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and the occasion had a double interest and celluloid, wrought into being after because the municipal Department of nine months of patient toil by the sculptorHealth was then preparing for the first preparator, Mr. Ignaz Matausch. Here “Annual May Clean-up" of the city of rests, upon a highly magnified crumb of New York. Especially useful as a stimu- bread, a fly worthy of a swat. Forty

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"FLY ON A CRUMB OF BREAD" THE REMARKABLE MODEL IN THE HALL OF HEALTH OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, IN NEW YORK CITY, SHOWING ON A GIGANTIC SCALE THE POSSIBILITIES OF HUMAN INFECTION WITH DISEASES THE GERMS OF WHICH ARE CARRIED FROM FILTH TO FOOD ON THE FEET OF THE FLY. THE SCULPTORPREPARATOR, MR. IGNAZ MATAUSCH (IN THE PICTURE), SPENT NINE MONTHS IN MAKING THIS MODEL

lus to this clean-up was the model of a times the length of the living fly, and house fly “as big as a cat." The public 64,000 times greater in bulk, he exposes may not read as many “Swat the Fly” the guilt of all his race on a gigantic scale. warnings as it should, but it has been A glance tells how disease germs are transwonderfully interested in this triumph of ferred from his padded feet to the little craftsmanship in blown glass, steel, wire, cavities in the sponge-like substance of the bread. Men, women, and children gather lured by military glory, stop to study two about the prodigious pest and read the companies of miniature soldiers, khaki scathing indictment of him as a carrier of clad. One company of lead warriors is typhoid and other mortal ills.

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A “RAT PROOF” DWELLING AND OUT-BUILDINGS A MODEL THAT SHOWS HOW CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS AND BASEMENT FLOORS CLOSE THE FAVORITE ENTRANCE

OF THESE BEARERS OF DISEASE

winning the bubble reputation at the Then there is a clatter of heels on the cannon's mouth; the other, sick leave. tesselated floor, and a crowd of boys. It appears from this demonstration that,

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HOW RATS GET INTO A HOUSE THIS MODEL SHOWS GRAPHICALLY THE RELATION THAT UNCOVERED GARBAGE, BROKEN PIPES, AND UNPROTECTED FOUNDATIONS BEAR TO THE PRESENCE OF RATS, WHICH ARE NOT ONLY DESTRUCTIVE BUT WHICH OFTEN CARRY GERMS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND SOMETIMES THE FLEAS THAT SPREAD BUBONIC PLAGUE

in the average company in the United so many millions of dollars to keep New States Army in the Spanish-American War, York harbor from filling up may get an one soldier was wounded in battle, whereas ocular demonstration of the reason by through the ravages of typhoid one man to glancing at a model showing how the solid a company lost his life and fourteen men constituents from the sewage of the city were incapacitated for service.

are constantly filling up the costly chanModels of ill-kept and well-kept farms, nels dredged to the sea. side by side in the same case, are among the The average week-day attendance of most popular exhibits in the hall. Here the American Museum of Natural History is a farm where the open rain barrel breeds is 500, except on Saturdays, when 2,000 mosquitoes; where the exposed manure visitors enter the doors. There are 6,000 heap leads to the begetting of a myriad of flies; where the primitive sanitary arrangements may send typhoid germs into the vegetable garden and into the stream where the family herd is drinking. The other side of the picture portrays thrift and cleanliness. Little signs scattered over the two landscapes tell of the right and the wrong ways of living next to the soil. Another setting shows how house and outbuildings may be guarded against rats.

The evils of the open wooden garbage barrel and of filthy premises are set forth in the exact reproduction of a section of a kitchen in San Francisco, made when the bubonic plague scare was at its height. The model is a replica of one made by the United States Government. It shows how the rats burrow; how they build nests for their young; how they may spread disease in every direction. This revelation of the habits of rats makes plain the dangers of infection.

After the city dweller sees a model representing the gathering of clams in sand into which a broken sewer pipe is discharging, he is not so likely to think lightly of the efforts of a health com- AN APPRECIATED LESSON IN HEALTH missioner to prevent the pollution of SCHOOL CHILDREN STUDYING THE MODEL OF THE oyster beds and of the ocean beaches.

