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YUAN SHIH-KAI ON HIS COUNTRY ESTATE DURING THE INTERVAL TOWARD THE END OF THE EMPIRE WHEN HE WAS OUT OF FAVOR AT

COURT AND IN ENFORCED RETIREMENT IN HONAN

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of China's foreign-patterned army, and he military took a hand by sending word that has always taken keen interest in military further delay would not be tolerated. affairs. As soon as he assumed the presi- There can be no doubt that this effective dency he directed his energies toward strategy was the work of Yuan Shih-kai. making the army loyal to him. That heA fter this Yuan became so powerful was wise is now being proyed in China, that Southerners like Sun Yat Sen, General where the troops of the Yuan government Huang Hsing, Chen Chi-mei, Wen Tsungare whipping the rebellious elements of the yao, (an unsung hero who has far more to South back to loyalty. Yuan created do with present-day events in China than lieutenant-generals, major-generals, and Sun Yat Sen has, for example), began to brigadiers by the score. He disbanded as suspect his intentions. This grew to a many troops from the South as he could belief that there would never be anypay off, in the meanwhile keeping those thing in the Government for them if Yuan

were permitted to pursue his course. It was not long before there was open oppo sition in the Southern press and finally a general anti-Yuan propaganda throughout the South. The provinces heard that Yuan was planning a coup d'état out of which he would emerge as Emperor.

The revolutionistic tendency of the South was, however, mostly in talk until the murder of Sung Chiao-jen in March of this year. He was a Southern leader of note, a man of ability, and a real patriot. He was killed in the railway station at Shanghai, just as he was about to start for Peking, there to lead the fight against Yuan in the Parliament. Charges were at once made in Shanghai that Peking was responsible for the crime. This Peking immediately denied. The murderer, however, was caught. He proved to be a paid assassin. Then the police cap

tured the man who hired him. This man Copyright by Rio V. de Sieux proved to have a connection with Yuan's THE PRESIDENT OF CHINA

Premier. It was enough. It was proved, AS A GENERAL IN THE SERVICE OF THE MANCHU said the politicians of Shanghai, that the

Premier ordered the murder. And if this upon whom he believed he could depend in were so, there is no Chinese in the world an emergency. It was not long before who would not jump at the conclusion this proved of great advantage. The that if Yuan's Premier instigated the struggle between Yuan and the Southern- crime Yuan himself must have known of it. ers has been almost as continuous since he Before the end of March, and while became President of the republic as it was the case was still under investigation, when he was trying to maintain the mon- word went filtering up the Yangtze Valley archy, although it has not been so bloody. to the followers of Sun Yat Sen and the

Last summer the National Council, a others to “be ready.” Then Yuan Shihprovisional legislative body in the control kai brought to an end the long negotiaof the Southerners who were becoming dis- tion for a great foreign loan of $125,000,000 satisfied with Yuan, adopted obstructive by signing the contract. The South measures that for a time threatened the broke into a flame of passion. Yuan withexistence of the Government. Their tac- outfunds was a proposition difficult enough. tics came to an abrupt end when the but an affluent Yuan was well nigh im

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DYNASTY

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WHERE CHINA'S FIRST PRESIDENT WAS INAUGURATED HE ENTRANCE TO THE FOREIGN OFFICE WHERE YUAN SHIH-KAI THEN LIVED, DECORATED FOR HIS INAUG

URATION AS PROVI PRESIDENT ON MARCH 10, 1912

pregnable. The South protested against things, although he is surrounded in the loan — or at least the politicians of foreign-trained men and modern thinkers the South did. The rebellion that followed as he has been for years. He was, in far. seems to be losing ground. Sun Yat Sen and one of the first of China's great men 1 Huang Hsing have fled from the country. utilize the services of men educata It leaves Yuan Shih-kai again supreme. abroad. In his presidential orders Pret

To Western eyes he is a man of dent Yuan utilizes the style of the old contrast. Here is an imperialist, the Imperial edicts, although his orders are last defence of the Throne, serving as often more blunt than those the Throne president of a republic. He is a patriot, used to issue. In one proclamation be but his methods are not our methods. issued, in telling of conditions immediatel: He is , statesman enough to realize the preceding the establishment of the Re benefits for China in modern thought and public, he said: “Enmeshed in these

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YUAN SHIH-KAI'S FIRST OFFICIAL RESIDENCE AS PROVISIONAL PRESIDENT

modern ways of doing things, yet unlike difficulties, it was futile for me to pray for the modern, foreign-educated official, death, and requests for dismissal were reYuan Shih-kai clings to old methods. fused. | indulged in secret griefs and He has severed his queue, it is true, and hidden sighs. We could do naught but he wears foreign clothes sometimes, par- weep.” ticularly when in uniform, but he prefers Such proclamations are as far removed the Chinese dress of old, while the new from our methods as is the brutality with official revels in foreign clothes, especially which Yuan deals with conspiracies. The the frock coat and the high hat, and in morality of his course is not Occidental Western manners and mannerisms. Yuan But from either Eastern or Western stanis what is called in China an "old style” dards the power and personality of Yuan official. In the administration of his Shih-kai marks him as one of the strong office he still adheres to some time-worn men of this time.

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IOW THE GOVERNMENT HANDLES ITS TREE CROP SO THAT THE FORESTS CAN

BE FULLY USED AS WELL AS PROTECTED

BY HENRY S. GRAVES

(UNITED STATES FORESTER)

HE National Forests grow more Eastern mountains, and they cover a net
wood than they lose by cutting, area of 165 million acres, which is about
fire, disease, and decay. A few four times the size of Missouri.
years ago that was not true. Much of the land is a wilderness, inac-

Our forests are now constantly cessible and without means of communicamproving in condition. They used to be tion. Its protection is not merely a n worse condition every year.

question of developing an organization to In accomplishing this the first great fight fires; the forests must first be opened ask of the Forest Service is to prevent in- up so that it is possible to patrol them to ury and destruction by forest fires. Our fight such fires as start. There must be Western forests are peculiarly subject to constructed a carefully planned system of ire because they are chiefly composed of roads, trails, fire lines, telephone lines, coniferous trees and because in many re- lookout stations, ranger headquarters, and zions there is a prolonged dry season during other improvements. Without such a which the forests become very inflammable. development a forest cannot be protected The National Forests have a value in the adequately, no matter how many men are trees alone of fully one billion dollars. patrolling it. The greatest problem of the The protection of this great national asset Forest Service has been to extend its sysis simply one of business prudence. The tem of roads, trails, and telephones, and at task of protection is of great magnitude the same time keep down fires under the and is of such a character that only the handicap of the forests' inaccessibility. public can successfully cope with it. There have so far been built about There are 163 separate forests, not includ- 16,000 miles of trails, about 14,000 miles of ing the areas now be purchased in the telephone lines, about 2,000 miles of roads

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