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and 30-year terms respectively in the Service of which Mr. Flynn was then a Federal prison at Atlanta, Ga. Mr. subordinate member. During the latter Flynn put them there, and that is one part of the year a flood of counterfeit of the reasons why he is the Chief of the money was put into circulation among the Secret Service now.

humble shop-keepers of the poorer parts To understand the situation it should of the city, many of them recently arrived be borne in mind that the Italian crime Italians who were unfamiliar with our problem in New York and the rest of the currency. The men who passed these United States came into existence with counterfeits were all Italians, who genthe great wave of Italian immigration, be- erally plied their trade about dusk, making ginning approximately with the first year small purchases in shops that were unof the century, that has since brought into lighted for economical reasons, tendering the country thousands of ex-convicts of spurious two-dollar treasury notes in the Mafia and the Camorra among more payment, and receiving change in good than 2,000,000 of their honest and in

money. dustrious compatriots. Morello and Lupo Mr. Flynn, with some of his co-workers were established here before this influx in the Secret Service, was put on the case. began, and were proficient in what are The trail led to what is known to the now known as Black Hand crimes before police as “Little Sicily,” and into the home that term began to be applied to these of Morello, and he and several of the men offenses. Morello, indeed, had been who had been passing the spurious bills known to the New York police for several were taken into custody. As on all the years before he went into partnership other occasions that Morello had been with Lupo. The maimed Sicilian had arrested with members of his gang, they been arrested for murder, kidnapping, suffered and he escaped. No pressure extortion, and blackmail at least half a that the prosecuting officers could put score of times before his transactions in upon the underlings would induce them counterfeit money brought him within the to incriminate him, even though immunity view of the Federal Secret Service, but, from punishment was offered those of though morally certain of his guilt in them who would turn State's evidence. every instance, the police had never been there was nothing left to do, therefore, able to fasten a crime upon him.

but to set Morello at liberty again. Morello was a fugitive from justice from Three years later, when Mr. Flynn had Italy under a ten-year sentence for for- been made chief of the Eastern division gery. He was about forty years of age of the Service, a deluge of counterfeit when he came to this country, rough in five-dollar bills swamped the Italian settleappearance and uncouth in manner, but ments of New York City. They were an intelligent and forceful rogue. The known as the "Morristown fives," because police have never found out how his right they were imitations of an issue of the arm had been crippled. Incapacitated for National Iron Bank of Morristown, N. J. manual participation in crime, his brain Mr. Flynn, who took charge of an investiconceived the schemes that his lieutenants gation, traced them back, the trail leading brought to fruition. Lupo, about ten into Little Sicily again. Pursuing his years younger, complemented Morello. researches under cover, in an effort to He was urbane and affable, a polished find the counterfeiting plant, he discovered villain who wore rings on both hands, that Giuseppe De Primo, a grocer in Little used pomade on his hair, and gave off the Sicily and a friend of Morello and Lupo odors of an East Side perfumery shop. - who had just begun criminal operations He was clever enough to establish a whole- together - was importing a larger amount sale grocery in New York and fail fraud- of olive oil than his business seemed to call ulently for $100,000 incidentally to his for. The clue now led to the Custom transactions with Morello.

House. Under the tariff law olive oil In 1899, Morello's existence was offici- may come into the United States by ally brought to the attention of the Secret barrel at a lesser rate than in cans; it is

therefore imported in bulk, the cans being trifling disturbances philosophically. as brought in from Italy empty to be filled part of the day's work. for sale in this country.

“What is a journey more or less to the Investigation of the cans consigned to courts?” Morello once said to a member of De Primo revealed rolls of the “Morris- the Italian squad of the detective bureau

The counterfeiting plant who had him in custody. “It is a relief was in Naples, and Morello and Lupo from monotony. It might even be amuswere circulating the product that was sent ing if the American pigs of lawyers and to America through De Primo. Morello, judges had a little wit to put me on my Lupo, and De Primo, with a dozen other mettle. But, no! I sleep while they disItalians who had actually passed the pose of my case.” counterfeit money, were arrested and For more than five years, in addition to again there was no evidence to be found other important work of the Secret Seragainst Morello - or Lupo, either. De vice, watch was kept on Morello and Lupo Primo was found guilty of taking part in before Mr. Flynn found it practicable to the conspiracy to defraud, but he refused begin the construction of the trap into to implicate Morello or Lupo, even to which they finally fell. Mr. Flynn was consave himself. The others were equally fident that it was merely a question of loyal. Morello and his partner in crime time before the bandits and their followwent free and the others went to prison. ers would again turn their attention to

