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obtained in the smallpox experiments, tumors! He injected it into mice and rats; never transmitted the disease.
no tumors resulted. But the extract “If you once produce cancer without the would communicate cancer to chickens. cell," was the conclusion of the opposition, Experimenters with rats and mice, think"we shall believe in the germ theory.” ing there may have been some mistake in
And for several years the other side could their technique, tried all their old experinot meet the challenge.
ments again - without result. Only the And now cancer again showed what an cell communicates cancer from mouse to extremely queer and unreliable process it mouse; but a fluid free from cells transmits was. The laboratory workers who strug- it in chickens. In other words, the laws gled so many years to transmit the disease that apply to the disease in one animal . without the cell — with a "cell-free fil- apparently do not apply to it in another. trate,” to use the technical description The scientific world has not yet digested worked exclusively with rats and mice. this momentous discovery. It may mean But about three years ago Dr. Peyton that there is no such disease as cancer; Rous, of the Rockefeller Institute, ob- that each kind of the many malignant tained possession of a Plymouth Rock hen growths grouped under that name has a that was suffering from a large sarcoma separate cause.
One distinct organism a particularly virulent type of tumor. may cause cancer of the mouse, another After experimenting for some t me, it cancer of the chicken, and still another of occurred to him to attempt once more the the human being; again, a different agent hopeless experiment of obtaining cancer may cause each different type of cancer in without the cancer cell. He made his each species. emulsion, passed it through a Berkfeld Far from clearing up the cancer problem, filter, and obtained a fluid free of cells. Dr. Rous's work has made it still more To make sure that no tissue survived, he obscure. Practically, however, it has not submitted the product to various proced- affected present clinical methods of treatures any one of which, such as freezing and ment. The only cure is still operation in crushing, would have killed it. He then the early stage. Nor should any one injected his "cell-free filtrate" into other assume, from these researches, that human Plymouth Rock chickens; and, greatly cancer is contagious. The experience of to his surprise and bewilderment, the in- centuries shows that there is no danger oculated animals developed malignant in associating with cancer patients.
WILLARD, OF THE B. & O.
A TRACK LABORER FROM VERMONT, WHO EARNED A RAILROAD PRESIDENCY,
SIZE OF THE JOB AND THE MANNER OF THE MAN
C. M. KEYS
BOUT thirty-four years ago,
North Hartland, Vt., where he was born. the Central Vermont Rail. The year before, he had finished a short road hired a day laborer to course in the high school at Windsor, Vt. work on its tracks. He was and that was as far as the family funds
only a boy of eighteen, and would carry him. history does not record how little his His name was — and is — Dan Willard. wages were. He lived at the village of They call him Daniel in the executive
offices and in the newspapers, but they jobs that Mr. Underwood had held on the still call him Dan on the railroads where St. Paul. In 1899, both left the Soo Link he works and has worked.
Both went to the Baltimore & Ohio. The job on the Vermont Central turned These are mere records. The story is into a job firing a locomotive on the old better than that. Mr. Underwood's eye Passumpsic Road, in New England. That discovered young Willard on the line very naturally led to the job of engineer on shortly after 1886. Mr. Underwood the same road. A journey farther from watched him. They got to be good friends, home took young Willard to the Lake the man well up the ladder and the man Shore & Michigan Southern, and he ran coming up. How much help came from an engine on that road for about two years. above to the man who climbed, the writer Then he went to the old Soo Line, properly does not know. Whatever it was, it seems called the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault to have been deserved. Ste. Marie, in 1884, as a brakeman. The In many things these two men are alike next year he went back to Vermont long Both are plain and simple citizens. Both enough to marry. He took his wife to seem to think work is more important than the West and went seriously to work to anything else they do. Both want action win his way up the long and treacherous all the time. As railroad executive officers, railroad ladder.
