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MR. HENRY FORD WHO IS ONE OF THE FOREMOST LEADERS IN THE MOVEMENT BY WHICH THE VALUE OF THE EXPORTS OF AMERICAN-MADE AUTOMOBILES HAS BEEN LIFTED FROM 4 MILLION DOLLARS TO 28 MILLION DOLLARS IN SEVEN YEARS, AND BY WHICH AMERICAN CARS ARE NOW REGULARLY SOLD IN PRACTICALLY EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD

(See page 529)

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THE GROWTH OF AMERICAN CITIES
UPPER PICTURE : FOURTEENTH STREET IN OAKLAND, CAL., IN 1900.
THE SAME VIEW IN 1912. THE POPULATION OF OAKLAND ROSE FROM 66,960
150,174 IN 1910, AN INCREASE OF 124 PER CENT.

LOWER PICTURE

IN 1900 7

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MEXICO

to the difficulty that we should have in

withdrawing from Mexico. Hardly a HE most serious part of the present greater misfortune could befall us than to

Mexican situation is the future. be cursed with the administration of an

The world looks upon us as the other unsatisfied country. And no overguarantors of permanent peace in that lordship that we could administer would distracted country. To accomplish that satisfy a people who have had even the is one of the most delicate tasks of con- name of independence for a hundred years. structive statesmanship that has ever faced Nor could anything we could do overcome a nation. In the one hundred and three the resentment and suspicion that our years of their independence the Mexican intervention in Mexico would arouse people have never successfully practised in Central and South America. democratic government and they have

11 produced but one successful dictator. · The present chaos of that country is There is but one logical course of action unbearable in the eyes of the world. The for the United States in the present dilemUnited States, having put a prohibition That is mediation. If through upon interference from Europe, assumes the good offices of Ex-governor Lind, to the responsibility of seeing that law and whom the President has entrusted this order take the place of tyranny, rebellion, delicate task, the present warring facand brigandage. To recognize Huerta tions can be persuaded to retire in favor would have put the stamp of our approval of an administration legally elected, with upon bloody revolution, and would not clean hands, and fair prospects of success, have helped the ultimate solution of the we shall have done the Mexican people problem. The foundation of Huerta's and ourselves a great service. régime has not been its acceptance by the If this fail after a fair trial or if some unMexican people, nor his ability as dictator. toward incident like the blowing up of the Its life was prolonged by a foreign loan Maine raises an insistent cry of war there is of $30,000,000. But such loans are not still the last recourse to armed intervention. likely to be repeated for such small secur- But this would mean the loss of thousands ity as Huerta can give, especially without of men and millions of money and probthe recognition of the United States. ably a permanent Mexican problem.

To intervene with armies is to admit the The constructive task is to help the hopelessness of the situation and to commit Mexican people to help themselves in ourselves to a project the end of which no peace - to gain their good-will, not their one can foresee. In the first place, we enmity. have not an army commensurate with the Ex-governor Lind's task is a most delitask, and the loss of men and money which cate one, and its difficulties have been we would suffer in making our volunteer increased by the actions of the recently forces into an army would horrify any one retired Ambassador in Mexico, and his illwho has not studied our past military advised and inappropriate speech on his rerecords. But the worst of intervention turn to this country. The new emissary to would not be getting our armies into Mexico, if he accomplish anything, must Mexico. It would be getting them out interfere in the domestic affairs of a again. The end of the Spanish War found foreign state. Of course, many Mexicans our soldiers in Cuba, Porto Rico, and the will resent this. But it is to be hoped Philippines. Twice since then we have in- that the more responsible of them, and tervened in Cuba. We have colonial ad

We have colonial ad- the foreign bankerson whom Mexico ministrations in Porto Rico and in the largely depends, will realize that if ExPhilippines, and in this last colony there are governor Lind's mission is not successful still 12,000 American soldiers. The situa- in bringing about an honest and peaceful tion in none of these islands is quite com- election as a basis for the establishment parable to that in Mexico, and yet our of law and order, the situation will be experiences in them point unmistakably just one step nearer intervention.

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ABOUT ENTANGLING ALLIANCES This or any foreign policy that puts us

in an "entangling alliance” has, of course, HE Senate Committee on Foreign many drawbacks, but as we may now at Affairs has refused to sanction any time be entangled with the more un

Secretary Bryan's plan to have stable of the neighbor republics there is the United States definitely assume the something to be said in favor of an same responsibility toward Nicaragua that alliance with the more stable states. we have now toward Cuba.

Perhaps there are no South American Undoubtedly the Secretary's plan meant states that would share our Monroe an "entangling alliance" such as we have Doctrine. There may be other reasons traditionally avoided. But the avoidance against this particular plan, but one thing has been more in tradition than in fact, as is certain: it behooves every American our relations to Mexico show. If we did to think long and earnestly about our not have a de facto entangling alliance with relations with South and Central America Mexico we should not be any more re- We are confronted "with a condition not sponsible for conditions in that country a theory.” We are not in the safe isolathan any other country. But the Monroe tion from foreign affairs that we are Doctrine's inevitable inference is that if accustomed to think ourselves. We are the people of any American country fail in need of a definite foreign policy that to live up to their obligations to civiliza- will relieve us of suspicion and set definite tion, the responsibility next falls upon the limits to our responsibilities. United States. We have not taken this responsibility very actively, yet it might MR. MCADOO'S HELPING HAND at any time be forced upon us.

