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DR. JOHN CASPER BRANNER THE NEW PRESIDENT OF LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY, WHO WAS RECENTLY CHOSEN TO SUCCEED DR. JORDAN AFTER TWENTY-ONE YEARS' SERVICE IN THE UNIVERSITY AS PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY, DURING FOURTEEN YEARS OF WHICH HE HAS BEEN VICE-PRESIDENT Copyright by Moffett Studio, Chicago DR. DAVID STARR JORDAN PRESIDENT OF LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY FROM ITS FOUNDATION IN 1891 TO MAY 19, 1913, WHO CREATED IN THOSE TWENTY-TWO YEARS AN INSTITUTION OF LEARNING OF WORLDWIDE REPUTATION, AND WHO HAS RETIRED, AS CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY, TO DEVOTE HIS LIFE TO LITERARY PRODUCTION AND TO THE CAUSE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE

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THE GROWTH OF AMERICAN CITIES UPPER PICTURE; WICHITA, KANS., AS IT WAS IN 1908. LOWER PICTURE, THE SAME VIEW TO-DAY. THE POPULATION OF WICHITA INCREASED FROM 24,671 in 1900 TO 52,450 IN 1910, A GROWTH OF 113 PER CENT. IN TEN YEARS

T:

LOBBYISTS

haps it can be demonstrated just as well

that the men who are elected to govern the HE Senate Committee that is investigating the activities of country, with all their faults, can do it

better without the aid of any self-appointed lobbyists is not likely to find

advisers whose point of view is more much evidence of the cruder forms of influence on legislation. According to

personal than national.

Before the President issued his stateSenator Bristow, of Kansas, there has been less conspicuous activity of lobbyists than

ment Senator Kenyon had introduced at times of former tariff legislation. Cer

a bill requiring all persons who wished to tainly previous Congresses, when engaged support or oppose any pending legislation in framing tariff legislation, have been

to register their names and a statement of

their interest before they should be alafflicted with lobbies as insidious if not

lowed to begin any activities. It also more industrious than the lobby that the President denounced. At least, this tariff provided that no former members of Conbill was written without the aid of legis- gress could accept such employment. lative agents of particular manufacturing manufacturers and their attorneys upon

Such a measure would put most of the interests either in or out of Congress. This lobby is not so extraordinary a spectacle render more difficult the life of the pro

a frank and open footing, and it should as is the President in his denunciation of it. Lobbies are so common that their

fessional political hanger-on who sells his essential iniquity has to some extent been knowledge of Washington and a supposed lost sight of. As he said:

“influence" to any cause that is gullible

enough to hire him. It is of serious interest to the country that

Whether or not any legislation against the people at large should have no lobby and lobbyists, such as already exists in several be voiceless in these matters, while great bodies states, come from the President's stateof astute men seek to create an artificial opinion ment and from the Senatorial inquiry, at and to overcome the interests of the public least the public attention has been focussed for their private profit. It is thoroughly worth the while of the people of this country

on this ancient and evil practice. And to take knowledge of this matter. Only

under these conditions illegitimate inpublic opinion can check and destroy it. fluence or pressure is less potent than in

times of public indifference. Manufacturers have the right to lay the facts of their business before Congress

TO RESTRICT IMMIGRATION when it is contemplating legislation that affects them; but these facts should be IR GEORGE H. REID, High Comthe real facts, and once they are in the

missioner for Australia, at a dinner hands of Congress it is the duty of Congress

in New York recently remarked to make the decision, and any one who that he thanked God that his country endeavors to bring fear or favor to bear was too far away for the oppressed to to influence that decision is transgressing get there. It was his good-natured the laws of public morality.

rejoinder to the common boast that It is proper, of course, for constituents America is the home of the oppressed, to send their views to their Congressmen but underneath it evidently was satisupon pending legislation. But when the faction that in working out the problems officials of a company order or coerce its of present-day industrialism and governworkmen to send letters of protest to their ment Australia would at least be able to go Congressmen, those officials show a funda- at the problems as a homogeneous whole. mental ignorance of popular government or It is certainly open to question whether a disregard for its ideals.

the stimulated immigration of the Slav, It was once thought that campaigns Polack, Sicilian, and Neapolitan peoples could not be carried on without large that come to our shores is not infinitely corporate contributions. It has been complicating our problems. demonstrated that it is possible. Per- It is true that they do much of the

S

manual work of the country. They dig would limit the immigrants from Austriasewers and build railroads; they are in Hungary to about 167,000 a year instead the mines and in the steel works. Greeks of about 220,000, the average of the last and other southern Europeans are in the

ten years.

It would reduce the Italian northern cotton and woolen mills. In newcomers by about 75,000 a year. The Lawrence and Paterson, the Industrial number of Greek arrivals would be cut Workers of the World made their chief in half. appeal to these alien workers. In New The bill would allow 173,500 Russians York the Russian Jews, like the Italians, to enter the United States every year. live in "quarters.

The average annual immigration — mostly All these peoples have their good Jews — from Russia, however, during the qualities. If the right tests are chosen last ten years has been about 172,500. it can be proved that any one of these The usual arguments against such reraces produces better citizens than the strictive measures as Senator Dillingham's native stock or than immigrants of any are not very convincing. The fact that other race; and if other tests are used, these peoples are oppressed or dissatisfied other results may be obtained.

in the lands of their birth is not proof But two facts stand out plainly: These that their migration will be a successpeople have not been particularly suc- ful experiment for the country to which cessful in building up anything approxi- they immigrate. mating American government, or American That they are in demand in certain large habits, at home. Whether their ways or industries, chiefly because they are relaours are better is not the point. The tively cheap laborers, is not proof of their ways are different. The second fact is economic benefit to the country as a whole. that, though we have proved that Scotch, The importation of Negroes from Africa English, Irish, German, and Scandi- had the support of this same argument. navian immigrants assimilate readily The fact that the population of the and share the ideals and aspirations of United States is all the result of past the country, we are not certain what immigration is not conclusive evidence the results of the influx of southern that all further immigration is desirable. Europeans will be.

Because one kind of people succeeds in an Under these circumstances it might be undeveloped land is no reason why another wise to curtail, at least, the human stream kind of people should necessarily succeed that is now flowing to this country. in a partially developed country, especially

Senator Dillingham has introduced a when this partial development is the work bill in Congress to accomplish this pur- of men of different aims, ideals, and instipose. It is prompted by the same fore- tutions from those of the immigrants bodings which prompted his former bill that Senator Dillingham wishes to limit (proposed by Congressman Burnett in the somewhat. House) which passed both Houses of the His bill will not be acted upon at the previous Congress and was vetoed by special session of Congress, but it, or some President Taft because it contained an similar provision of Democratic authorilliteracy test to which he objected. The ship, is likely to come up in the regular new bill does not contain this test. Its session next winter. main provision is that immigration from Underlying it is the philosophy that it any country for any one year shall be is perhaps wiser to build up the country a limited to io per cent. of the natives of little more slowly if by so doing we can that country already domiciled in the minimize somewhat our chances of buildUnited States. At present the English, ing badly. It is better to let some of our Trish, German, and Scandinavian peoples natural resources wait a while for exploido not come to this country in sufficient tation than to bring in people to help numbers to be affected by such a law. the development of our material things But it would restrict the numbers of the who will themselves not develop successpeople from the south of Europe. It fully on the "American plan.”

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