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would be allowed to issue a certain amount In return for the privilege of having the of 4 per cent. bonds and deposit them in aid of the national credit facilities the the Federal treasury. The National Gov- states will have to agree to maintain cerernment would then issue its own 3 per cent. tain standards of construction and mainbonds, and pay the states for their bonds tenance - particularly maintenance-and from the proceeds of the sale of its own. if the Government inspection should prove

If, for example, the states deposited that the road money was not being effec$200,000,000 worth of 50-year 4 per cent. tively spent, it could be withheld. bonds in the Treasury of the United States, The apportionment of the amount that and the Government issued the same every state could borrow from the Gov

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2.51 2.50

$17,200,000 Nevada
11,300,000 New Hampshire
14,400,000 || New Jersey
35,900,000 || New Mexico
15,900,000 || New York
8,700,000 || North Carolina
1,400,000 North Dakota
9,500,000 || Ohio
24,500,000 || Oklahoma
11,600,000 || Oregon
39,400,000 | Pennsylvania
25,100,000 Rhode Island
25,000,000 || South Carolina
32,800,000 || South Dakota
19,800,000 || Tennessee
13,200,000 || Texas
9,200,000 Utah
9,900,000 || Vermont
27,300,000 || Virginia
28,800,000 Washington
25,900,000 || West Virginia
14,800,000 || Wisconsin
33,500,000 || Wyoming .

Total for all states


5,100,000 17,700,000 13,500,000 78,600,000 17,400,000 15,600,000 50,200,000 23,300,000 16,600,000 56,500,000

3,900,000 11,500,000 15,800,000 17,000,000 56,600,000 9,600,000 4,200,000 17,300,000 16,400,000 13,200,000 25,600,000 10,500,000

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amount of 3 per cent. bonds, it would ernment is based upon area, population, secure $8,000,000 interest a year and pay property valuation, and the present mile$6,000,000. On the $2,000,000 difference, age of roads. It would allow the different according to the Senator's plan, the United states to borrow as shown in the table States Government would allow the states above, with the provision that no state 3 per cent. annual compound interest. At would borrow more than 20 per cent. this rate, at the end of 46.89 years this of its allotment in any one year. sinking fund would amount to $200,000,000, The Senator claims for this apportionenough to pay off the National bonds and ment that, being fixed, it would prevent return the state bonds to the state treas- a Congressman from being held “unsatisuries cancelled.

factory or inefficient unless he succeeded against the use of the Federal offices as

in securing for his district an increased But one tendency appears very clearly: appropriation."

There is an ever growing public interest in if it be wise to have Federal aid at all this interpretation; and to supply this deit seems that some such plan as Senator mand there is a fairly well started profesBourne has worked out — designed to sion of men of judgment and ability who limit the National Government's financial can write the vital facts of progress for all obligations to the amount which every the public to read. This profession already state is willing to tax itself and to limit the includes such capable writers and students National Government's actual work to of affairs as Mr. Ray Stannard Baker, Miss inspection and advice — is infinitely better Ida M. Tarbell, Mr. Burton J. Hendrick, than the schemes of direct gifts of money Mr. Mark Sullivan, Mr. William Bayard for Federal road construction, with all Hale, and others of national reputation. their “pork barrel” possibilities.

It is a profession that should be fostered,

for through it the American people will A NEW PROFESSION

increasingly come into that broader know

ledge and interpretation of their own R. ROOSEVELT once, at a ban- affairs that is indispensable to the conduct

quet of the Periodical Publishers' of a democracy. The colleges here have VI Åssociation, began his speech with

an opportunity for public service in the the remark that it was a "pleasure to training of such men. And the public meet the governing classes.” Though this can help by according to them the honor was said as an after-dinner pleasantry, that has made the legal profession and it is true that in the last ten or twelve the medical profession effective. years the magazines as a voice of the people have come to play a large rôle in our na- TO REFORM CIVIL SERVICE tional life. Before that time such long