both seem to pay more attention to the Progress from the bottom up in the men who work for them and to the job railroad service is no round of pleasures. of running the road than they do to either In time the road made him conductor, the stock market or the ordinary business then roundhouse foreman, then engineer, of having a good time and growing rich, then trainmaster, then — a great step as was the habit of the dying generation of - assistant superintendent, and finally railroad bosses and presidents. a superintendent of a division. It sounds Mr. Underwood became general manager easy enough, but it took fifteen years. of the Baltimore & Ohio in January, 1889, Mr. Willard started it at twenty-three and and Mr. Willard came on in February to finished it at thirty-eight.
join him as assistant general manager. A workingman's life is two thirds work. The combination was effective. The genand one third luck. Mr. Willard has eral manager's job on the Baltimore & both. His natural aptitude brought him Ohio was handled as it had not been into close enough contact with hard labor; handled for some time. but Mr. Frederick D. Underwood, now In those days the Baltimore & Ohio president of the Erie Railroad, brought had been through purgatory, so to speak, him the necessary element of luck. and had not by any means arrived at
In 1886, Mr. Underwood came to the that financial pinnacle to which railroads Soo Line. He had just finished serving as a whole were lifted in the next era. sixteen years with the Chicago, Milwaukee The Baltimore & Ohio was a crooked, poor, & St. Paul. He had been a little bit of and bedraggled thing at that time. A everything on that road. The records few years before, it had held its head show him clerk, brakeman, foreman of pretty high; only to be found out at last elevators, conductor, yardmaster, assistant and toppled into the mire of bankruptcy superintendent, and superintendent of a and disgrace. There had been recondivision. In June, 1886, he came to the struction. There had been reorganization. Soo Line as a superintendent of con
There had even arrived the era of “gentlestruction on a division; and in September men's agreements," whereby rates were they made him general manager, just a
maintained when the other road was year after Mr. Willard had joined it as a looking. Because the Baltimore & Ohio did brakeman. Mr. Underwood had just not know a "gentlemen's agreement" when finished his own long climb from day laborit saw one, the Pennsylvania had bought to the fringes of the executive world. In enough of its stock to make it behave. the next fifteen years Mr. Willard almost When Mr. Underwood and Mr. Willard exactly duplicated on the Soo Line the came to it, it was in a fairly good position.
It was being made better physically. It
It rather than the fellow up on top. He was growing rich very slowly.
won't stay long with the aristocracy." earning the Pennsylvania way of sinking Yet, he did stay on, and he did some money into track and cars and engines. wonders with the transportation business The job these two men had was to help on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. To that business along by making the Balti- be sure, it looks, from a distance, like a more & Ohio a better transportation ma- fairly easy task. The Burlington is pechine and by giving it some excuse for culiarly one of the railroad aristocracy. getting competitive traffic besides the Control of it, since 1901, has been safely simple excuse that it would do the same tucked away in a trust company in the work for less money.
interest of the Northern Pacific and the These railroad twins did not stay long Great Northern, Mr. Hill's road. It does with the Baltimore & Ohio. In May, not need to beg for crumbs of traffic. 1901, Mr. Underwood was called to New. It is, as it were, the Pennsylvania of its York to become president of the Erie territory. If it wants cars, or engines, or Railroad - a man's size job if there ever rails, or anything else,
rails, or anything else, it just goes and has been one. They elected Mr. Willard buys them. It does not have to play both general manager in his place. He held
He held ends against the middle all the time and that position for about thirty days. Then keep both eyes on the sheriff. It is so he came to New York to be assistant to powerful that it takes what it wants, President Underwood. Pretty soon he within reason; and so rich that it rarely was third vice-president. Then he was has to borrow. Of course, it does borrow. first vice-president and general manager. All railroads do that, except the LackaThey named one of the Erie tugs on the wanna Railroad. harbor after him, and he liked it better Mr. Daniel Willard, vice-president and than if it had been a yacht or an ocean general manager of the Chicago, Burliner.
