had there been no self-government result than Mr. George himself. His organization in this school, the well-known young citizens had had to choose between loyalty among boys would have prevented loyalty to him personally and loyalty to these very boys, the District Attorney and the principles of self-government. While the Judge, from even reporting the wrong they doubtless did not consciously think doing of their companion, to say nothing it out, they had instinctively chosen to be of meting out justice to him. Wherever loyal to an idea rather than to even their there is this loyalty of one to another, unwell-loved leader.

happily akin though it be to the "honor As I have said, this kind of loyalty is among thieves,” there can be built up a not by any means confined to Junior higher loyalty which shall entirely overRepublics, but may be found wherever ride, when the two come into conflict, boys or girls have been allowed a real this merely individual loyalty. share in the management of their own The organization which to-day is haraffairs. Boys have a way of living up to nessing this loyalty of boys on the largest what is expected of them which is as scale, and turning it to the service of all, distressing to those who expect evil as it is the Boy Scouts. The Boy Scouts of is gratifying to those who expect good. Moorhead, Minn., decided that the condiThere are a hundred or more public tion of the streets was not a credit to their schools in which the principles of self- town. Their petty loyalties to their government have been introduced in a “bunches" and their "gangs" had been conscious and tangible form. This case merged into a large loyalty for their comoccurred in the school court of a great pub- inunity. Instead of sending a letter of lic school on the lower East Side in New complaint to a newspaper, as some of York. The prisoner at the bar was their elders had done, they marched in charged with having jumped upon the a body to the central square, armed with rear platform of a passing car and rung burlap bags and sharp-pointed sticks, up some fares. When the young District whence, on the blowing of a whistle, they Attorney came to sum up to the Judge, scattered through every street of the he said in conclusion, “Just a word more, town. With a fine frenzy of cleanliness, your Honor (His Honor was fourteen years quite unknown to the adult professional old) before I sit down. Everybody who street cleaner, they seized, bagged, and knows anything about our school knows destroyed all pieces of loose paper and we have self-government here. Now, other offensive articles throughout the supposing the president of this car com- length and breadth of the town. Had pany should write to our principal a these boys scattered a like amount of letter that his cars was troubled by boys refuse, their act would have been attridoing things to them more goin' past our buted to boy nature, and that meaningless school than any other place. Wouldn't formula, “Boys will be boys,” would have that be a disgrace to our school and to been quoted. Obviously it was just as all our officers an' to every citizen? An' much an expression of boy nature to clean what would people say about our self- up this town as it would have been to do the opposite. If boy nature has usually had started the discussion and said, expressed itself in a less fortunate manner, “You're one of the judges of the Newsit must be attributed to other causes than boys' Court, I understand.” its inherent qualities.

“Yes,” replied the boy with an earnest, The delegates to the National Conference straightforward look. of Charities, held in the city of Boston “How do you like your job?” last year, were given a steamboat excursion A serious expression came into his face about Boston Harbor. Two bright-look- as he replied, “In a way I like it, but a ing lads were selling copies of the Survey feller has got to keep his eye peeled on to the delegates. As one of these boys himself, and his 'think-tank' pretty clear." passed near where Mr. George was stand- “I hear your court sat very late last ing, a delegate turned to his companion night.” and said, “That is one of the judges we “Yes,” he said, "we had a good many saw sitting at the Newsboys' Court last cases last night.” night dealing out fines and warnings to the “How many sessions do you hold a young offenders who had violated their week?” licenses."

“One usually, and sometimes two." One of the party thereupon explained “How much are you paid for service on that the newsboys of Boston, of school age, the bench?” were organized into an association of which “Fifty cents from the city every night the members in good standing were licensed we serve.' by the city to sell newspapers. There “Who decides the number of nights you were regulations and obligations, some of shall sit?” which were covered by city ordinances. “We do — the judges." Some people interested in self-government “If you wanted to, could you hold a had secured the adoption of measures session every evening?' creating a judicial body of five, three of "I think prob’ly we could,” he answered. whom were newsboys elected by their “Then why don't you hold more sessions fellows, and two adults, to try the cases instead of continuing them so late?" of violation of rules. The court was asked Mr. George. established. The moral tone of the organi- “Because,” he said, "we don't want to zation immediately changed for the better, have it look as if we was graftin' off the and even those who had been most in- city.” credulous at first had acknowledged that this newsboy's energies were directed the plan was a success.

