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from her mind. She mentioned it merely ment of her own devilment, she may have as any other observer might, in wishing lighted a cigarette! Possibly she has to aid the Association in its work. If the crossed the campus in male attire, having students choose to take up the matter, dressed thus for her rôle in a play. She well and good; if not, it will never be may have made a social engagement with referred to again.

some male member of the faculty. She Next day a note comes to Minerva. It may have secretly turned the strawberry is not from the president, dean, or any lemonade into punch at a tea. She may other of the mature powers-that-be. It is have returned so late that the low windows from certain authorized members of the offered an easy means of entering her Students' Association, which elects its dormitory, unknown. She may have inofficers wholly from the ranks of the stu- vited a man caller to her own study withdents. In the note Minerva Smith is re- out a chaperon. Once a student smuggled minded that, in the first place, she left the her own brother into the gymnasium, college for overnight without registering disguising him in feminine garments. her address in the hall; and that, secondly, Slowly the mills of the students grind, she has broken the rule that the seven- but woe to the sinner when the grinding forty-five on weekdays, and the eight-fifteen is done. If it be agreed by the executive on Sundays, are the latest trains which stu- board that the victim be suspended for dents are permitted to take unescorted, and six weeks, possibly expelled, Miss Thomas the nine-fifteen is the latest in any case. is asked to go through the form of dis

"But I thought there were no rules for missal. This is a mere matter of form, conduct made by the faculty!” she protests however; the board knows that its deto a junior.

cision will stand. The president has never “There aren't. The rules are our own. yet vetoed such a decision; this she would And you won't find many faculties that not risk doing, for one veto would overenforce rules as strictly as we do," warns throw the democracy. But the significant the weathered junior.

fact is: she has never yet wanted to veto. Miss Minerva is given a chance to mend And so, in the guise of a detached obher ways, but is made to understand that server, she looks on as if she had nothing repeated offences mean a penalty. The to do with it all. Occasionally some infact that her fellow students frown upon fringement of rules comes to her attention her careless conduct strikes her forcibly. as, for instance, Minerva Smith's It dawns upon her that liberty in its truest offence — but she merely reports the sense is the most austere form of govern- incident to the students in authority, to ment; she hears that these girl students assist them. warn, punish, if necessary expel, offenders And yet her spirit is the vital force without asking advice from anybody. animating this remarkable government,

To be sure, they are not often called small, compact, isolate, and practiupon to use such extreme measures, for cally perfect as a republic. So, too, her in the main the self-government achieves insistence upon ideals of scholarship is its end of excellent conduct. But the behind that proverbially high standard of girl who will not enter into the spirit of requirements in entrance examinations it ever and anon appears, and she is dealt and for graduation. It is a standard with to the full measure of the law. which keeps the college small; it does

Perhaps, in the beginning, the trouble- not even attempt to accommodate more some freshman was like Minerva. Smith than about four hundred and fifty stuand did not understand. But if the dents, and it annually weeds out two executive board becomes fully convinced thirds of its applicants by examination. of her law-breaking spirit, it summons her The girl who carries off a Bryn Mawr before its court, gives her a hearing, calls diploma must be ready to fight for it. upon witnesses, and judges. Her sin And no matter how hard her struggle for may have taken any one of many forms. learning, it cannot possibly be as hard as Perhaps, fairly tremulous in the excite- was the struggle of this woman who has

made these privileges possible to her; for third of a year must go to some science, she, of another generation, fought against another third to another science, or to the overwhelming odds of prejudice. political economy, or history, or law, or