lington & Quincy Railroad, was a large The main objection to working in couples figure in the railroad world. Everybody is that there is only room for one at the knew him. All the railroad men prophetop. Mr. Underwood did wonders with sied that some day soon, when some giant the Erie Railroad, that sad remnant of system needed a president, Daniel Willard half a dozen eras of exploitation and rapine would be a railroad president. The New and high finance. Other men worked York Central was suspected of wanting with him and under him; but over them him once, but the line of succession ran all, from Mr. Underwood down, hung the elsewhere. shadows of Morgan and Harriman in It was chance, more or less, that the turn. They did their work, just the same. Baltimore & Ohio, on which he and Mr. The reconstruction of the Erie was well Underwood had both worked during their under way in 1904, when Mr. Willard left upward climb, was the road that finally it. He went back West to Chicago - put him in the presidents’ list. He was if that is West — to become vice-president frankly glad to be back, and said so. The of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. newspapers printed sketches of him and
At that time one of Mr. Willard's of what he had done. He did not make a friends on the Erie made a remark that very spectacular subject. He never did contains in a few words much of the anything very spectacular. He is not a philosophy of Daniel Willard that has railroad "magnate.” He has no ambition made him what he has become. An to dominate the whole American railroad editor had just remarked that the move to system, to upset any of the established the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy was a theories of railroad business, to build or big step for Mr. Willard.
buy any transcontinental lines, or to do “Yes," said the Erie man, “but I guess anything except run his railroad in the he won't stand it. Willard wants to be best way he can. He has a job to do and trying to make a poor road rich. He is he always seems to want to be at it. always figuring on the fellow down below So far, this is the biography of a plain American from Vermont who made good duced and passed in all the halls where the in Minnesota, was translated by chance lawmakers of the Nation gather. into better jobs in Baltimore and New York The natural result in the market-places and Chicago, and finally has become of the world has followed. The credit officially the head of the Baltimore & of the American roads has sunk to the Ohio and unofficially the spokesman of lowest level, not only here but in Europe the railroad world. That job, and what that it has seen since the great panic of Mr. Willard seems to be trying to do with 1893. Some of the weaker roads have it, make up the rest of this record. To already sought the refuge of receivership. be the president of the Baltimore & Ohio American railroads are engaged in ar. is a large task; but to be the chosen effort to rehabilitate their character and “leading man" in American railroad their credit. administrative politics makes a much Always, in such a crisis, whether in larger story.
.nation, railroad, industrial company, firm. It is well to say here, because misunder- church, or State, new men arise to lead standings are so easy to create, that the the forces that fight for new things comment in this article on railroad mat- When the last great critical battle of the ters and policies does not come from Mr. railroads took place it was fought through Willard, nor from any other railroad head. to the bitter end. It was, however, a civil It expresses no official ideas or opinion. war, in which railroad sought to destrov It is a layman's plain comment on a sub- railroad
railroad — and succeeded. It was a bitter ject of national interest.
war of rates, rebates, discriminations The railroad world in the United States tricks, and subterfuges. It wrecked more is in a dilemma. That is, of course, largely than a third of the railroads of the United its own fault. Railroad policies and rail- States, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. road politics in this country contained, and created the ruins from which were during the last twenty years, so much built the fortunes and the empires of the that has been arbitrary, unjust, extor- passing generation of railroad kings. tionate, and crooked that the rail- At the end of it, when nearly all the roads, as a whole, lost the confidence of smaller and the weaker roads had fallen. the people and became objects of distrust. and when the giants of the railroad kingAt times the people seemed bent upon dom alone stood fairly firm upon their feet. destroying them, and it seemed almost there came a man who led the way out of impossible for the railroads, either in- war into peace, and out of ruin into dividually or as a collection of companies, prosperity. He was a man strong enough to get a hearing at all before the bar of to command the attention of his peers public opinion.