REFORM established periodicals as Harper's, Scribner's, and the Century had, as they still

HE President, by ordering the have, a very strong hold upon the educated

fourth class postmasters, whom classes, upon people who needed no intro

Mr. Taft put under the civil serduction to art, literature, and the pleasures vice rules, to take competitive examinaof travel. There were scientific journals, tions to maintain their positions, did what too, that presupposed another kind of Mr. Taft should have done. If it turns education upon the part of their readers. out that the examinations will change the But the interpretation of current events proportion of Republican postmasters it did not have a large place in periodicals. will merely indicate that there was politi

But that is now changed. The maga- cal partiality in their selection - which, zine reading public has been broadened of course, every one knows there was. to include everyone who can and will read. But, though they were put in under the The recording of American life in govern- "spoils system,

"spoils system,” to have taken their jobs ment, in industry, and in its social phases from them for patronage reasons would furnishes the leading articles of to-day. have made the offence against decent

The easiest sensations in this field were government double. the scandals, and in their new-found power Soon after this order, the President acthe magazines of a muckraking period cepted the resignation of two members of which is happily passing away dwelt over- the Civil Service Commission. For a short much upon them. We are coming into a time this will give a few Democratic jobperiod of better balanced judgment and of hunters an unjustifiable hope that, after all, more constructive endeavor in our maga- the plums will be easier to gather than they zine literature, but as yet we are only

at first seemed. That idea will soon pass experimenting with the possibilities of away, and it is to be hoped that the new usefulness of those magazines that try commissioners will so conduct their office sanely to interpret this most interesting as to maintain an even stricter defence period in which we live.


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rewards for party services, and at the “What evidence is there of this crime?” same time that they will not allow the "I got de evidence in me pocket here,” civil service rules to maintain incompetents piped up Detective Lieut. Sidney Solomon. in the Government employ. There are few

Lieut. Solomon came forward, and placed four things that encourage "the Government

cent pieces and a dime on the Chief Justice's

desk. The Associate Justices leaned forward, gait,” that slow up Government work, so

and scrutinized the coins with great care. much as the stringent rules under which the

Then the Justices consulted. The result of departmental and bureau heads have to

the conference was kept for the time as a hire their subordinates.

judicial secret. Of course, if it is a choice between a "Is there any other evidence?” asked the return to the practices of the “spoils Chief Justice, keeping one eye on the money system” or maintaining the present civil

all the time. service system, the present condition, in “Yes, your Honor," Salvadore Ciociola

said. He was spite of its drawbacks, is preferable. But

the other detective who,

at the opening of the proceedings, was dissurely we have come to a time when a

comfited. reform of the civil service regulations can

"I grabbed dis for evidence. It's the thoid be discussed without any danger of relap- time I've raided a game, and I know what to sing into the "spoils system.”

take by now.” Detective Ciociola pulled from

his pocket a very soiled and battered set of GUIDING THE BOY GANGS dice.

Philip Lascal, the chief of the group of crapN A recent issue of the New York playing prisoners on trial, admitted that he Times, under the headline, “Boys Sit

had won all the money in the game. He As Judges and Punish Mates,” ap- received a sentence of three days' imprisonpeared the following story:

ment, which meant that he would have to stay When Chief Justice Arthur Aurora, aged

in half an hour after school every day for

three days. fourteen, called his court to order yesterday in the official courtroom of Public School 114, in Oak Street, shame and chagrin were depicted

The simple expedient of self-government on the faces of two tiny detectives in blue had turned the dominant group of boys blouses who hung back among the policemen, in the school into law enforcers. Always in deputy sheriffs, culprits, and court attendants school and elsewhere where boys congrewho filled the courtroom's benches.

gate there are gangs.

gangs. Usually these The first case the young Whitman of the

gangs are a nuisance; very often they are a school, Dionysius Eturaspe, had hoped to

serious menace to the morals of the gang bring before the court was that of Pasquale members and to the peace of the neighFezza, of 284 Madison Street, a thirteen-year- borhood. For usually the energy of the old, accused of jabbing a tiny penknife into the shoulder of William Paretsky.

gangs is directed against law and order. “Where is the defendant in this case?

