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SIGNS OF UPHEAVAL IN THE CHINESE REPUBLIC A SECTION OF PEKING AFTER THE MUTINY OF YUAN'S TROOPS ON FEBRUARY 29, 1912 — À MUTINY WHICH SAVED HIM FROM HAVING TO GO SOUTH INTO THE COUNTRY OF HIS ENEMIES. AFTER TWO DAYS THE RIOTING WAS PUT DOWN BY AN OLD-FASHIONED CHINESE GENERAL, WHO WENT THROUGH THE STREETS ACCOMPANIED BY TWO EXECUTIONERS WHO LEFT А LONG TRAIL

OF

HEADLESS BODIES BEHIND THEM

trail of headless bodies, and the looting or hungry. It is an axiom in China that and rioting came to an abrupt end. Chi- unpaid soldiery leads straight to looting ang's way of doing things is Yuan's, and it and burning. is upon the old-time generals that Yuan Yuan's personal courage is great, but he depends for military support.

nevertheless provides for himself adequate Those who have been with Yuan Shih- protection from the assassin's bullet or kai in times of stress and storm say that bomb. Particularly is this true since at all times he remains calm. It is said January of last year when, on the streets in Peking that on the night his soldiers of Peking, there came flying through the broke loose, and when he realized that air, over the fringe of soldiers lining the they were beyond all control, he simply street, a bomb which landed in the midst moved from the upper floor of his building of the compact body of horsemen surto the lower, where flying bullets, with rounding his carriage. The bodyguard which the air was thick, were not so apt melted away with the explosion. Horses to strike. Like most Chinese he took the and men went down and several of each looting of Peking philosophically. It was were killed. Yuan's carriage horses, hownothing more than what had happened ever, were still able to go on. They in times gone by, or in a half hundred plunged into a gallop. Yuan settled down other cities of the land during the revolu- into his seat. Persons who saw him as he tion. It will happen again whenever or dashed by a point not two hundred yards wherever the Chinese soldier goes unpaid beyond the place where he had so narrowly escaped death say that he was then calmly showed his intolerance of conspiracy an: puffing away at his inevitable cigarette. his intention to be the sole ruler of Chiad After this incident he has never taken any when he caused the dramatic execution in chances. Not only are the streets through two revolutionary generals in Peking 4 which he is to pass lined with his own party of Southern revolutionists, troops, but all the houses along the route posed of men of popularity and powe: are cleared of the inhabitants while the came to Peking for a conference with the

Government.

Simultaneously, Yuan : agents on the Yangtze River reported tha' two of these leaders were engaged in Cubspiracy. Yuan made his plans accordins ly. The two victims were invited, with their Southern companions, to a dinne party in the foreign hotel in the Legatiua Quarter. The dinner was given by the Government and toasts were exchanges and the solidity of united China was ertolled. When the party broke up the two generals got into their respective carriages and drove out of Legatio Quarter. Before reaching their own hote. they had to pass through an enclosure They passed the first gate; a whistle blew all entrances to the enclosure were slammed shut. A couple of hundred soldiers came out from the darkness and the men were arrested. Two hours later they were dead and Yuan Shih-kai had emphatically warned China of the price of conspiracy

After March joth Yuan entered upon the stupendous task of bringing order out of universal and almost hopeless chaos. One obstacle after another rose up in his path. Tang Shao-yi, his Premier, blundered in handling foreign loan matters and there came one deadlock after another between the foreign bankers and the Goverment which prevented the actual signing of the loan contract for more than a year. When Yuan became Provisional President it was said that the Government could not

last a month without funds. There were THE LAST WORDS OF THE “HEAVEN-BORN”.

hundreds of thousands of unpaid troops FROM THE MANCHUS BY THE MILITARY'S MEMORIAL ready to make trouble, and money was sadTO THE THRONE INSTIGATED BY YUAN

ly needed by every provincial government. THE EDICT IS ON YELLOW SILK AND WAS CARRIED

