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fall, it does not seep in but rushes away OUR TRADE TO THE SOUTH as foul erosive floods on the surface, wasting soil and plant food, gullying the surface, URTHER facts concerning the flooding the valleys, silting the pools, vast possibilities for trade that washing away reservoirs and dams, barring open in South America to the the streams, and carrying its multifarious manufacturers and exporters of the United influences of destruction through the long States appear in an analysis of “Latin course to the ocean.
American Foreign Trade in 1911" in a The most obvious method of control, recent bulletin of the Pan-American Union. the building of levees, we already practise The total imports of the ten South Amerion a tremendous scale, but not on a scale can republics during 1911 were valued at commensurate with our needs, nor upon $893,000,000. Nearly $130,000,000 worth a comprehensive enough plan; the build- of these imports came from the United ing of storage reservoirs to catch flood States. But Great Britain supplied more waters is still chiefly in the plan stage; than $261,000,000 worth of them, and forestry and proper tillage are still, in Germany more than $165,000,000. France spite of the progress of the last few years, sent only about $78,000,000. generally unobserved.
But when the net value of the goods The proper control of this one great sold to South America is figured, the drainage system, beginning in the forests United States probably makes the poorest and on the farms, including storage reser- showing of all.
showing of all. The reason is that the voirs, power plants, dredging, levees, and goods sent by this country are mostly raw revetments, and extending through nearly materials or goods upon which the work half the states of the Union — this is of fabrication was so slight that their value probably the most pressing physical prob- was little increased by the skilled labor of lem confronting the Nation. The political American artisans.
American artisans. The goods from the difficulty is to keep the vast engineering other countries, however - and especially problem out of politics, as the construction the imports from France — were generally of the Panama Canal has been kept out, much more highly finished products, upon only it is a much harder task. Panama is
Panama is which the French people made not only not in any Congressional district.
the profit from the sale of raw materials There is no local interest to bring pres- but a larger profit from the application of sure in favor of one particular scheme or brains, mechanical skill, and organized another. In the great interior basin are manufacturing industry. In other words, thousands of local interests which, if per- France and Germany and Great Britain mitted to do so, would wreck any com- made several profits upon every dollar's prehensive scheme to treat the problem worth of goods against only one profit as a whole. The question comes also of upon the American goods. who should pay the bills, the National Nevertheless, American manufacturers Government, the states, or the smaller are making headway in South America units of government; or, if they share the especially manufacturers of farm impleexpense, in what ratio should they share it. ments, of windmills, of electrical supplies,
The problem of the Mississippi is the and of railroad equipment. These prodproblem of the other drainage systems of ucts have been pushed successfully because the country, but they are, of course, on a they are manufactured by corporations of much smaller scale. If it can be suc- such gigantic size that they can overcome cessfully solved they can be handled also. the great disadvantages of imperfect bank
To formulate a plan comprehensive ing facilities and of the general lack of enough to solve this great problem in its American salesmen who are trained in the engineering, political, and financial aspects languages and trade customs of the South. is a task worthy of any administration of The United States should find in South economic statesmen. It is an imperative America for many years to come a sufduty before the Nation, the next great ficient outlet for the products of the new task of conservation.
era of export trade.
THE PASSING OF “DOLLAR DIP- American people, cannot guarantee their LOMACY”
collection, whatever other governments
may guarantee to do. RESIDENT WILSON will have no Apply this same policy to Central Am“dollar diplomacy" in China nor, erica. If we guarantee American loans to
inferentially, elsewhere. “Dollar those governments, we thereby guarantee diplomacy" meant the promise by the also European loans to them. For we Government to use force, if need be, to will not permit any European government collect the loan that American citizens to seize American territory; and, if we would make to the Chinese Government, as use force to collect debts due to our citithe principal European governments were zens, we must either permit other governto use force, if need be, to collect loans ments the same privilege or else collect made by their citizens. On these conditions their debts ourselves. money was to be lent to China. The This incident admirably illustrates the whole plan, so far as we are concerned, difference between the conception of originated with the preceding Adminis- government as an ally of business and the tration, which asked American bankers to conception of it as an agency of order and enter the syndicate. It did not originate justice, "of the people, by the people, and with the bankers.