Mr. Bryan's plan recognized the posi- HE Secretary of the Treasury stirred tive responsibilities imposed upon us as

up a great controversy by his well as the negation imposed upon Euro

method of trying to alleviate some pean countries. It was meant only as of the money stringency that yearly aian honest attempt to aid Nicaragua. companies the moving of the crops. He Our intervention in that country would offered to deposit between 25 and 30 mr.2have been no more imminent with the lion dollars in the banking centres of the treaty than without it.

grain and cotton states. The banks 2 Latin American critics are, however, those states generally accepted the offer, apt to suspect our motives. In the last

for with a 25 to 50

illion dollar increa& fifteen years we have taken Porto Rico, in deposits, they can increase their loans the Philippines, the Canal strip. We have between 100 and 200 millions. Even if intervened in Cuba when we considered so huge a task as moving the crops than it necessary. We are operating the custom- is a very real help. houses (the chief source of income) in The Secretary has devised but a cruce Santo Domingo. Our neighbors fear that and arbitrary way of doing what the new we are easily forced into taking territory currency measure ought to do regular's and extending our influence.

and effectively. But at least the ter This is unfortunate at this time when porary expedient ought to make tro the opening of the Panama Canal increases year's crop-moving easier and perha the possibilities of our more intimate in- teach us a little that will help in 5 tercourse and trade with South America. operation of the new currency law. There

An interesting plan has been made to is nothing in the experiment to cause allay this suspicion and at the same time the discussion that it has aroused. The somewhat to reduce the responsibilities is no reason why an effort to improve a that the Monroe Doctrine puts upon us. bad condition which everyone knows com The plan is to invite one or two of the once a year should be construed as a stronger South American countries to join emergency measure which should make with us in upholding this doctrine and all public feel that business was in a precan that it necessarily entails.

state. Neither is there any reason to feel

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the Secretary's action as a precedent. The chiefly brought about the recent improvenew currency measure should end the ment in New York City government, all need for such actions.

on one ticket, the fusion movement cerBut it is to be hoped that Mr. McAdoo's tainly should have a good chance to win plan will be successful this year, for both at the polls. the producers and consumers are heavy There is no doubt that the election of losers by a system under which crop- this fusion ticket would give New York moving is retarded by the lack of capital. a city administration which in honesty and

knowledge of the task surpasses any that

New York has had for many years. It FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT IN

would be so well equipped with experience NEW YORK

that it even holds out a fair prospect of HE nomination of Mr. John Purroy taking the corruption out of the police Mitchel, the collector of the port, force

force — the most difficult problem of any as the fusion candidate for Mayor city administration. of New York has more than local significance. There are two or three municipal NEW BLOOD FOR THE NEW political machines that spread their cor

HAVEN rupting influence to state and national politics. Tammany Hall is the most

R. HOWARD ELLIOTT, the new dangerous of them.

chairman of the board of direcIt gets no spoils from the present

V tors of the New York, New Haven Administration at Washington. Unfor

Unfor- & Hartford Railroad, has a personality tunately an unfit Governor is not an and a record which inspire confidence that effective opponent of the machine. Never he will be able to gain "good-will” for that theless, to take away its spoils in the city system and bring it back to the place of would give promise of leaving Tammany eminence it enjoyed in the railroad world shorn of much of its patronage and power. ten years ago. It is a hard task and a slow The defeat of Tammany is the first task.

task. But it will be easier from the fact task. For this the fusion committee chose that his appointment produces a friendly a good candidate. As president of the attitude both from investors and from Board of Aldermen, Mr. Mitchel forced the public. Moreover, Mr. Elliott's new three grafting Tammany borough presi- position, the chairman of the board of dents out of office. He knows the rough directors, is what it should be.

It gives and tumble of New York City politics. earnest of a change in that body — a He is a capable and active fighter for change that was needed just as much as honesty and efficiency.

the change in the presidency of the road. After the defeat of Tammany comes the Mr. Mellen's retirement takes out of task of administration of the city govern- railroad management the last of the oldment, a government that collects and fashioned railroad barons. The Interspends more money and serves more state Commerce Commission's report on people than most of the state governments the New Haven management, written by in the country. In doing this task, if

In doing this task, if Mr. Prouty — the first report of this kind elected, Mr. Mitchel will have the able ever made by the Commission — did not help of Mr. McAneny, now the president censure the road's service. It said, on the of the Borough of Manhattan.

contrary, that the passengers and shipMr. McAneny's record as a construc- pers that used the New Haven's lines had tive city official made him a very strong little to complain of in the service. candidate for the Mayoralty nomination. stated specifically that, though the New It is a fine spirit in him and in Mr. Haven's operation was not so good as the Whitman, the District Attorney, who Pennsylvania's, it was comparable to that was similarly a candidate, that made them of the Baltimore & Ohio. accept places on the ticket under Mr. Yet President Willard of the Baltimore Mitchel. With the three men who have & Ohio holds a high place in the public esti

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