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of the situation, the present session of the delay; furthermore, it will be necessary in Colombian Congress could show its good the end, for only by this formality can faith by starting an amendment to the Colombia be satisfied and our title to the Constitution so that the Canal Zone may Canal Zone be cleared. Colombia can be legally ceded to the United States and well afford to demonstrate by this step in Panama's independence be recognized

recognized advance that it is prepared to be reasonwhen satisfactory terms shall have been able whenever the United States shows a arranged. This step might save a year's desire to meet it half way.

THE STRONG MAN OF CHINA

A PERSONAL STUDY OF YUAN SHIH-KAI, PRESIDENT AND DICTATOR

BY

PHILIP HALSEY PATCHIN

W

ton?"

HY should I wish to be by his services to the old Empress DowaNapoleon, when I can ger, and its appearance sent a thrill of satbe George Washing- isfaction through the waiting Manchus,

for it assured them of his allegiance. With this answer Pres- On the last day of December I had an ident Yuan Shih-Kai recently epitomized opportunity to see Yuan Shih-kai at close his attitude toward the Republic of China. range and to talk with him. He received

Yet whatever he may think of himself me in the modern office-building conand however much he desires to preserve structed for the foreign office of China the new form of government, the fact is where he had established his headquarters that this old-fashioned Chinese has become as Premier. The place was surrounded by dictator of China. He has taken the law soldiers. The narrow street leading to it into his own hands. . He has even exer- was heavily guarded at its entrance, and the cised the power of life and death.

gateway leading into the compound surMy first glimpse of the great man of rounding the foreign office held many China was when he arrived in Peking in soldiers, and was further protected by November, 1911. He came at the request iron gates. Within the gates the grounds of the tottering Manchu dynasty. He surrounding the building were covered was the sole hope of the Empire. Yet the with the tents of Yuan's modern bodyManchus, by whom Yuan had been dis- guard. There were soldiers everywhere, missed with ignominy only three years and good-looking soldiers, too.

The enbefore, were not quite sure of his alle- trance to the building itself was also giance. Yuan came to Peking with two guarded, and to gain access to the recepspecial trains filled with his own troops — tion hall within one had to pass a dozen specially picked men of Honan, his own more sentries. Inside there was still province, many of them men of his own more evidence of the military precaution clan. The first train with its thousand which Yuan Shih-kai had taken. soldiers preceded him by half an hour. The Visitors were shown to one of several troops were drawn up around the station reception rooms, there to await Yuan's with fixed bayonets. Finally his own descent from his private quarters above. train arrived, carrying several hundred On this day he was quick to appear, acmore troops, who also tumbled out of the companied by an English-speaking Chrcars fixing bayonets. Then Yuan himself nese aide, a captain in the navy. The appeared - in his jacket of Imperial Premier was in Chinese dress and still wore yellow. He had won the right to wear it his queue, as did most of the Chinese in

Peking at that time. It was winter and

It was winter and evening." Apparently, however, he has his long, flowing gown was heavily padded been too busy to learn his lesson thorwith cotton, after the Chinese fashion, and oughly, for he uses the expressions init gave to the Pre

discriminately, no mier a short, squat

matter what the appearance which he

time of day.

On does not have at

one recent occasion other times. He is.

he used them both however, not tall,

at once. He has being perhaps five

carried his Westernfeet six. His most

ization still farther striking feature is his

and last spring eyes. They are of a

startled Peking by color difficult to

appearing in a full describe — not the

dress suit and high black eyes which

silk hat. He has also most Chinese have,

removed his queue. but a kind of dark

When I saw this bluish gray, and the

symbol of allegiance lids lack the accen

to the Emperor it tuated slant which

was gray and short characterizes nearly

and thin. Yuan kept all Sons of Han.

it until after the This serves to give

establishment of the Yuan's countenance

Republic. Then he a staring appear

had it taken off. I ance, which is all the

have been told by more noticeable as

people of his yamun his eyes open still

that there was a farther and his lips

great deal of discuspart when he is in

sion before the apterested in some

pendage disapthing that is being

peared. The difficult said. He is gray. He

point was, Who wears a moustache,

would do the cutand on this day he

ting? It was conhad the stubble of a

sidered impossible to sparse beard.

have a Chinese barYuan was cordial

ber come in to sever in his greeting, and

the queue of the shook hands in West

ruler of the land. ern fashion, at the

for the barber, in same time bobbing

Republican China, is the upper portion of

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood

a low order of man. his body after the THE STRONG MAN OF CHINA

A proposal to get the fashion of the ChiTHE MONARCHIST DICTATOR WHO IS PRESIDENT

Italian tonsorial OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA. nese, whose custom THE EMPIRE, THE FIRST LEADER OF THE REPUBLIC,

artist from the foris not to shake hands. AN OLD-FASHIONED CHINESE OFFICIAL WHO NEVER- eign hotel in the LeYuan, however, acTHELESS TAKES ADVANTAGE OF WESTERN METHODS

gation quarter was cepts the Western custom in dealing also rejected, for the reason that this with Westerners. And of late he had might offend the susceptibilities of picked up from his English-speaking the people. Finally the problem was aides a few English words of greeting, solved by