The escape of Morello and Lupo from counterfeiting. punishment in the “Morristown fives" Meanwhile Mr. Flynn's reputation as a case was the occasion for the sarcasm of detective was constantly increasing. In the two criminals that was leveled at January of the year before the issue of the Mr. Flynn at the courtroom door, and “Morristown fives," he had been called for the fixing of the detective's determina- to a bank in Grand Street in New York, tion never to relax his energies in their the cashier of which had telephoned him pursuit until he had landed them behind that he was holding a suspicious looking prison bars. From that time until their man who had offered eighty five-pound final arrest in January, 1910, they were Bank of England notes for exchange. continually under the surveillance of Mr. Flynn had approached the bank slowly Secret Service agents, except for brief and cautiously, with the idea that if the periods during which their whereabouts man with the English money was a prowere generally known.

fessional criminal he would doubtless have Nevertheless, for month after month a confederate waiting outside to ascertain and year after year, Black Hand crimes whether fortune or misfortune befell him. - as they were beginning to be called — The detective's forethought had been resmall and great, were traced almost to warded by the sight of a little man with a Morello and Lupo. Their operations ex- red beard on the opposite side of the street tended as far west as Chicago and as far gazing fixedly at the door of the bank. south as New Orleans; but, although The sentinel had disappeared on seeing Mr. scores of their associates and dupes were Flynn looking in his direction, and the convicted and sentenced to long terms in detective had arrested the man in the bank prison and even to the electric chair, the who had asked for exchange for the eighty men higher up" could not be reached. notes, and who had declared that he had Neither Morello nor Lupo knew that Mr. found them in a wallet in the street. Mr. Flynn was keeping track of their move- Flynn had been unable to find the redments during the long period that they bearded little man, but he had made a let counterfeit money alone, and for years mental photograph of him. The fivethey directed criminal operations under pound notes were as perfect counterfeits the eyes of the local and Federal police as the officers of the Bank of England had agents. To be sure, they were arrested ever seen, the celebrated watermark havfrequently; but, believing themselves to ing been copied almost exactly. be secure from conviction, they took such In the fall of the same year, when John Dayis was tried in London for forging cleared up, after many Secret Service men Bank of England notes, Mr. Flynn went had tried in vain, was that surrounding a to England and was able to identify him continuous run of counterfeit pennies as the red-bearded man whom he had that had been circulating in New York seen watching the bank in Grand Street City for years.

City for years. The making of pennies in New York the day the five-pound is a profitable occupation in a small way. counterfeits had been offered for exchange. A 13-cent sheet of copper will produce Davis had collapsed entirely on hearing 130 cents. Mr. Flynn began investigating Mr. Flynn's testimony, had confessed this case the year he was made chief of his guilt, and had been allowed to turn the eastern division of the Service. He State's evidence, while the other members first obtained an assay of the copper in the of the most troublesome gang of counter- cent, and then he searched the country feiters that had ever menaced the Bank of from coast to coast until he found a dealer England had been sentenced to long terms in Connecticut who sold that very quality in prison.

of the metal. He examined the books of Mr. Flynn had kept Davis in mind. this dealer, who had 416 customers in He had ascertained who were his associates different parts of the country. With in this country, and he kept an eye on the help of his agents, Mr. Flynn canvassed them, anticipating that Davis would be the customers, and finally found one in unable permanently to wean himself Centre Street, New York, who sold sheet from the profitable occupation of counter- copper to a Hebrew peddler. Mr. Flynn feiting. As Davis was well known to the trailed the peddler with a load of copper English police, Mr. Flynn guessed that he on his pushcart to a room in Allen Street, would be as likely as not to set up his and breaking in a little later he found him next plant in the United States. In the industriously stamping out new and shiny fall of 1903, counterfeit ten-dollar bills one-cent pieces. Further investigation, were discovered to be in circulation in lasting more than a year, revealed another Massachusetts, and simultaneously Mr. one-cent plant in the mountains of PennsylFlynn's agents reported that Davis was in vania, and still another in Pittsburg. the country. Through his former asso- In the spring of 1906, while still awaiting ciates Davis was traced to Revere, a the chance to catch Lupo and Morello, suburb of Boston. A comfortable cottage Mr. Flynn learned that an order had come sheltered