for the people.” The conception of it as As an American policy, the plan would an ally of business that is, of one class never bear analysis. For it meant first of men — has had expression and exempliour prescribing the kind of taxes the fication in many ways for a long time — Chinese Government should levy, and in so many ways and for so long a time that secondly, it meant the putting of our navy it has become warp and woof of the and army at the service of American thought of a large part of the American bankers, if they should need it, for the people. It is a fundamentally erroneous collection of their debts — in a word, to view of a republican government, apply help them do their business safely. To it how you will, whether by protective state the case in this way is to make its tariffs or by river-and-harbor bills or by impropriety obvious.
any form of special legislation. Yet as the policy of dollar diplomacy President Wilson is to be congratulated arose it was not so simple as this statement on having had presented to him so soon makes it appear. China needs money. an opportunity to apply his conception of It must borrow it from the great bankers our Government's proper functions. of Europe. The great bankers of Europe know the land-hunger of their govern
A GOOD RIDDANCE ments. The partition of China was an old dream that came near coming true a HE little postmasters, as other dozen years ago. May it not come true
little public servants, cause much vet? No great European Power is willing
more trouble than they are worth. for the other European Powers to gain a Mr. Taft put the whole army of the fourthpossible advantage in China to its exclu- class in the classified service - a suspicious sion. If one should guarantee a loan action, as the spoilsmen regarded it, made by its citizens, the others would because this fixed Republicans in office. follow. Well, then, if the Powers of Eur- But the Democratic Administration has ope are to have this hold on China, does met this situation very wisely. Let so not our hope of influence and of trade many of them, it says, as can stand a fair require that we should be in the "deal?" civil service test remain; but let all be put
This is plausible and insidious reasoning. to the test. That's fair. Several thouWe do not want Chinese territory. As for sands of them have resigned because their trade, it does not follow a loan, at least offices were not worth the trouble of till after foreclosure. American bankers standing an examination. These have run may make loans where they will. But at the first mention of merit, and their the American Government, that is, the places are made vacant without scandal.
The President, the Postmaster-General, ucts that were imported into Georgia from and members of Congress have more im- other states: portant duties than appointments to
GROWN IN GEORGIA AND SOLD these small jobs; and it is a long step toward
1,800,000 bales cotton at $60. $108,000,000 common sense to keep them under the civil service rules. Incidentally, they can
900,000 tons cotton seed at $30. 27,000,000 not again pack political conventions of
$135,000,000 either party.
GROWN ELSEWHERE AND SOLD IN GEORGIA
$ 58,930,000 There's something so fascinating about Hay purchased in 1912
23,680,000 Oats purchased in 1912
39,336,000 an office that men lose their common
2,550,000 sense in seeking it and their official friends
Meat, dairy and poultry prolose honesty in aiding them. This story ducts
48,000,000 is told at Washington and is typical: Two Senators and an important Representative
$172,496,000 in Congress called on a Cabinet officer and These items of food for man and beast made most earnest pleas for the appoint- cost $37,496,000 more than the cotton ment of a man to an office that no one of brought. The point is that practically first-rate ability could afford to accept. every bushel of this corn and oats and The Secretary listened patiently to their every pound of hay and all this meat and several orations in praise of the applicant. poultry and dairy products could have Then, when silence came, he remarked: been produced in Georgia at a profit, in
"Of course, you gentlemen know that addition to the cotton. In fact, the cotton this office is in the classified service and no would have been the better for it. appointment can be made except under Why wasn't it done? This buying of the civil service rules."