Colonel Tsai Ting-k'an, such as “Good morning” and “Good one of the President's aides, taking the

[graphic]

THE LAST HOPE OF

[graphic][merged small]

scissors in his own hand and doing the more surprised than he to be informed t snipping

the edict from the Throne that he was re Yuan talks to foreigners, who do not tiring on account of his lame foot. It was speak the language, through an interpreter the Chinese way of saving Yuan's "face and shows much interest in their opinion He had never felt any pain in his foot, but of events and in their opinion of him. when the first Imperial summons came When the interpreter translates he sits to him he replied that he could not go be erect, looking directly at the speaker, nod- cause his foot was still lame. Finally he ding his head to show his comprehension, consented to return to Peking, but hesitated and keeping time with this movement with about becoming Prime Minister - unti a series of throaty sounds indicating that he he could have the office on his own terms understands, in the manner of the Chinese, Seven times the Empress Dowager who punctuate every few words of what is commanded him to accept this post but said to them with deep noted "uh, uh, uh's." seven times he refused, declaring himself It is the sign of the scholar, and shows one's unfit for such high office, and with oldability to comprehend. His responses to style Chinese humility suggested that the questions are quick and to the point. Empress Dowager get someone else. (?

But one gets a better idea of the man timately, however, he accepted, after from the things he does than by seeing gaining from the Manchus promises and him. He came up from the South to concessions which made it seemingly possiPeking in the fall of 1911, in response to ble for him to succeed in his fight for a the urgent and repeated demands of his constitutional monarchy. Manchu masters. He had been sum- One of his first steps was to bring about moned several times before but had per- the retirement of the Prince Regent, a sistently declared that he was unable to haughty, arrogant Manchu whom the come. The reason that he gave shows Chinese hated and who also was responsithat he is not without a sense of humor. ble for Yuan's dismissal three years before. When he was dismissed in 1908 no one was He then got the Throne to promise a con

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

stitutional government and the establish- manded that he go to Nanking to take the ment of a limited monarchy. But through oath of office. He was loath to leave his the lack of money he was unable to carry own capital, knowing the perils of the on the fight. When he saw that the journey, but, under pressure, finally conabdication of the Emperor was inevitable, sented to do so. However, on the last he set about making himself the head of day of February the troops in Peking the Republican government, and in this mutinied. The capital was looted from he succeeded.

end to end during two nights of a carnival While he has his ideas of reform and of of crime. The truth about the matter has the value of Western learning and methods, never been told. It is said in Peking that Yuan is still the wily, Oriental politician. the men looted because they had not been Intrigue has its place in his system of paid and because of an impending order government. In forcing the Manchus

Manchus that they cut their queues. In the South out it was he who instigated the memorial they say that it was all Yuan's doing and to the Throne from half a hundred generals that he turned his soldiers loose in order to of the Imperial army, in which abdication create a situation which would make it was advised and which ended with the impossible for him to go to Nanking. unparalleled assertion that "We await However that may have been, Yuan did the Imperial commands with impatience.” not go to Nanking. Instead, he took the Yuan knows his people, and he believes oath of office as Provisional President in that to rule them he must use a hand of Peking on March 1oth. iron, an occasional firing squad, and the The Government in Peking at the time great two-handed blade of the executioner. of the outbreak of Yuan's troops was in a

The Manchus abdicated on February sadly muddled condition for forty-eight 12, 1912, and Yuan Shih-kai was imme- hours. But when it was at last decided diately elected Provisional President by to take repressive steps it was done with a the Southern Congress at Nanking. He vengeance.

He vengeance. Yuan summoned General accepted, and then the rebel leaders de- Chiang Kwei-ti to his headquarters and

[graphic]

Copyright by Bruma Bras ON THE FIRING-LINE DURING THE REVOLUTION YUAN WAS THE FOUNDER OF CHINA'S MODERN ARMY, AND HIS HOLD ON THE SOLDIERY HAS BEEN ONE OF

HIS CHIEF SOURCES OF STRENGTH told him to put a stop to the disturbances. general was too big and too old to mount a General Chiang was a man of the old Chinese pony, but he had a small carriage school. He stood six feet and four inches, This he entered and, surrounded by his and wore a long, white beard which covered own men from Ngan-Hui-strong, aggreshis broad chest, giving him a benevolent sive men--and accompanied by two execuand patriarchal look that belied his ideas tioners, he took a trip through the streets of what to do in an emergency. The

The of Peking. He left behind him a long

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