a small but well-equipped from Portland, Ore., to a New York counterfeiting plant. Evidence

was machine shop for what is known in the gathered against every suspicious acquaint- trade as a “corrugated collar,” a tool that ance of Davis, and in December the place is used to mill the edges of coins, as well was raided. As the back door was broken as for other purposes. It seemed rather down a little man with a red beard a long distance to send for an article that rushed into the kitchen and right up might have been bought in Portland, and against the muzzle of Mr. Flynn's revolver. Mr. Flynn deemed it worth while to send

“Why, John Davis," said Mr. Flynn, a man out there with it. with a laugh, “you ought to be ashamed followed the person who claimed the of yourself.”

“collar” at the express office in Portland The little man began to whimper, and to a railroad station, and went with him told Mr. Flynn all his history since his trial about a hundred miles by train into the in London the previous year. Scotland interior, where a buckboard met him to Yard had sent him to Australia, with a take him to a ranch twenty miles from the warning not to return to England. The railroad. A week later a group of Secret lure of counterfeiting had drawn him to Service men visited the ranch and found America, as Mr. Flynn had foreseen. a counterfeiting plant that was turning His plant in Revere was ready to turn out out five-, ten-, and twenty-dollar gold a million dollars in counterfeit tens when pieces, with the result that Edward R. it was raided.

Cool and three other professional counterOne counterfeit mystery that Mr. Flynn feiters went to prison for long terms.

His agent

These and other cases had given Mr. crossing the bridge over the Hudson — for Flynn added experience and reputation, but the purchase of dies, inks, paper, and other the two Italians still remained at large. It materials that were shipped to the farm. was not until the summer of 1908 that On every one of these visits to the city there were indications of a revival of a Secret Service agent at the Poughkeepsie interest in spurious money in Little Sicily. railroad station made a note of their going The Secret Service "shadows” now re- and coming, and another agent followed ported to Mr. Flynn that Morello and Lupo them from the Grand Central Station in had been called upon one evening by three New York and jotted down memoranda Italians named Cina, Silvestro, and of the shops and warehouses where purPalermo, who had been concerned in the chases were made. distribution of the “Morristown fives," It was not until midwinter that the had been convicted therefor, and had counterfeiting plant was set up and in served their sentences. The next day Mr. running order, and then a man named Flynn's men told him that Silvestro and Antonio Cecela brought from New York Palermo had brought a fourth ex-convict, plates made by Callacchio for the printing named Callacchio, to the bandit chief. of five-, two-, and one-dollar bills. Before Callacchio was an engraver by trade. the plant was abandoned Comito had run The gang was going to take up counter- off his press $46,000 in bogus money, feiting again, as the presence of an en- $3,000 of it in fives and the rest in ones and graver would seem to indicate, and the twos. Cina, Palermo, Cecela, and a man bogus money was to be made in America, named Giglia were constantly at the farmnot in Italy.

house. They took away the spurious And now Mr. Flynn began the con- notes for circulation, invariably visiting struction of his biggest man-trap. A Morello and Lupo when they came to counterfeiting plant is not complete with- New York. The ruffians at the plant in out a printing press, which requires a Highland, all Sicilians, took an instinctive printer. It was only a day or two after dislike to Comito, the Calabrian. He was the conference of these members of the virtually a prisoner, not being allowed to old “Morristown fives" gang that, by a

leave the house by himself, and probably strange coincidence, Cina was appealed he would have been killed when the counto in the street for assistance by a young terfeiters had no further use for him if Italian. He told Cina that he was a he had not escaped at the last moment. Calabrian in need of work; by name He had no opportunity of communicating Antonio Comito; by trade a printer. To with the outside world during the winter Cina's gratification, questioning and spring, and a boy named Bernandino, Comito, he found that he knew all about a relative of Cina, was employed especially color printing, the texture of paper, and to watch him. the working of hand presses. (Whether Cina himself, as having discovered or not Mr. Flynn had anything to do with Comito, was more malevolent than the bringing about this strange coincidence others. "Dog, you have brought the no one but himself and Comito knows.) evil eye upon the house," he would shout

