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abous near cars will have
000,000 a mrease
SELLING OUR GOODS ABROAD it is expected that at least 30,000 AmeriURING the last year there has
can cars will have gone abroad. That is
nearly a tenth of all the cars built here. been an increase of about
With an improving consular service $15,000,000 a month in the value of the manufactured articles exported
and with the restrictions of a high tariff
largely removed, this new spirit of trade from the United States. That is the most significant detail of a record export year.
conquest in the wide markets of the world
should continue uninterruptedly until as In the ten months from July 1, 1912, to
a nation we have lost the provincial April 1, 1913, we sent more goods abroad
ignorance that has so hampered us in our than ever before in a whole year. We
dealings with foreign peoples. And the seem to have made a real beginning in a
opening of the Panama Canal, too, ought campaign of trade extension that ten
to have a stimulating effect on our trade. years ago was heralded but which did not
In spite of our handicaps, of our ignormaterialize in any large degree.
ance of foreign markets and our careBut the present growth of our export
lessness of their requirements, of our lack trade is a particularly happy phenomenon
of a merchant marine and of American at this time, for it seems to show that,
banks in foreign ports—in spite of all these even if our foreign rivals can soon compete
things, it seems that a new era in American with us in the newly opened markets here,
manufacturing has set in, a period of exwe are more and more able to push our
port to the markets of the world. goods successfully abroad. In manufactured foodstuffs we have
FOR CORDIALITY AS WELL AS exported somewhat less than last year. We have shipped more crude foodstuffs
PEACE and food animals than last year, but not
T HE delegates to the international nearly so much as in other years. Our
conference to formulate plans for exports of cattle, for example, have prac
the celebration of a century of tically ceased, and most of the American unbroken peace between all Englishbeef sold in England is from the Argentine.
speaking peoples proposed that arches Crude materials to be used in manu- be erected where the international highfacturing — such things as cotton, lum
ways from Quebec and Vancouver cross ber, etc. — made up less of our foreign the American border, that a tunnel should business than in 1912. The great gain be built between Detroit and Windsor, a came in our exports of goods manu- bridge from Belle Isle to the mainland, factured, wholly or in part, in the very and that various other arches and monukind of business in which the price of
ments be erected. labor and the cost of production” count These will all be fitting testimony of a most and in which the United States was
good record in the past and an inspiration supposed to be least able to compete. In for the future. these products we did more business than
There is something beyond this, however before. The comparative record
ever, that could be done, in this country between the corresponding ten months
at least, to insure not only peace — for this year and last is as follows:
happily we may take that for granted 1912 1913 GAIN
but a better understanding. Our school Partly manufactured goods $278,403,749 $340,478,584 $62,074,835 histories make much of the stories of the Finished goods 544,863,603 640,996,512 96,132,909
soy English officer who wanted Andrew JackOur automobile exports, as one item son to black his boots, of the supercilious of the completely manufactured products, stupidity of Braddock, of the arrogance are particularly interesting. During ten of British officers at Lexington and Conmonths $20,000,000 worth of automobiles cord. Most Americans do not go to were sent abroad, a gain of more than 50 England. Many of them do not know per cent. over the same period for 1912. any Englishmen. A good many carry a When all the figures for the year are in prejudice gained in childhood from these
stories all through life. There are many To bring this principle to bear upon the Americans who now harbor feelings against maintenance of peace between the nations "the red coats" less friendly than Wash- is a rather different matter. The only ington held toward the English even after public there is to judge between two he had been fighting them for seven years. nations which are in danger of war conIt is time for a saner interpretation of sists of the other nations, and there would history, and especially of the part that the be great difficulty in getting any pressure United States has played in relation to from them which would not be entirely other countries, to succeed this old- prejudiced by such combinations as the fashioned, prejudiced version, even if it Triple Alliance or the Triple Entente. lose to our school histories some pictur- The other phases of the plan, however, esque stories. A removal of these ancient ought to have a strong influence for peace. sources of prejudice would give the arches If a nation has to file a bill of particulars and monuments a more fertile field over against its neighbor before it goes to war which to shed their inspiration for con- and then to discuss the merits of its claims tinued peace, to which might well be added for a month or more while public clamor a greater cordiality and understanding has a chance to calm down, out of such than has existed in the past.