But a new time is coming, for so many demanded Dionysius, in boyish treble, but people in the schools, in the Boy Scouts, with much official dignity nevertheless. and in many other activities, have grasped

The two detectives shuffled their feet and the fundamental fact that if these gang their little faces turned red.

activities are guided most wonderful "We ain't got him yet,” one of the blue- results can be achieved — results that will bloused detectives finally said. “You see, we

leave these boys far better able to handle ain't got no jurisdiction. We ain't only a

themselves honestly and effectively in the block or two from school, and Pasquale, he

world than were their predecessors. has kept all the time to home where we can't grab him." Philip Lascal, of the Fourth Grade, was

BETTER CHILDREN TO TEACH brought before the Chief Justice by a police

CHOOL hygiene has gone far forman from whose shoe a bare toe peeked forth. "What's the charge?” asked the Chief

ward from the old-fashioned daily Justice of the school Whitman.

ten minutes of classroom "calis"Playing craps, your Honor," said the thenics” and from the semi-weekly half District Attorney.

hour of recitation from a dull textbook on


“physiology.” Such practical things as correct defects of the teeth that lead to adequate ventilation, scientific lighting, mal-nutrition, optical clinics that turn many sanitary privies, organized play, and “dull” pupils into bright pupils, special health inspection have largely replaced classes for backward and deficient childthe old routine gymnastics and the in- ren, and health inspection and visiting struction that did not instruct. Physi- nurses that do an incalculable service cians and dentists and sociologists have toward improving the bodily and mental come to the aid of the schoolmen, and vigor of the young folk. they all are studying together the prob- These helpful activities lend special lems of healthful childhood and coöpera- significance and interest to the fourth ting to put into practise the efficient International Congress on School Hygiene knowledge of science to build a better race. which will gather at Buffalo in August.

Consider such facts as these, which they More than 250 doctors and teachers from have brought to light:

all parts of the United States and Europe Professor Monroe, of Stanford Univer- will gather there to exchange information sity, gathered particulars relating to 10,000 and to compare experiences in this vitally children of the public schools of California important work of human conservation and found that 3 per cent. of the children

and uplift. The hopeful advance of were feeble minded and not less than 10 American education - especially of rural per cent. backward and mentally dull, education - is largely bound up in the needing special care and attention. knowledge and the inspiring enthusiasm

During 1909 and 1910, 252,254 children that arise from such gatherings as this. were given thorough physical examinations by the New York Committee on the Wel

PRIVATE PENSIONS FOR fare of School Children. Of this number,

MOTHERS 14,255 were found to be suffering from mal-nutrition, tuberculosis nodes, pul- ENSIONS for mothers are now monary diseases, orthopedic defects, and being tried under state law in defective mentality.

Missouri and elsewhere. Whether In Boston, in 1903, of 23,207 pupils such aid can be administered as a function examined, 6,571 cases of disease were of the State without the abuses that grow detected and of these 5,818, or one quarter, up under other governmental pension were too ill to be in school, and 40 per systems can be known only as time reveals cent. of them had contagious diseases. results. The results of various kinds of Nine months' examination in Philadelphia pensions and state insurance abroad should showed 5,876 cases of diseases, of which lead us at least to go very carefully in 3,446 were contagious.

these things. But private philanthropy, It has been estimated that of the twenty acting under the safeguards of a localized million pupils in the schools of this coun- administration and of close business try, probably 5 per cent. have tuberculosis scrutiny, is trying a similar experiment of the lungs, more than 5 per cent. have Atlanta, Ga., and thus far with success. defective hearing, 25 per cent. have de- For the last three years, the Hebrew fective vision, 25 per cent. are suffering Orphans' Home, of Atlanta, has "subfrom mal-nutrition, more than 30 per

