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schools, less than two years ago, demon- on the waiting-list, and one hundred and strated that it takes only from four to fifty others ready for admission whea twelve weeks to start an industrial school the law should be fully enforced. for children between the ages of fourteen Though five hours a week is the miand sixteen in any progressive industrial mum time required by law for attendance community. Such a school, built up in in

in the day continuation schools such a space of time, will be substantially do not ask the children to go to school az as perfect and complete as can be desired night after working all day - there is no under existing conditions. In 1912 we limit to the time a pupil may spend excer started an industrial school at Racine on the time the employer is willing to give forty-eight hours' notice and in September him from his work. No part of the of that year similar schools were started wages paid brings larger returns than tha: at twenty-five other places in Wisconsin. paid for school time. Many of the 17.000 These schools were operated at a yearly pupils in Wisconsin continuation schou cost per pupil of less than half that of last year spent a whole day in schi the common schools, the expense varying every week. In Fond du Lac two do in proportion to the size of the community mestic servants attended school from ten and the number of pupils, from seven to twenty hours every week. Two boys dollars to fifteen dollars a year for every employed by their father, got from tent: pupil. The average for the entire state fifteen hours a week in school. ln Racine for the year was ten dollars per pupil. a boy of sixteen who had worked on

Where did we get the teachers? Why, two days in two years was compelled to we got them from the place where the attend five hours a week. After a few very best industrial teachers are always days he asked the teacher: "Can't I sta; to be found plentifully — we got them more than five hours?" He spent all his from the shops. In any community time in the continuation school after having modern industrial establishments that, until he succeeded in getting a there is no trouble in getting teachers good job, and he is now putting in five who are not only competent but enthu- hours a week while working. siastic and up-to-date. And these teach- The work of the continuation schools ers do more than teach — they exert is not confined to those engaged in manua very beneficial reflex influence on the facturing industries. We are making them teachers of the public school.

a training place for those engaged in The wood-working class in the con- commercial pursuits as well. This yea: tinuation school at Sheboygan furnishes particular attention will be paid to retail an excellent illustration of what I mean salesmanship. This will be done through when I say there are plenty of good teach- the practical application of the results of ers available. The teacher of this class the survey which Dr. Louis E. Reber, is a middle-aged German. He served dean of the Extension Division of the his apprenticeship in Germany and worked University of Wisconsin, has been making there as a journeyman before coming to of the business of retailing and salesmanAmerica. That means that he had learned ship. The wages of retail salespeople, 25 his trade thoroughly, as Germans learn a class, are very low. This is true throughtrades. He worked in America as a out the country. It is also generally journeyman. Then he became a foreman. true that salespeople as a class are lacking Later he became an employer and owner in efficiency. The difference between 3 of a small furniture factory. He is good salesman and a poor one is very teaching these children his craftasthorough- great. Experience indicates clearly that ly as he learned it himself, with infinite a store gets a much lower return, in propatience and kindness, and they are portion to wages paid, from the fourresponding with tremendous enthusiasm. dollar-a-week salesgirl than from the At the end of the first six weeks there saleswoman who gets fifteen dollars a were three hundred and fifty children in week or more. Here, as everywhere the Sheboygan school, one hundred more else, cheap help is costliest and the best

paid help is cheapest. And the ineffi- The underlying principle on which the ciency of salespeople can usually be traced whole scheme of industrial education is directly to lack of knowledge of their work based, the justification for what we are and its purposes, to lack of ambition, trying to do, is that it is distinctly unjust of energy, and sometimes to physical to withhold from any member of society weakness. Two years ago the Exten- the opportunity to learn the things that sion Division of the University of Wis- will enable that man or woman or boy or consin began to educate retailers in the girl to do his or her share of the world's conduct of their business and salesmen work efficiently and joyously. Vocational in the art of selling. The continuation training is neither a boon nor a privilege schools of Wisconsin are enlarging upon - it is the birthright of every American this work. Classes have already been child. And, this being true, it follows established in several cities. They are that it is an essential obligation of the very popular. They have increased rapid- State to provide it - an obligation which ly and steadily in attendance and enthu- the State cannot evade to-day without siasm and in support given by all con- paying a serious penaltya generation hence. cerned. There are courses for beginners, Our Wisconsin schools aim to give to courses for salespeople who have been every person of every age in the state in business for a longer time, and still the special training that he or she needs. different courses for store managers. The Gray-haired men and women are attendincrease in the efficiency of those in ing the evening industrial schools. The attendance is apparent.

man I most trust as a building contractor It takes but a little consideration to in my home town came from the day-labor realize the importance of this particular class. He can direct his workmen and branch of vocational education. We are build splendidly, but he does not know accustomed to think of vocational train-. how to calculate costs and make up bills ing as something essentially related to of materials well enough to be safe. manufacturing, but, as a matter of fact, He often works an entire summer at a manufacturing is the fourth in order of loss, because he does not know well importance among American industries. enough how to figure.