In the days of her earliest struggles, she mathematics, another third to the history wept over the story of Adam and Eve of philosophy, another third to whichever because she thought that the curse pro- one of the four languages was omitted at nounced upon Eve might imperil girls' entrance (Greek, Latin, French, and Gergoing to college. She searched books man were offered, three to be chosen), everywhere for light upon the possibilities and another third for two years to English of woman, and often found her hopes literature and the correct writing and rebuffed by even the greatest. Milton pronunciation of our language. Here you excited her rage and indignation and she have, then, only a highly modified form of condemned him as a woman-hater; even specialization. The major subjects are Shakespeare, she felt, was not entirely fair chosen by the student, but so many subto her sex intellectually. And so, through jects are required of her that she is bound inward storm, rebuked by her period, she to have a pretty general education before fought on, educating herself in America she gets through. She cannot escape these and Europe. The degree she had earned subjects, whether she is interested in at the University of Leipzig from 1879 to them or not. 1882 was refused her on account of her All this is part of that greed for learning. sex; a like fate befell her at the Uni- and more learning, both for herself and versity of Göttingen; but the University others, which fills Miss Thomas. A four of Zürich finally granted her the degree of years' course is none too long, according Ph.D., summa cum laude, the highest to the president's stern doctrine, to predegree, at that time, ever awarded to a pare to specialize. In a day when the woman. It was a sort of martial experi- vocational mania is abroad in the land, ence for a girl; it brought the iron to the there is something formidable in viewing surface. No wonder it was with an aus- the foundation required here for a superterity of standard that she started on her structure later on. In a day when we career as an educator. And somehow, by smatter through countless subjects in a that occult process which we all have quick preparation, that we may hurry on experienced, that austerity has contrived to our specialty, this groundwork for life to permeate the air of Bryn Mawr. The looks like the great wall of China beside students inhale it.

the underpinning of a portable house. She will not permit Bryn Mawr College Bryn Mawr is the only woman's college to accept the certificates of schools in to maintain a graduate school. Barnard lieu of its own examinations. These

examinations. These and Radcliffe have such schools, but only are given annually in twenty or more as they share the privilege with the men's centres. When the days of examinations universities to which they are allied. are over, the little group that President There is a theory in this Pennsylvania Thomas looks over as it faces its freshman institution that

institution that not only should the year is only one third of those who applied opportunity for further study be offered for entrance, a picked and tiny army. to women, but that it is a good thing for

And now come the four years of still the undergraduates -- this contact with keener effort. This college dared to under- graduate workers - and that it is stimulatake the group system of studies, adopting ting to a faculty. This school is one of it from Johns Hopkins in early days, when Miss Thomas's pet hobbies. other colleges for women were trying no Just one curious requirement for graduaventuresome experiments of such a nature. tion is a sidelight upon her passion for Every girl has her major subjects to which perfection. She has instituted the rule she must give one and a third years of her that every candidate for graduation must time. Chemistry and physics may be pass in sight-reading of French and Gerwoven together, or political economy and man. The little room with its long table history, or Greek and Latin. Another in which every senior must go through

her ordeal has been described as "quiet, happen to be of the other, she does not awfully quiet," with the president sitting try to deceive herself. This is one of the face to face with the victim and two other most distinctive traits of the woman: members of the faculty ready to hear her no one, not even Miss M. Carey Thomas, stumble through those alarming phrases. can deceive her. She looks others and That Gibraltar-like austerity, combined herself straight in the eye and demands with an infallible sense of humor which an honest explanation — and she has the characterizes Miss Thomas, makes the kind of an eye that gets it. hour at once terrifying and funny. Other It is as jovial an eye as it is formidable, colleges call for no such intimate knowl- however, at appropriate moments. It edge of the languages; but Bryn Mawr can dance over a girl's mischief even while is merciless, and the girl who cannot get the law is being upheld. Altogether she through the test must give up her degree. is a quaint figure, this Quaker-born lady "It means only an hour's reading a day with the Welsh ancestry. You may find through three summer vacations, her in the afternoon in a plain shirtwaist blandly observes Bryn Mawr!