corn and the rest, on its face, seems so One of the honorable callers asked the idiotic, that there must be an explanation. company out to have drinks; and, as they The explanation is this: were leaving the room, one with a sly smile The market for cotton is thoroughly put his head again in the door and said: organized. A farmer can take a bale of
"Well, Mr. Secretary, you'll bear witness cotton to any town or village and get cash that I've done my duty by him."
for it on any working day of the year. We pay Senators and Representatives The market for corn and hay and butter rather meagrely; but the most niggardly and meat is organized (so to speak) against salary is a shameful waste of money to the Georgia consumer. These products men who waste time and character in have been imported by jobbing houses this way. For at the bottom of this whole for many years, and they have the distribadvance on the Secretary, there was an uting machinery. A Georgian knows essential lie. They knew that the fellow where he can buy hay and corn and meat, was unworthy of the office, and they knew but he doesn't know where he could sell he couldn't get it, and they didn't wish them if he should raise them. That is him to have it. But they lacked the cour- why he has grown only cotton. age of common decency to tell him the Of course, thorough-going business men plain truth about the case.
would have no difficulty in dealing with such a situation. But the scattered and
usually unorganized farmers are not thorAN IDIOTIC ECONOMIC SITUATION ough-going business men. Here are need
and chance for cooperative marketing. R H. G. HASTINGS, of Atlanta, Suppose, for instance, in a given neighbor
Ga., has published the following hood, every farmer belonged to a coöpera
somewhat startling statement of tive society which employed a secretary, the production of the money-crop in whose business it should be to keep a Georgia last year and of the farm prod- record of what every member had to sell
and needed to buy. He would find a tional highways are not primarily designed home or near-by market for all the hay for the farmer or the city delivery people and corn and oats and meat that every or for any such commercial uses. man could produce. Then, of course, More real business would be done on rotation in crops would follow.
roads built in radiating spokes leading to The silliness of this situation — well, every nook and corner of the surrounding in a world wherein everything has been county from the cities than will be done on done by organization for a generation or thousand-mile highways from one part of two, those regions and industries which the country to another. The proposers have not organized are precisely where of the multifarious Federal aid schemes they were in the old times of primitive (there were seventy bills on this subject commercial life. But the way out of this before the last Congress) come to the idiotic economic situation is, let us hope, Federal Treasury because they feel that imminent throughout the country.
a Government that wastes money on river
and harbor improvements and public NOTICE OF A NEW PORK BARREL buildings can be induced to waste money
on public roads, particularly if the roads HE National Highways Association, are planned to traverse Congressional dis
believing in the building and per- tricts represented by men whose support
manent maintenance of 50,000 for a measure can be forced by the price miles of highways by the Federal Govern- of a piece of “pork”. But such districts ment, lately sent to the press a circular are, happily, fewer than they used to be, letter and five elaborate pamphlets, maps, and if the public once gets an insight into bulletins, etc., in support of its propaganda. the true inwardness of the colossal scheme
One of the pamphlets is devoted to of Federal appropriations which this naproof of the economic advantage of good tional aid to roads involves, there will be no roads, a proposition now generally ad- political glory to be had by championing it. mitted, and jumps from that to the We should and must have the good conclusion that because they are economi- roads, but we ought not to have them cally beneficial it is in the province of the until each community wants them earnestly National Treasury to pay for them. enought to pay for them. We should not
This illogical deduction is reached have them given to us willy-nilly from notwithstanding the very examples of the bountiful hand of a wasteful Governgood roads which were used to prove ment at the behest of an automobile and their economic advantages are state and road-machinery propaganda. The real county built roads.
good roads movement springing from the The obvious logical deduction is, if these needs and desires of the people throughout state and county roads are so beneficial, to the country will be retarded and blocked build more state and county roads. Be- if this new pork-barrel scheme spreads its fore good roads can be had all over the corrupting influence through the land. country in this manner, the people all over the country will have to come to THE CITIES AND THE FARM believe in roads earnestly enough to pay
MOVEMENT for them. When good roads do come in this manner they will serve their most HE INTERSTATE Agricultural useful purpose.