and big enough to do the task he set himThe result has been a state of uncertainty self. He was the president of the most in the railroad business. Most of the old powerful railroad, the Pennsylvania. He leaders of the railroad world, the men who did not, of course, dominate the railroads. made the policies and dictated the rail- He merely led them, bringing them toroad terms of ten years ago, are discarded.gether to common policies for the interest The public cares little what they do and of all, holding them firm when they seemed less what they say. It is taken for granted to waver, establishing common policies that their policies and purposes are purely for all, mending broken heads when he had selfish, born of a desire for larger dividends, to, and breaking heads anew if the interlarger salaries, and larger emoluments. est of the whole demanded it. The public is almost savage in its attitude The leadership of Mr. Cassatt fifteen toward these men and toward the things years ago cannot be repeated in kind they are supposed to represent. That to-day. There is no need for it. To stop temper finds expression in a dozen great the civil war in which the railroads were revelations of railroad mismanagement, destroying themselves, he had to strike out in bitter speeches in the legislatures of the a policy that practically put such comcountry, and in hundreds of bills intro- petitors as the Pennsylvania, the Balti
ore & Ohio, and the Norfolk & Western
men, a great army making similar demands. to one pocket and kept them there. This time, one man was pushed forhe youngest clerk in the legal department ward from the executive army to speak for
the Pennsylvania would know that such all the railroads. It was Mr. Willard thing, if done to-day, would bring down of the Baltimore & Ohio. He can talk to le terrors of the Sherman Act upon the trainmen in their own language. He has ead of the railroad that did it.
been everything from day laborer on the The task to-day is not to reconcile one track to president. He knows how a fireuilroad to another, to level up discordant man lives, because he was a fireman. He nd competitive rates, and to eliminate knows how it feels when an engineer's bates and discriminations. The law pay won't go all the way around, for he as done all that. Rates are now level was an engineer out West when hard times nd non-discriminatory. Rates are pub- came twenty years ago. Undoubtedly shed, and must be kept. The railroads Mr. Willard is the man to fix up this big re not quarreling among themselves. labor trouble for the railroads. hey are very far from it.
Later on, a new plan was devised. InTo-day's task is to reconcile the rail- stead of the badly balanced rate advance pads and the people. It is a statesman's proposed, and beaten, three or four years ob. It has to be done from the ground ago, the railroads came forward to ask for
There are no codes and rules by a general advance of 5 per cent. in freight which it may be done. The man who rates. The hopes of railroad salvation eads the railroads' cause to-day and to- are pinned on that. If that goes through, norrow must first of all make for himself all is saved. If it does not, they believe he methods by which he will get a hearing. that the fat is in the fire. Then he must get the public to come and All men recognized that the freight eason it out with him, like two good law- rate advances of four years ago were ers debating right and wrong. He must beaten by the voice of the public. Public De cool, not disturbed by rumors, abuse, opinion damned a scheme that proposed nisunderstandings, petty bickerings, and to lay the whole burden of rate advance rresponsible talk. He must be quiet and upon a very small part of the freight that well-balanced, slow to reach great con- is moved. Public opinion had to be clusions, but steadfast when he reaches shown that the proposed advance of 5 them. Above all, he must be honest and per cent. is fair, is good public business, is straight; and all men who meet him must necessary, and will not give any great know it when they meet him.
amount of wealth to anybody who does not Unconsciously, the railroads are pushing earn it. forward to this task Mr. Daniel Willard Quietly, and without any official badge of the Baltimore & Ohio. He hardly upon his coat, Mr. Daniel Willard of the knows it. If he happens to read this Baltimore & Ohio again emerges from article he will probably be inclined to deny the crowd of railroad heads and gets down it. Let us look at the facts:
to the business of getting that 5 per cent. A year or more ago there arose a great rate increase before the court of public dispute between the engineers of the East- opinion and getting a verdict in favor of it. ern railroads and the roads. The men Of course, other men talk; but Mr. Wilwanted more money. The roads did not lard is the man who must do the real work. want to pay it. They appointed a big The public has come to know that Mr. committee of workers, railroad men, Willard is no magnate, trying to "put economists, and college professors and something across” that will net him a big arbitrated the dispute back in a circle to return on a little investment of money and the place it started from. Then came time and labor. He is the man who fits another dispute with the conductors on the job. He is the man who looks fairly the same railroads. This time a little inside and out and all around a public committee arbitrated and did a little question — the honest man whom, maybe, better, perhaps. Next came the train- the public may trust.