Yet Yuan in some inexplicable way manTHROUGH PEKING IN A SEDAN CHAIR

aged for more than a year to keep things soldiers occupy them, even up to the roofs. going. And in doing this he risked his There has been no further actual attempt own fortunes to serve China, for time and upon his life, but there have been several again he could have made his position se conspiracies. When one of these is dis- cure by borrowing from the foreign banks covered retribution is speedy and execu- on the terms they imposed, but he always tion is certain.

refused to do so. In the summer of last year Yuan Yuan Shih-kai was the virtual founder

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THE

IMPERIAL

EDICT

OF

ABDICATION,

FORCED

SHIH-KAI

[graphic][subsumed]

YUAN SHIH-KAI ON HIS COUNTRY ESTATE DURING THE INTERVAL TOWARD THE END OF THE EMPIRE WHEN HE WAS OUT OF FAVOR AT

COURT AND IN ENFORCED RETIREMENT IN HONAN

of China's foreign-patterned army, and he military took a hand by sending word that has always taken keen interest in military further delay would not be tolerated. affairs. As soon as he assumed the presi- There can be no doubt that this effective dency he directed his energies toward strategy was the work of Yuan Shih-kai. making the army loyal to him. That he After this Yuan became so powerful was wise is now being proyed in China, that Southerners like Sun Yat Sen, General where the troops of the Yuan government Huang Hsing, Chen Chi-mei, Wen Tsungare whipping the rebellious elements of the yao, (an unsung hero who has far more to South back to loyalty. Yuan created

created do with present-day events in China than lieutenant-generals, major-generals, and Sun Yat Sen has, for example), began to brigadiers by the score. He disbanded as

He disbanded as suspect his intentions. This grew to a many troops from the South as he could belief that there would never be anypay off, in the meanwhile keeping those thing in the Government for them if Yuan

were permitted to pursue his course. It was not long before there was open oppo sition in the Southern press and finally a general anti-Yuan propaganda throughout the South. The provinces heard that Yuan was planning a coup d'état out of which he would emerge as Emperor,

The revolutionistic tendency of the South was, however, mostly in talk until the murder of Sung Chiao-jen in March of this year. He was a Southern leader of

note, a man of ability, and a real patriot. 10

He was killed in the railway station at Shanghai, just as he was about to start for Peking, there to lead the fight against Yuan in the Parliament. Charges were at once made in Shanghai that Peking was responsible for the crime. This Peking immediately denied. The murderer, however, was caught. He proved to be a paid assassin. Then the police cap

tured the man who hired him. This man Copyright by Rio V. de Sieux proved to have a connection with Yuan's THE PRESIDENT OF CHINA

Premier. It was enough. It was proved, AS A GENERAL IN THE SERVICE OF THE MANCHU said the politicians of Shanghai, that the

Premier ordered the murder. And if this upon whom he believed he could depend in were so, there is no Chinese in the world an emergency. It was not long before who would not jump at the conclusion this proved of great advantage. The that if Yuan's Premier instigated the struggle between Yuan and the Southern- crime Yuan himself must have known of it. ers has been almost as continuous since he Before the end of March, and while became President of the republic as it was the case was still under investigation, when he was trying to maintain the mon- word went filtering up the Yangtze Valley archy, although it has not been so bloody. to the followers of Sun Yat Sen and the

Last summer the National Council, a others to be ready." Then Yuan Shihprovisional legislative body in the control kai brought to an end the long negotiaof the Southerners who were becoming dis- tion for a great foreign loan of $125,000,000 satisfied with Yuan, adopted obstructive by signing the contract. The South measures that for a time threatened the broke into a flame of passion. Yuan withexistence of the Government. Their tac- out funds was a proposition difficult enough. tics came to an abrupt end when the but an affluent Yuan was well nigh im

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DYNASTY

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WHERE CHINA'S FIRST PRESIDENT WAS INAUGURATED HE ENTRANCE TO THE FOREIGN OFFICE WHERE YUAN SHIH-KAI THEN LIVED, DECORATED FOR HIS INAUG

URATION AS PROVI PRESIDENT ON MARCH 10, 1912

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