enough how to figure. This man needs Housekeeping comes first, with more people just such night schools as we are providing engaged in it than in any other one oc- for adults in our new Wisconsin system. cupation. Farming employs more per- We are providing these so that every sons than any other occupation except citizen can be strengthened in his weak housekeeping. Then, third, comes retail places, and so in the long run help make salesmanship. In our Wisconsin vocation- the Nation great and happy. al schools we are teaching the five-dollar After a generation of continuation girl how to earn eight dollars and more. schools for children, however, there will In some respects, the girl question is even be no need of night schools for the adults, more important than the boy question. except for the higher processes. The girl in industry is a newer phenomenon is these schools for the boys and girls from than the boy worker, and this phase of the fourteen to sixteen that we are concenproblem has been less completely brought trating on, to give them what the common out. There is no indication that the schools have failed to provide. Eventually position of woman in industry will become the whole public school system must be any less important in the future. There reshaped so as to give every child its are many indications that it will be still just due. This is a task calling for the more important than it has been. And widest possible coöperation between all it is as unjust to the woman wage-earner the interests involved. to withhold the special training and edu- The main trouble with our common cation that would enable her to do her schools is that they are designed essentially work intelligently, interestedly, and profit- for the abstract-minded children – those ably to herself and her employer, as who learn readily from the printed page. it is to withhold it from the boy or man. These are the children who have inherited a certain kind of mental capacity, or about trade schools since 1880. We who have from infancy been surrounded talked and fought and struggled fc: by books. But they constitute certainly thirty years, and in 1910 we had thirtees. not more than half of all the children trade schools in a population of 90,000,000 that attend the public schools. I should people, with about 1,500 pupils in those judge the proportion to be considerably thirteen schools, and were teaching less than 50 per cent. And the public the most, only four trades. We were schools, as at present constituted, make not reaching the millions of children no provision whatever for the other half, who become our mechanics and working the concrete-minded child, who can, only people, who perform the ordinary funwith extreme difficulty and then imper- tions of life. Then Wisconsin opene fectly, learn from the printed page. I the door of opportunity to all children. call these “hand-minded” children. There There has been a trade school in M is not or should not be any stigma in the waukee for a number of years which costs fact that a child is unable to learn except $300 a year per child and is only haf through the same course by which the full. But now the state of Wisconsin infinite majority of people in all ages have takes every child working at any trade learned — through contact with and con- and puts him in school — at a cost of trol of the forces and materials of Nature $10 a year per child. We do not have and the relation of their daily occupations to spend any public money for expensive to the world of real things. Yet the buildings and equipment. The equip schools have acted as though the child ment, so far as the practical shop training might as well be an idiot as concrete- goes, is in the shops and factories and minded. They have turned this 50 stores from which the children come to the per cent. away at fourteen and younger, continuation schools. The schoolhouses and have focussed all their attention on are there, and it is easy to arrange the the children who were able to master hours for the continuation schools so tha: the abstractions of present-day teaching the same buildings answer for them and methods. I wish I could take every one for the ordinary public schools. Com who reads this on a visit to any one of our necticut has been spending $50,000 2 industrial continuation schools. I would year on two trade schools in Bridgeport point to boys who failed hopelessly and New Britain at a cost to the state in the common schools growing mentally of $200 a student per year, and has had from day to day, with increasing joy only 250 children of the 40,000 or more in their work. You would observe them in the state who need industrial educaacquiring such distinctly cultural accom- tion. Now the legislature is considerplishments as habits of industry, obser- ing bills for the establishment of cogvation, and honesty, the power of con- tinuation schools throughout the state centration on the task in hand, the per- on the Wisconsin plan. New York City ception and application of accuracy in established a trade high-school, repreevery human undertaking and contact, senting an investment of $1,500,000 and the appreciation of ordered processes, an operating expense of $200,000 a year, whether in their own vocations or in the with a total cost of $100 per pupil, and affairs of life generally. You would see reaches only 2,500 children.

And none them developing the spirit of fellowship of these goes into the trades that are in service, and understanding the rela- taught there. In the continuation schoo's tion of cause to effect.

of Wisconsin we now have ten times It is these things that make what we as many pupils as in all the trade schools are trying to do worth while, and I of the United States. What we are believe that the way in which we have doing is to give the boy or girl a chance to worked out the problem of industrial work at the occupation he or she likes education in Wisconsin is the only way the best, and then give him or her all the in which the problem can successfully special education that is available that be worked out. We have been talking will enable the pupil to excel at the chosen

occupation. Success in work is what makes We are saving the boy and girl from the one happy in his work. The boy who is “blind alley” job through compulsory a good ball-player always wants to play attendance at our continuation schools. ball, but the boy who cannot play ball, Ohio is beginning to do the same, with a but is expert at marbles, wants to play law requiring employers to send their marbles. If our working boys and girls juvenile employees to continuation schools are not happy in their employment, it is as fast as they are established. Indiana largely the fault of the State and only has passed a law similar to the Wisconsin partly the fault of the boys. In Wisconsin, law, although the efforts of the profesif there is any child in employment from sional teachers to keep everyone else off fourteen to sixteen years of age, he must the board have resulted in only three go to the industrial or continuation school representatives of business and labor out for half a day a week, where we are teach- of a total of eleven. Pennsylvania reing every trade openly. Any boy or girl cently passed a law giving state aid, not to in the state of Wisconsin can take up any exceed $5,000 in any one case, to pay half occupation he or she chooses and has the

the expenses of every continuation vocacapacity for. We will not take a child tional school established. New Jersey predisposed to consumption and teach has adopted a similar system. Mashim a trade that would only hurry him sachusetts is giving state aid to local vocaalong in that direction, but, according to tional schools and has empowered local his aptitudes, he can learn any trade he will, authorities to compel attendance on them. and we do not take him away from his And in Cincinnati,