a situation it ought to be easier to find a
basis for peace than a real excuse for war. MR. BRYAN'S PEACE PLANS Every plan which makes the declaration
of hostilities more difficult is a step in HE Secretary of State and the new the right direction, but all these arbitration British Ambassador, Sir Cecil
treaties and peace proposals refer chiefly Arthur Spring-Rice, have signed to the relations between governments of a convention that renews for five years responsible nations with well established the arbitration treaty between the United institutions and great property values. States and Great Britain. With France,
There are unsettled spots scattered all Italy, and Spain the treaties have already around the world whose inhabitants could been renewed.
not be even reasonably sure that such Moreover, Mr. Bryan's proposals for peaceful pledges would be kept if they international investigations and confer- were made. In Mexico, in Thibet, in ences of a certain duration before any war the Near East, the seeds of war may at can be declared have met a friendly re- any time fall on fertile ground. sponse from England, France, Russia, In spite of the grip which the propaganda Italy, Sweden, Norway, Brazil, and Peru. of peace has upon the popular imagination The Secretary's plan has underlying it in this country and in Europe, universal the same idea that Canada has put into peace is still a long way off, and for many practice in labor troubles. When a dis
years the great nations will need soldiers pute arises between employers and em
and sailors as guarantors against the very ployed, both are required to make public emergency which they are trained to meet. all the facts in the case. This gives time But even if universal peace is not for angry feelings to subside, and for the immediately attainable, the United States contending parties to decide with sober
may add to its prestige and do a service judgment whether the issue is worth
to humanity by using its active influence fighting for, and if possible to arrange a toward that high ideal. basis of settlement. In the meanwhile, in the labor disputes the public will
WHO IS BOTTLING UP ALASKA? have decided what it thinks about the merits of the case. This is likely to lead HE natural resources of Alaska to some kind of compromise, because
are bottled up. The territory, neither laborers nor employers like to
far from living up to the wonderenter a contest with the disadvantage of future so alluringly depicted for it a public disapproval. This public influence few years ago, has not even attained a has been very potent in the labor situation. reasonable growth.
"What can you expect from the policy tion is only temporarily parasitic, and of conservation?” is an implied explana- what proportion is always and altogether tion of the trouble that is voiced by many a public nuisance and expense no one enemies of the conservation doctrines. knows accurately.
knows accurately. Even the estimates The inference is that conservation means of the numbers of the tramp army vary reservation, prohibition; that it is a kind from 180,000, for which Josiah Flynt of “keep off the grass” sign applied to all was responsible, to 430,000, which Major natural resources.
Pangborn, studying the question from the This is not true, nor can the blame for railroad point of view, estimates is the “bottling up” Alaska be fairly laid upon minimum number. conservation. The laws that govern the But, whether there are 200,000 tramps territory — which were mostly enacted or 400,000, it is certain that most of them before the policy of conservation existed are “beating” the railroads for trans- if enforced, effectually prevent the portation, and Society in general for a proper development of the territory. living. As tramps they are a drain on the The conservationists believe that until country. As criminals — which they easily these laws are repealed and better ones become — they are not only a charge but a substituted they should be observed, menace to Society. The tramp army is and it is largely owing to the conservation- one of the recruiting grounds of crime. ists that the laws have been observed. There are three ways to make tramp To this degree the policy of conservation life so unattractive that it will cease to may be held responsible for the "bottling be a problem: to cut off the tramp's up” of Alaska.
