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necessary to jump to the conclusion that suggested was that we might investigate high wages made it impossible; might the industry as a whole. It would be not the difficulty be in any of the other improper, of course, for this department items that determine cost? Mr. Red- to hold up individual manufacturers to field mercilessly drove home his point obloquy and make public the details of by quoting from leading articles in the their business. It would be entirely proper. lithographers' own trade papers. These however, to make a scientific examination papers for months had been filled with of a whole industry. Such an examinacomplaints of the “inefficiency" of Ameri- tion, conducted by experts, would be can lithographing plants; their wastes, immensely valuable. The manufacturers their unscientific use of materials, and the would learn a great deal from it. Many like. Possibly these elements, said Mr. are paying efficiency engineers large sums

to do for them this very thing which in this case the Government was to de free. Such an investigation, properti conducted, would show the manufacturer new and economic methods of manage ment, give them new ideas on the technica side — we have an elaborate Bureau o Standards here, in charge of some of the country's most experienced chemists, who could unquestionably find out much tha: would be practically valuable in the lithographing trade or in any other. Such an investigation would also show to wha: extent high wages are, after all, responsible for the high cost of the product. With this explanation, I stand now upon everything I said to the lithographers. The suggestion, however, was not put forth in the spirit of a threat; rather of coöperation Indeed, we are making now such as investigation of the potters' industry This is being made at the request of the potters themselves. When we have finished — and the investigation will prob

ably take a year — we shall know more THE LATE J. H. WILLIAMS

about this particular industry than we MR. REDFIELD'S EMPLOYER AND PARTNER IN THE

have ever known before. And the inforMANUFACTURING BUSINESS, FROM WHOM HE GAINED



Redfield, explained why Americans found international competition difficult; at least it might become the duty of his department to find out.

"The newspapers," says Mr. Redfield, "entirely distorted what I said. They asserted that I had threatened to expose to the world the inside secrets of any plant that reduced wages. I had said nothing of the kind. I never purposed to investigate any individual plant; all that I

potters themselves.”

Unquestionably, the Secretary of Commerce is a man who improves on acquaintance. Since the fourth of March hostile critics have been eagerly looking for the “Ballinger of the Wilson Administration" several men have served their purpose ir turn; at one time Mr. Redfield, because of his supposed “break” in his speech to the lithographers, was acclaimed as a likely candidate. But Washington is now revising its estimate. It recognizes Mr Redfield as a man of brains and even of industrial imagination.

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M R. GUSTAV DIETZ, of New care is taken that this valuable piece of

York, and Capt. Francis H. glass remains unspecked and unharmed Behr, an official photogra- by the dangerous gases which surround pher of the Coast Artillery it during some of the tests.

Corps, have solved the prob- But the chief value of the novel camera lem presented by the highest of high-speed lies in the shutter, which is the invention photography by which the Army hopes to of Mr. Dietz. This shutter is operated answer questions of ordnance which would by an electric motor that makes several almost certainly have remained riddles but thousand revolutions a minute. As the for their invention. Their camera differs speed of this motor is capable of accurate from the ordinary machine in only two adjustment, the photographer can departiculars — its size and its shutter. termine the exact length of the exposure It is about four feet in height and each up to sooo of a second. This is the shortof its parts is, of course, correspondingly est fraction of time during which the light larger than that of the ordinary kodak. waves will make a definite impression on It (there is only one at present) is equipped the highly sensitized plates and, as it is with the finest two-inch lens, and great possible to obtain clear photographs of

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Copyright by the Department of Enlisted Specialists, C. A. S. THE SMOKE RING COMPLETELY OBSCURING THE PROJECTILE

on of a seconiectile. By

that time

open for the fraction of a second necessary to record the flight of the projectile. By regulating the current and the speed of the electric motor it has been found possible to catch shells just as they leave the mouth of the gun, suspended in mid-air, or as they strike the target. In the latter case the screen which regulates the shutter is placed in front of the target instead of inside the gun itself.

Captain Behr was forced to spend many months and thousands of dollars before he finally perfected his device for photo graphing shells in flight. The first photo graphs showed the projectile to be about

eight feet long. This was because the exposure was toto of a second, and during that time the shell traveled far enough to appear on the negative as twice its actual length. When the exposure was reduced to sobo, however, the impression of the shell was found to be clear, distinct, and in exact proportion.

Captain Behr made a number of his most important experiments with mortars, the mainstay of the Coast Artillery Service. Before finishing its plans for the fortification of the Panama Canal the authorities of the War Department desired to obtain more accurate knowledge


Copyright by the Department of Enlisted Specialists, C.A.S A PERFECT SMOKE RING “MUSHROOMING”

of the working of this integral part of the covered and will be remedied in all the new coast defenses. The dean of the army models as they are manufactured. photographers was therefore chosen to The formation of the deadly "smoke carry on the experiments, and he dis- ring" which immediately follows the covered many things formerly unknown, issuance of the projectile was also acsecrets which will be extremely useful in curately depicted by the Behr camera any future war in which the United The phenomenon of the smoke ring is one States may participate.

of the most peculiar connected with the With this unique camera Captain Behr mortars. Almost before the shell appears succeeded in getting views of mortar the ring of gaseous smoke can be seen, shells in all positions, up to the time when obscuring the muzzle of the gun and rising they ceased their upward flight and started rapidly upward. Gunners claim that this to descend. By a close inspection of smoke ring is rendered as hard as steel by these views a number of faults in con- reason of its centrifugal velocity, and the nection with the mortars have been dis- story is told at Fortress Monroe of a luck

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