LESSON IN SUCH VIVID And nearby is a realistic representation of driftwood being gathered at the Battery Breakwater, accompanied by the warning visitors on Sundays. Practically everythat the taking of this spoil of the sea into one who makes the grand tour of the instithe home may introduce disease.

tution sees the health exhibit. More The whole scheme of water supply, the than half a million persons go to the peril of epidemics, the methods of purifica- museum every year. Although no seption and of filtration are demonstrated arate count is kept of the attendance in by elaborately worked out exhibits. Germs the Hall of Health, it has been demonof disease, many thousands of times their strated that this division attracts as much actual size, are displayed in wonderful attention as any other section. It is blown glass counterfeits.

situated on the way to the bird groups and Good citizens who wonder why it takes is in the centre of the building.

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RAT-INFESTED HOUSE, A
FORM THAT IT INSTANTLY INTERESTS THOSE WHO
SEE IT AND EASILY CONVEYS ITS MESSAGE

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THE DANGER IN WAR FROM BULLETS, AND THE AVERAGE LOSS BY WOUNDS IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR WAS ONE MAN FROM EVERY COMPANY

The museum's department of health part of the regular course. · Students from has now been in existence two years. In the College of the City of New York, that time its exhibits have constantly where especial attention is paid to personal become of greater popular interest. The hygiene, are regular visitors. Pupils from opening of the new hall represents the the private schools of the city, long lines working out of a definite policy of bring- of young misses with a prim chaperone ing the public in touch with the activities at their head, march through the corridor of the institution.

practically every day. A talk on health One of the most successful develop- based on the exhibits in the hall is part ments has been through the high schools. of a course of lectures which last year was The boys of the DeWitt Clinton High attended by 35,000 students of the public School are especially enthusiastic. Several primary and grammar schools. lectures for them were arranged in the Small traveling exhibits are sent by the large auditorium of the museum, and they director to schools, in cases filled with supplemented the lectures with inspections small models and specimens. The museum of the exhibits in the hall. Six hundred has been lately raising flies and moseager and enthusiastic youths at a time quitoes in large quantities. The various have viewed the exhibition and asked stages from the larvæ to the full blown technical questions concerning the various buzzer are arrested by the use of forobjects. Classes from the Bellevue Hos- maldehyde and then preserved in bottles, pital Medical College of the New York which the teachers use to explain to the University are sent to study the models as children how the fly breeds in filth and how some mosquitoes spread malaria. model of the fly "as big as a cat" have The object is to teach that, though killing been received from museums whose direcflies may be all very well, the great end tors would take up health instruction to be reached is the elimination of the by sight; and such bodies as the Zoofilth which is the means of bringing so logical Society of Ottawa, Purdue Unimany of them into being.

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THE DANGER IN WAR FROM GERMS THE AVERAGE LOSS BY TYPHOID IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR WAS ONE MAN DEAD AND FOURTEEN IN

CAPACITATED FROM EVERY COMPANY

versity, in Indiana, and the New York In the foreign quarters of the metrop- State Board of Health have asked for olis, the children are the easiest to teach information about the methods of the hygiene and sanitation. Frequently in museum. the Hall of Health one may see boys and Moving pictures are being used to supgirls tugging their parents among the plement the work and there are dramas exhibits and explaining to them with of the film enacted showing how the cause

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WHAT SANITATION MEANS ON THE FARM MODELS OF ILL-KEPT AND WELL-KEPT FARMS THAT SHOW CLEARLY WHY LIFE IS SAFER AS WELL AS MORE COM

FORTABLE ON THE FARM THAT IS PROPERLY MANAGED

voluble speech and flowing gesture the of pure milk prospers, and how the fly, why and the wherefore of the display. greatly magnified, does his evil work. When Italian laborers who have been work- In this work of teaching the public iming on the Jerome Park Reservoir, where portant lessons for their own well-being filter beds may be made for city water, by means of museum display, the deep are guided among the models by their learning of the specialist and the skill of children, the uses of these new methods the sculptor, preparator, and taxidermist

, of teaching sanitation become convinc- are coördinated for a common cause. ingly evident.

Formerly, nature museums were reposiThe work of the museum has attracted tories for fossils and stuffed animals; now, the notice of other institutions in this they house exhibits that teach mankind country. Requests for replicas of the the proper way to live.

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