transportation, to cut off his food supply, There are two ways of remedying the and to catch him and make him work. situation. The first is to disregard the The railroads are doing their best to make present laws as the land laws in the West his journeys difficult, though their efforts were disregarded. This is not likely to not particularly successful. The happen, for the public is too well informed country housewife is gradually learning to allow it. The second way out of the that one “hand-out" merely leads to dilemma is for Congress to pass new legis another, but there is still a plentiful lation which will allow proper development. supply of free food forthcoming in response The new Secretary of the Interior (as to a plausible story of hard luck. will be described in an article by Mr. The states and cities, however, are beBurton J. Hendrick in next month's issue ginning to apply the work cure. As of this magazine) has concrete suggestions summarized by Mr. Arthur James Todd, of what should be done. His plans and of the University of Illinois: investigations will be helpful, but in the last analysis the responsibility rests upon “sleep-ups" (county jails). New York has
lowa proposes state workhouses instead of Congress. It alone can open the way for purchased a state farm colony for tramps. the proper utilization of the natural wealth Cleveland has a whole system of such farms. with which Alaska is endowed.
San Diego has its municipal forest for this
purpose. Switzerland's model colonies, WitzTRAMPS
wyl and Nusshof, are held up as our models.
Altogether the trend of public opinion and HE railroads of the United States action seems toward the workhouse in its estimate that there are nearly modern form of a work-farm-colony. This is half a million tramps that infest
the recommendation of most of the experts their trains. The word "tramp" is as
at the last international prison congress and out of place with its owner as he is with of the recent English departmental committee
on vagrancy. Society, for the tramp does not walk.
Check beating railroads, abstain from feeding He "rides the rods" or sneaks into box
at the back door, establish state or district cars or even travels on the roofs of pass- work colonies, and the tramp will disappear. enger cars. What proportion of this with him will vanish, also, a considerable part traveling public ever works, what propor- of our annual bill for charity and correction.
FOR FREEHOLD FARMERS
CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY
TITH the exception of Florida,
THILE the tariff bill was being every state in the far South
passed by the House, the great has half or more of its land
cotton mills of the Borden worked by tenants. In Mississippi, tenants estate in Rhode Island closed down to put hold 66.1 per cent. of the farm land. In in automatic looms. These looms have Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, and North been on the market for years and the Carolina the percentage varies from 26.5 Borden mills have always been able to buy to 42.3.
It may have been merely a coinciIn the sixteen states (including Dela- dence that these particular mills changed to ware, Maryland, and West Virginia) that a more efficient basis just at the time that are referred to as the South, are 49 per the new tariff was going into effect. But cent. of the farms in the United States, many other industries will be spurred to almost a third of the total area, and nearly a standard of efficiency which they have a third of the improved land. It is a not sought before because it was not neccountry of cheap land and small farms. essary. Many industries have read the There is much good land sold at ten handwriting on the wall and have made dollars an acre and, comparatively speak- preparations to meet the new conditions ing, very little land in the South brings $30 that will place them under competition or $40 an acre, which elsewhere in the with the best and the most economical country would be cheap. Along with the means of production of all the world. cheap land goes poor buildings, poor stock, Many other industries do not have to and
poor equipment. The average make any changes, for they are already Northern farm of a hundred acres has meeting all this competition. But there buildings worth about two and a half are still others which, because they times as much as the average hundred- have been under the shelter of the tariff, acre farm in the South. The discrepancy have not felt very keenly the necessities in the value of implements and machinery of efficiency; and some of these which will is about the same, and in the value of be most seriously affected adversely by live stock it is nearly as unfavorable to the the changes have been the slowest to South. All these things are the accom- readjust themselves. Their dependence paniments of a high rate of tenancy and a has sapped their courage. Some of these constantly shifting farm population. concerns will probably succumb, and will
But there are two hopeful facts in the be replaced by industrial plants that more situation. Where the Negro population nearly represent our new age, for we are no is greatest, tenancy is now the highest, longer on the defensive industrially. We but to offset this the Negroes are acquiring no longer need to hide behind a wall. We more and more land every year. Though have climbed over it and gone to meet the average value of a Southern farm is foreign competition in the four corners of not quite a third of the average value of the earth. The United States is now one Northern farm, its value is increasing of the three great exporters of manusomewhat faster.