And in Cincinnati, Cleveland, Gary, employment when we teach him. We Menominee, New York, Boston, Newark, do not ask him to go to a high-school to Chicago, and Los Angeles “pre-vocational” learn how to run a lathe, but we put him training is being introduced in the higher into the best factory in the town, and grades of the elementary schools, to while he is in that factory we give him enable the child to make an intelligent the skill that the trade high-school could choice of occupations. Los Angeles, not not give him half so well. The majority being an industrial community, has neither of poor working parents cannot keep their opportunity nor need for industrial conchildren in pretty clothes, away from work tinuation schools, but is establishing an and income for the added years it takes intermediate high school with excellent to go through the trade high-schools. We industrial courses for those "concretewill continue to keep education away from minded” children to whom the curriculum half our children as heretofore unless we of the ordinary high-school offers nothing give it to them as they can and will take but mental torture. it -- in the continuation schools.

What we are trying to do is to develop The continuation schools, moreover, the human capital of the United States, keep children out of the cursory, “blind- worth many times more than all our other alley" occupations. About 85 per cent. resources. We are trying to stop the of children, unguided, go into “blind 50 per cent. waste of our present educationalley" jobs immediately upon leaving al system. We are trying to remove from schools — jobs that lead them nowhere. America the stigma that there is thirtyThere are more of these jobs than people eight times as much illiteracy among our think. Besides such work as running native white people as in northern Europe errands, selling newspapers, and the like, and eleven times more among the children there are in the shoe-manufacturing and of native whites than among the children textile industries, among others, many jobs of our immigrants. And we believe that which are given to children between four- half the troubles between capital and teen and seventeen and which never pay labor will disappear when the workers more than children's wages. A few child- have the education to which they are ren go from these places into better ones entitled, when they better understand in the industries, but most of them drift their rights and how to get them, their into the hopeless and submerged classes. obligations and how to observe them.






[The author of this article went to the Isthmus of Panama and to Bogotá in 1909 and 1910 to dig out the bidden history of the Panama secession. In this way he was brought in contact with the Colombian people more intimately perbaps than any foreigner could be who had not bis special mission. The result of his two-years' study of the Panama question was presented to the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives sender the Rainey Resolution to investigate the "taking" of Panama.—THE EDITORS.)

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UR controversy with Colombia relax his antipathy toward the United States

over the establishment of until that wrong shall have been righted. the Republic of Panama and The feeling of Colombia as a whole is our acquisition of the Canal one of resentment against the United

Zone has been a sore spot States. I have heard the Panama question in our foreign relations for a decade. discussed by brilliant men in the ColomFew of us in the United States have had bian Congress, which every member attime or opportunity to ascertain how tends in solemn dignity, wearing his faultserious the situation is, and in conse- less frock coat and silk hat and where quence we have passed it over lightly, im- many of the legislators read or speak three agining that it was of little or no impor- or four languages. I have heard this tance.

international issue talked in the wayside But in Colombia, and in all Latin inns of the Andean trails, and in the huts America, it is different. The intensity of of the peons. The most unlettered of feeling on the Panama question is a revela- Colombia's four million inhabitants - it is tion to every citizen of the United States a country of extremes of culture and ignorwho goes south supposing that it is a fast- ance, of wealth and poverty - know disappearing if not already a forgotten something of “la cuestion de Panama.' issue. There is some reference to la It is the “burning issue,” with which even cuestion de Panama" in every Colombian the tariff in this country does not compare. paper I have seen in the last four years. And through all the discussion of the quesIt is as live an issue in Colombia to-day as tion, high or low, runs a vein of bitterness it was when news came from the Isthmus against the United States for the loss of in 1903 that the garrison had been bribed the Isthmus. to turn traitors, and that warships of the It would be serious enough if this feeling United States had prevented the landing ended in Colombia, to us the nearest corner of Colombian troops on Colombian soil to of the South American continent, as well suppress the mutiny. The latest official as the richest — a country two thirds the map of Colombia (1912) shows the “Canal size of Mexico, with tremendous undevelunder construction," but no American oped resources, whose commerce naturally Canal Zone and no Panama Republic. should come to us rather than go to Colombian school children are taught Europe. But the infection of antipathy that the “Department of Panama” is does not end there; throughout the Spanstill legally a part of their country; that ish-speaking Americas, when you seek its seizure was in violation of a sacred first-handed the reason for their distrust treaty and that no son of Colombia should of the United States, the most frequent

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