and Industrial Congress, which met But this solid, substantial way of doing
at St. Joseph, Mo., for three days things from the bottom up is too slow for in the second week of March, well illustrates the national aid propagandists, with their the new spirit in agriculture that is engagget-rich-quick kind of road building schemes ing the best thought of the Nation, both of to get good, long distance touring roads city dwellers and country folk. Several for automobiles through states and counties thousand farmers from Nebraska, Iowa, which are not themselves ready to build Kansas, and Missouri joined the citizens and maintain them. The proposed na- of St. Joseph, at the invitation of the
Commerce Club, to hear addresses by SCHOOLS THAT DISCOVERED A distinguished speakers from all parts of
CITY the United States and to discuss the improvement of farm management, of farm EVERAL years ago Mr. J. W. living, and of the relations between town Sewell, supervisor of the grammar and country.
schools of Nashville, Tenn., led his Both the invitation and the congress schools to discover the city in which they were typical of the new movement. St. were and the city in turn to discover its Joseph is one of the oldest settlements of schools. The children are taught their the Middle West, and it has lived for the daily tasks in the terms of the life around last forty years in the memory, and in them. accordance with the traditions, of its first. In the English course, for example, at prosperity as a trading and outfitting post least one careful exercise must be written for the gold seekers of '49. The other day during every term on some such subject its citizens awoke to realize that St. Joseph as: "Points of Historic Interest Around was at the centre where the border lines Nashville;" "What Nashville Manufacof four of the richest agricultural states tures;” “The Value of the Cumberland converge and that it was losing its oppor- River to Nashville;" "How Our City is tunity to become agreat agricultural market Governed;" "Our City Schools.” By the by clinging to its vanishing commercial time the pupil has passed through the ten glory. Upon that realization the Com
terms of the grammar school grades, his merce Club engaged a farm adviser under ten exercises have driven into him the a three-year contract to help develop the fact that he lives somewhere, that his resources of its farming neighborhood. city has a reason for being, and some Then the club, under the inspiration of relation to the rest of the world; and in Col. R. M. Bacheller, announced the doing this the child's mental training has agricultural congress.
not been neglected. Such men as President W. C. Brown, of In geography and history, the boys and the New York Central Railroad, President girls are required to touch over and over H. J. Waters, of the State Agricultural again upon Nashville's trade and indusCollege of Kansas, Dr. L. L. Lumsden, of tries, as well as the lives of Tennessee's the United States Public Health Service, eminent men. For example, in the sixth and other distinguished men, came to grade the students learn about the lumber, speak on the best methods to extend farm textile, and other industries of Nashville, credit, on coöperative marketing, on sani- something about river and railroad transtation on the farm, on diversification of portation, the territory covered by the crops, on soil renewal, and on other sub- domestic and foreign trade, etc. jects that are vital to the regeneration of Besides classroom work, the pupils, country living.
under the care of their teachers, have been One of the first results of the congress sent out in groups to study the work of was that one thousand farmers pledged a factories, foundries, warehouses, coffee dollar apiece for prizes for the best corn roasting plants, mills, etc., as well as at a corn show which they arranged to hold municipal institutions. After returning next year. The farmers who were present to school they spent one or two periods on also proposed another meeting of the another day in comparing notes, discussing congress, which they will help to manage, the industry, and clearing up more or less and which will be held probably next indistinct impressions. Later every child December or January.
wrote his own account of the visit, and one Here, again, as at Duluth and at other or two of the best papers were sent to the cities, the town and the country have factories that entertained them. united to further that agricultural advance Furthermore, in the study of current which is one of the most inspiring and topics, which is required in the sixth, most hopeful movements in the upward seventh, and eighth grades, all questions march of American life.
relating to the progress and welfare of the