and a still plainer skirt, with her white The fact that Bryn Mawr has happened hair drawn back as if there were too few to educate a great many daughters of precious years of life to spend a moment wealthy families has given rise to no value more than necessary in adorning a coiffure. of fashion for fashion's sake. Snobbery There is a severe plainness about the whole among girls, even if it should appear, figure; and here it sits, monarch in a sort would wither in short order before the of intellectual palace - a home which is a probing mind of this woman whose own treasure-house of rare books and exquisite standards tolerate no favoritism. Cer- ornaments from foreign lands. Room after tain girls have brought maids with them; room rambles on in this luxury, a luxury they were girls who had always been in that represents wealth of mind rather than the habit of having their glove-buttons wealth of purse. And through the palace sewed on and their hairpins arranged for bustles this plain little woman in a shirtthem, but it turned out that in a few waist, now hurrying to the long reception months' time they found it convenient to room to receive a nationally famous caller, send the maids home and look after next to the office to dictate a mass of themselves. Secret sororities have never urgent letters, seeing every task in clearbeen admitted within these walls; it is cut outlines which clip it down to the well known that the president does not minimum time. Or, chafing under the approve of them, that they would be handicap of a badly sprained ankle, she directly opposed to her ideas of democracy. still goes hobbling about, resenting the The societies she encourages are founded impertinence of such an ankle, refusing upon achievement, or are meant to pro- to submit, for her prodigious activities mote interest in study.

leave her no time to waste upon illness. She weeds to get her professors just as These activities extend far beyond the she weeds for a picked group of students; walls of Bryn Mawr College. What Miss and that nothing matters but excellence is Thomas has done for woman everywhere shown in this: there are more men than is inestimable. Just one thing, for exwomen in her faculty. Now she is a ample, tells the story of her all-pervasive feminist, has always been absorbed in the enterprise in a nutshell — you may have woman question, is one of the foremost forgotten it -- she was one of the most suffragists in our country to-day, and if powerful influences in obtaining for Johns she were the partisan that many a suffra- Hopkins Medical School, in 1893, its engist is she would choose women because dowment of $500,000 upon the agreethey are women. Instead of that she ment that women be admitted to its wishes only to have the best professors. scholarship on equal terms with men. She would be glad if they happened to That is a type of the sort of thing Miss be of her own sex; but as they often Thomas is always doing.

THE SWIFT ADVANCE FROM THE CRUDE METHODS OF A GENERATION AGO TO
THE INFINITELY DELICATE, PAINLESS, AND SHOCKLESS OPERATIONS ON
THE HEART, THE LUNGS, AND OTHER FORMERLY INACCESSIBLE
PARTS OF THE BODY — THE DISTINGUISHED SHARE OF

AMERICAN SURGEONS IN THIS DRAMA OF HEALING

BY

EDWARD PREBLE, M. D.

T

Wo Americans, brothers, Dr. even vital organs may be transplanted
William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles from one body to another and continue to
H. Mayo, have perhaps the perform their normal functions
most complete surgical "plant" It is appropriate that Americans should

in the world. They are prob- play an important part in surgery, for it ably the best known of all living surgeons is distinctly a modern art. Indeed, it and their methods are studied by men owes its origin to an American discovery. who come from all parts of Europe solely It was not until that famous day in 1846, to see them operate. An American, Dr. when Dr. John C. Warren, at the MassaGeorge W. Crile, is probably the foremost chusetts Hospital in Boston, performed living authority on surgical shock and on the first major operation under anesthesia transfusion of blood. Americans created that modern surgery really began. The the modern art of orthopedic surgery — actual founder of the science was the Amersurgery to correct deformities

and are

ican dentist, Dr. William T. G. Morton, the most distinguished practitioners of the who anesthetized Dr. Warren's patient, art. Dr. Harvey Cushing, another using a secret fluid which he called “Le American, is perhaps the greatest of living theon,” but which, it afterward appeared, brain surgeons. And an Americanized was sulphuric ether. This beneficent vapor Frenchman, Dr. Alexis Carrel, working not only relieved the patient from all in an American laboratory, has opened the suffering but permitted the surgeon to way to a revolutionary advance in medicine operate as long and as freely as he would through the surgical treatment of diseased Great as Morton's discovery was, howand worn out tissue. Such are only a few ever, surgical procedure was still far from of America's contributions.