factured goods. Almost half our exports In spite of all the progress that has been are the products of our factories. We have made in crop improvement and in spite come to the time when we must frankly of all the discussion of better farm con- face the fact that we can adjust ourselves ditions, as yet in this country there is no to foreign competition in our home markets large rural district well organized in all its as well as elsewhere, especially when the social and business aspects. This great
This great lower duties on raw materials overcome opportunity awaits the new Secretary for many of our manufacturers a handicap of Agriculture and, in a more restricted under which they formerly labored. And area, any of the state agricultural com- our domestic business needs the impetus of missioners who have the courage and more and wider markets. vision to tackle it.
Meeting new conditions and conquering
foreign markets is a task that requires For example, suppose one man is a patience, courage, and sagacity, but we director of a steel company, a banking have happily come to a time when we in house, and a railroad. The railroad sells truth look to our manufacturers to become its securities to the banking house and captains of industry ready to lead their buys rails from the steel company. This well organized forces into the battle for one man is directing business with himself the world's trade without the helping in his various capacities. He is acting hand of the tariff at home or its hindering as a trustee for three sets of investors that effects abroad.
deal with one another. It is hardly. con
ceivable that their interests should always THE BUSINESS OF BEING A be identical. When they are antagonistic,
which interest does he favor? Legally, DIRECTOR
a man cannot be trustee for two conRECENT decision in the New York
flicting interests. The same principle state courts reaffirmed the well would seem to say that when we look upon
known legal fact that directors the duties of directors with a close scrutiny responsible for the acts of their corporation they also should not direct conflicting inwhether the acts are done under their terests. But there has not been this close direction or their neglect. A director is, scrutiny by investors, and a nice regard in fact, a trustee of other people's interests. for these conflicting interests is not genTheirs is an active responsibility-at least erally observed. The control of many corlegally it is so. Practically, in spite of porations has been in the hands of the the discussion of recent years, the dummy "interlocking" directors, and their good directors are not extinct.
will is a very tangible asset. Yet as Mr. hundreds of directors of corporations who Baker, of the First National Bank, said, give their name and their influence to a "the concentration has gone far enough." concern, but not their direction. Usually, The law and morals of trusteeship point to no serious results happen, because the many cases of interlocking directorates manager, the president, or some other that are not strictly defensible. It is a directors do their work well. Even when good opportunity to clean house before things do go wrong, dummy directors are some flagrant scandal call down the public not often sued for their neglect. The wrath upon the present habits and find business of being a director is one of those well meaning directors exposed to public things for which the law sets very high indignation and beyond the pale of the ideals but which without ill intention have law which they have long disregarded. slipped into loose practices. These loose The rights and duties of corporations, practices might easily become a colossal and corporation directors and officers, are scandal if two or three flagrant examples such active questions in the public mind should fix the public mind upon them. If and in legislative chambers that it is only a critical eye were turned upon them a a wise provision of safety for directors great many men of only the best intentions actively to direct such corporations as they would be found in the embarrassing posi- can with propriety direct and to cease to tion of having accepted a position of trust be directors in corporations in which conand of having failed in its execution. The
flicting interests prevent them from giving time to prevent a scandal about directors their undivided efforts. who do not fulfil their trusts is now, when the public mind is not inflamed.
A REMARKABLE STUDY OF A And such a reform in the business of
RURAL COMMUNITY being a director would have a very important bearing upon what the Congres
NE of the most fruitful and intersional Committee under Mr. Stanley
esting and human approaches to dubbed "The Money Trust,” which is
the problem of a better organizanothing more or less than a series of tion of country life appears in a recent interlocking directorates.
publication of the University of Minne