30 per sidized” orphans that were committed to cent. have enlarged tonsils and adenoids its care.

its care. Twenty fatherless children now or enlarged glands in the neck, and more are being supported in their own homes than 50 per cent. have defective teeth under their own mothers' care by funds which interfere with their development. contributed by the institution. There is In other words, about fifteen million room for them in the institutional home in children require attention to their health. Atlanta, but the trustees believe that the

To meet these conditions, many cities new method promises better results for the now maintain open-air class rooms and children and that it is more economical. even whole schools in the open air to fight The Atlanta home has originated the printuberculosis, dental clinics to discover and ciple of employing this subsidy as a sub



stitute for the old method of institutional dence ends; and a minimum of overhead care; but the idea of subsidy is several expense permits a wider use of funds. years old. It has been used by two large Eventually, the managers of this instiJewish homes in New York, and by or- tution intend that it shall be diminished phanages of other denominations in New in scope and quarters to nothing more than England, at intervals during several years a receiving station for new orphans and to past, but usually as a temporary measure a home for the very few children who have when the homes were too crowded to no kin at all and are not attractive enough receive new applicants. The Atlanta to be welcomed in other families. home, on the contrary, expects to prove The loveless routine of most orphanages itself unnecessary, wasteful, and a poor has been called "the curse of institutionmakeshift for the natural plan of leaving alism." This plan of the Hebrew Orphans' the orphans to be cared for in their own or Home, if it continue to succeed, will in adopted homes.

transform the lives of thousands of chilMeanwhile, the Atlanta institution con- dren and mothers. tinues. There are about 100 children in it, gathered from Georgia, North and

ANCIENT CUSTOMS IN COLLEGES South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. It represents

HE social life of our colleges, para non-revenue bearing investment of

ticularly the life at Harvard, Yale, about $100,000, and last year more than

and Princeton, has lately been $20,000 was spent upon its maintenance. much in public discussion. Mr. Wilson, The average cost of support of each child when president of Princeton, was the centre in it was $216 for the year. The average of a fine struggle for democracy and cost per child under the orphan-subsidy scholarship. President Lowell, at Harplan has been $150 per year, with far vard, has quietly been making many better results. The difference lies in the changes with the same ends in view. At “overhead” expense of the institution. Yale, the sophomore class precipitated a

Six years ago the Atlanta home first revolt against the oligarchy formed by the applied the orphan-subsidy principle members of the three senior societies. with this new purpose in view. It re- A college course is four years, and a turned a boy to his mother and agreed to practice can become an old and sacred pay her a stipulated sum every month tradition of many generations in less than toward his support. In all instances but a generation of the outside world. The one the method has worked out admirably sanctity of custom is strong to the college and is a permanent solution. No mother

No mother- man, particularly in those colleges where less children or parentless children yet undergraduate sentiment looks upon have been cared for, but the home intends criticism of anything that bears the college to extend the subsidy to them. No ex- name as disloyalty. Moreover, a healthy perimenting is done. Every step is taken revolt against ancient absurdities has carefully and after much deliberation, for hardly the time to succeed before the rethe board of trustees is very conservative. volters have passed their four years and are The amount of subsidy varies to accord gone into the world. with the child's circumstances and station. Once in a while, as recently at Yale, an It varies, too, with the number of children insurgent cause will gain confidence enough in a family, being less proportionately for to demand a change, but usually "ancient two than for one. As the family becomes custom” rules supreme. With this situaless dependent, the subsidy is reduced. tion among the students it is necessary for

By this new method, home and family the authorities to give every encourageare not disrupted, for the children are left ment to any initiative and constructive in the care of their natural guardian; imagination that may come up among the children under five years of age are sub- students in the management of their lives sidized, as well as older children;the respon- in college; to encourage every undergradsibility of the institution ends when depen- uate to find out what kind of a place he is

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