ideal. Blood poisoning and gangrene alBut, great as is the work that America most inevitably set in upon the exposet has done in modern surgery, it is only a wounds. Suppuration was so much the conspicuous part of an amazing whole. routine sequence of operations that the Here are some of the astonishing items: medical scientists of fifty years ago reA finger that has been completely severed garded it as essential to success. The doefrom the hand can be restored so that the tors even had a phrase, “laudable pus, full use of it is recovered; tissues that under which expressed this conviction. The old methods would be dead and useless can conditions that prevailed in the hospitals be revived by the application of intense when Lister began his work are incredible heat; a wound of the heart can be sewed English surgeons operated in frock coats, up as simpler wounds are sewed; a blood Frenchmen made an operation a gala oaraclot in the great artery of the lung can sion, putting on dress suits. Their idea oi be removed; the bronchial tubes can be surgical cleanliness consisted in washing electrically lighted and cleared of danger- their instruments in warm water, ous obstructions; the brain can be freely surgeon dropped his knife on the floor he treated by surgical means; and joints and would pick it up, wipe it on his sleeve, an! plunge it into the wound again. It was the steam in the boiler, or the electricity Lister's work, introducing antiseptic meth- generated by the dynamo, or the air we ods, that drove gangrene and "laudable breathe. The brain cells have an allotted pus" out of the hospitals. Modern sur- supply; as they give it off, they lose vitality gery, which has substituted asepsis for and weaken; if they give off all their antisepsis— the prevention of blood poison- energy or even abnormal quantities of it, ing rather than its cure after it has gained they die. Nearly all physical and emotional entrance to the wound — has made practi- phenomena make certain drafts upon this cally perfect the great science of hospital reservoir of energy. Fear and bodily cleanliness.

injury in particular draw upon it. The One thing still remained to be done. amount of energy released depends upon Anesthesia and asepsis are really gifts from the intensity of the fear and the severity Heaven; surgical operations, however, are of tissue lacerations. Your body could be not yet absolutely safe. There is one terror sliced by a sharp razor and produce only that still stalks about the wards; the ca- a slight cerebral exhaustion; but tearing, tastrophe which has been somewhat vague- crushing, and slashing make heavy dely known as “death from shock.” “The mands upon this stored-up energy. Actual operation was successful, but the patient experiments conducted by Dr. Crile have died;" the lay mind has always regarded demonstrated that bodily injury and emothis expression as a somewhat grim surgical tional excitement, especially fear, produce joke. However, it expressed a profound identically the same injuries upon the brain. scientific truth. When patients die, in The brain of a fox that has been submitted spite of perfect aseptic conditions and to severe physical injury displayed, when the finest surgical skill, they usually die placed under the microscope, exactly the from "shock."

same lesions. In both cases the brain-cells What is death from shock? The first have given out large quantities of energy, man to formulate a comprehensive and released, that is, certain chemical subintelligible definition is one of America's stances indispensable to life. In both most famous surgeons, Dr. George W. cases the brain has been “shocked”. Crile, of Cleveland, O. According to Dr. In all surgical operations these two Crile there is really no such thing as phenomena, fear and the wounding of surgical shock considered as a distinct tissues, are the elements that produce phenomenon; the accident that takes place shock. The fear, of course, is preliminary; on the operating table is simply another the long anticipation, the presence of the manifestation of one of the commonest facts surgeon and the nurses, the sight of the of everyday experience. When we laugh operating theatre and the instruments, or cry or are frightened, or suffer any form the suffocation produced by inhaling the of physical injury, however slight, we nauseous ether. This latter experience undergo some degree of “shock.” A especially agonizes the patient and makes Marathon runner, after the race is finished, serious

serious demands upon the stored-up is suffering from "shock.” No baseball energy in the brain. Once anesthetized, player finishes a game without experien- however, we might suppose that the danger cing the same discomfort. A barefoot boy

A barefoot boy from the shock is over. That part inwho steps on a sharp stone and hastily duced by fear is, but now the more serious withdraws his foot is mildly "shocked.” dangers appear. Every time the surgeon's A soldier whose leg is torn off by a cannon knife goes in, the brain cells give up certain ball is "shocked” on a more terrible scale. instalments of their energy. The anes

In a word, "shock” is really another thetic does not interfere with this exhaustname for cerebral exhaustion. The cells ing process. The motor nerves which of the brain when in its normal condition carry these impulses from the brain to the are richly stored with "energy.” This wounded areas are just as active as when energy is not psychical, but physical; it is we are wide awake. All that the anescomposed of certain definitely known thetic does is to make us insensible to pain; chemical constituents; it is just as real as the physical results of the wound are just

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