in a helpful direction. But it is very Another delegate then said, “I went ex- improbable that such a thing as loyalty pecting to be amused, but instead of that to his city had ever entered this boy's I never felt more awe or reverence in the head before the formation of the NewsUnited States Supreme Court than I felt boys' Court. in the presence of those boy judges, and The writer visited this court last August. evidently everyone else in the room. There were only two boys on the bench. whether boy or man, had the same feeling. Both the adult judges were away on their I don't know when they closed court last vacations and the third boy was working night. They tried the little chaps first and at a summer hotel. The cases were sent them home, and they were trying presented to the court by the Supervisor some of the older lads, and still had quite of Newsboys, an adult, and the parents a bunch of them on hand when we left." of the offenders were called as witnesses.

Mr. George listened to these comments Also, the young judges impressed upon in silence, but with a glad heart. He had them their responsibility for the good conseized the opportunity to fan the flame duct of their boys. A frequent offence which resulted in this court when it had was boarding moving cars to sell papers. been discussed by a group of enthusiasts at In these cases the judges described some dinner in the City Club of Boston. He fatal accidents that had befallen boys in went over to the lad whose recognition doing this, to bring home both to the boys and their parents the great danger in- publics, in School Republics, in the Newsvolved. A frequent penalty for a minor boys' Court, among the Boy Scouts, and offense was an order to memorize the in many other similar organizations, this rules and regulations of the Association. inverted esprit de corps is being turned This Court is an adjunct of the School right side up. Nor is it only by these Committee of Boston and its decisions rather elaborate organizations that the are legally binding. The night I visited loyalty of boys can be awakened. There it, two newsboys were handing down de- are hundreds of people throughout the cisions that are legally recognized by the country to-day who are helping boys' city of Boston.

gangs” but who have scarcely heard of Most boys are suffering from an in- Junior Republics, School Republics, Newsverted esprit de corps. They are loyal boys'Courts, or even the Boy Scouts. But to their "bunch," their "gang,” their it all comes in the last analysis to putting intimate friends, or perhaps even their a boy in a gang, turning "the gang" family, but all too often their loyalty is toward helpful purposes, and making use to destructive agencies. In Junior Re-, of the boys' loyalty to keep them straight.

THE JAPANESE IN CALIFORNIA

WHY CALIFORNIANS REGARD THEIR PRESENCE AS “ THE BEGINNING OF THE

BIGGEST PROBLEM THAT EVER FACED THE AMERICAN PEOPLE'

BY
CHESTER H. ROWELL

HE California legislature was which we were protesting. In the legis-
assembled in the Senate cham- lative balance, that baby outweighed the
ber for joint hearing on the great Exposition.
Japanese bills, whose recur- And, dealing with the problem wide and

rent agitation brings Cali- long, no far-sighted man can dismiss the fornia biennially into the spotlight of the farmer's challenge as a mere figment of world. Directors of the Panama-Pacific fancy. Let only that happen in CaliExposition (the writer among them) were fornia which has already happened in pleading for conservative action, or in- Hawaii; let only an awakening Orient action. A gaunt farmer rose to reply: pour through the Golden Gate a stream "Up at Elk Grove, where I live,” he said, comparable to that which Europe has "on the next farm a Japanese man lives, poured through Hell Gate — and that and a white woman. That woman is baby will have increased to the exact carrying around a baby in her arms. What problem the Elk Grove farmer pictured. is that baby? It isn't white. It isn't Injustice has been the only American way Japanese. I'll tell you what it is - of meeting a race problem. We dealt

" It is the beginning of the biggest problem unjustly by the Indian, and he died. We that ever faced the American people!deal unjustly with the Negro, and he sub

Psychologically, this epitomized the mits. If Japanese ever come in sufficient whole question - the beginning of a race numbers to constitute a race problem, we problem, multiplied in imagination by the shall deal unjustly with them — and they possibilities of all the future; the challenge, will neither die nor submit. This is the which sort of baby shall prefigure the bigness of the problem, seen in the telefuture Californian. Without waiting for scope of the imagination, and is the whole the hearing to end, the Assembly com- reason for the emotional intensity of Calimittee withdrew and unanimously re- fornia's agitation over a situation whose ported out one of the very bills against present practical dimensions are relatively

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