In September, Cina purchased a small at him when anything went wrong. “I farm about three miles from Highland, will have your head under my feet!” N. Y., a village on the Hudson, opposite Meanwhile, Mr. Flynn was waiting for Poughkeepsie, the farmhouse being half Morello and Lupo to visit the farm at a mile from the nearest neighbor. The Highland, that there might be no mistake young Calabrian, Comito, who was now about their connection with the counterboss printer, accompanied Cina and Cal- feiting plant. However, · Lupo did not lacchio when they purchased a printing visit the workers at Highland until the press that was set up in the farmhouse, latter part of February. To have and with them he made many trips back him into custody then would have and forth between Highland and New York tated the arrest of the others, an – traveling by way of Poughkeepsie and — whom most of all Mr. Flynn w


to "put away" — had not yet sufficiently cern when the trial began, even after implicated himself. When Morello finally they learned that Comito was to appear as did go to Highland, early in March, Lupo a witness against them. They were dewas on his way to Italy with a consign- fended by able lawyers, to whom they had ment of the counterfeits that he intended paid big fees. Morello and Lupo in to put into circulation there.

particular considered

considered themselves perIt now became necessary to wait for fectly safe from conviction, not only beLupo to return from Italy, if Mr. Flynn's cause they knew that Comito's testimony purpose of “bagging” both the leaders of that they had been connected with the the counterfeiting gang was to be carried plant at Highland would be controverted out. If he had arrested Morello and the by all the others who had been there with others, Lupo would probably not have him, but because each of the bandit chiefs come back at all, and so Mr. Flynn decided had prepared himself with the testimony to wait for him.

of a physician that he had been ill in bed During the winter and spring certain on the day that Comito would swear that Secret Service agents, who did not know he had been at Highland. Both had that the plant where the counterfeits found that sort of evidence effective in were being made was under surveillance similar circumstances before. by other Secret Service men, were arrest- But this time Mr. Flynn was ready for ing the passers of the spurious money in them with counter alibis. He had had New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and their family doctors, both Italians living in even Buffalo and Cincinnati, and more the Italian settlements, shadowed by his than twenty of them were convicted. The agents during the entire period of his risk of distribution reduced the price of watch on the counterfeiters themselves. counterfeits below a margin of profit, and Consequently, the Secret Service men in the latter part of May it was decided were able to show not only that neither to shut down the plant at Highland of these physicians had visited Morello Comito escaped the night before this was or Lupo on the days they professed to be done, and his associates in the farmhouse ill, but also just what the movements of did not see him again until they met in the men of medicine had been on those the Federal Court.

particular days. Corroboration of this It was a long wait for Lupo, but Mr. evidence came from an unexpected source. Flynn believed that it was worth while Gen. Theodore A. Bingham, who was to hold out for his return before arresting police commissioner during this period and Morello and the others, who meantime was endeavoring to break up the gangs were kept under the closest scrutiny. Not under Morello and Lupo, had had his own until January of the next year, 1910, was detectives trailing those undesirable aliens Lupo discovered by the Secret Service for several weeks covering the time they agents to be in New York. He had prob- claimed to have been ill in their beds. ably returned by way of Canada or Mexico, The reports of these detectives, taken for all seaports of the United States had from the files at police headquarters, been watched for him. On January 9th, showed that Morello and Lupo had left Mr. Flynn triumphantly sprung his trap, New York from the Grand Central Stawhich contained Morello, Lupo, Callacchio, tion for Poughkeepsie on the same days Silvestro, Cina, Giglio, Palermo, and

Palermo, and that Comito had previously testified they Cecela, with eight subordinates who had had visited the counterfeiting plant at been concerned only with the passing of Highland. the counterfeit money.

Mr. Flynn was further prepared to conIn February the eight principals were vict the entire gang of counterfeiters on tried together before Judge Ray and a other testimony than that of his own men or jury in the Federal District Court. En- of Comito. To this end not only did the tirely unaware of the extent of the evi- Secret Service men at the Grand Central dence in the possession of the Secret Station and at the station at Poughkeepsie Service, none of them felt any great con- corroborate Comito as to the visit of

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