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pregnable. The South protested against things, although he is surrounded to the loan or at least the politicians of foreign-trained men and modern thinker the South did. The rebellion that followed as he has been for years. He was, in far: seems to be losing ground. Sun Yat Sen and one of the first of China's great meni Huang Hsing have fled from the country. utilize the services of men educata It leaves Yuan Shih-kai again supreme. abroad.

abroad. In his presidential orders PreTo Western eyes he is a man of dent Yuan utilizes the style of the ol contrast. Here is an imperialist, the Imperial edicts, although his orders are last defence of the Throne, serving as often more blunt than those the Throne president of a republic. He is a patriot, used to issue. In one proclamation be but his methods are not our methods. issued, in telling of conditions immediatel: He is , statesman enough to realize the preceding the establishment of the Re benefits for China in modern thought and public, he said: “Enmeshed in these

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YUAN SHIH-KA'S FIRST OFFICIAL RESIDENCE AS PROVISIONAL PRESIDENT

modern ways of doing things, yet unlike difficulties, it was futile for me to pray for the modern, foreign-educated official,

official, death, and requests for dismissal were re Yuan Shih-kai clings to old methods. fused. | indulged in secret griefs and He has severed his queue, it is true, and hidden sighs. We could do naught but he wears foreign clothes sometimes, par- weep.” ticularly when in uniform, but he prefers Such proclamations are as far removed the Chinese dress of old, while the new from our methods as is the brutality with official revels in foreign clothes, especially which Yuan deals with conspiracies. The the frock coat and the high hat, and in morality of his course is not Occidental Western manners and mannerisms. Yuan But from either Eastern or Western stanis what is called in China an "old style" dards the power and personality of Yuan official. In the administration of his Shih-kai marks him as one of the strong office he still adheres to some time-worn men of this time.

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HOW THE GOVERNMENT HANDLES ITS TREE CROP SO THAT THE FORESTS CAN

BE FULLY USED AS WELL AS PROTECTED

BY

HENRY S. GRAVES

(UNITED STATES FORESTER)

T

HE National Forests grow more

Eastern mountains, and they cover a net wood than they lose by cutting area of 165 million acres, which is about fire, disease, and decay. A few four times the size of Missouri. years ago that was not true. Much of the land is a wilderness, inac

Our forests are now constantly cessible and without means of communicaimproving in condition. They used to be tion. Its protection is not merely a in worse condition every year.

question of developing an organization to In accomplishing this the first great fight fires; the forests must first be opened task of the Forest Service is to prevent in- up so that it is possible to patrol them to jury and destruction by forest fires. Our fight such fires as start. There must be Western forests are peculiarly subject to constructed a carefully planned system of fire because they are chiefly composed of roads, trails, fire lines, telephone lines, coniferous trees and because in many re- lookout stations, ranger headquarters, and gions there is a prolonged dry season during other improvements. Without such a which the forests become very inflammable development a forest cannot be protected The National Forests have a value in the adequately, no matter how many men are trees alone of fully one billion dollars. patrolling it. The greatest problem of the The protection of this great national asset Forest Service has been to extend its sysis simply one of business prudence. The tem of roads, trails, and telephones, and at task of protection is of great magnitude the same time keep down fires under the and is of such a character that only the handicap of the forests' inaccessibility. public can successfully cope with it. There have so far been built about There are 163 separate forests, not includ- 16,000 miles of trails, about 14,000 miles of ing the areas now being purchased in the telephone lines, about 2,000 miles of roads and fire lines. The Service has provided ing to the security of the property. 1,500 buildings for the rangers in the for- some forests the work has reached a pourt ests, several hundred lookout stations, and where every portion is commanded to miscellaneous other improvements needed

lookout stations so connected by tele for the protective system. But there will phone that the moment a puff of smoke be required fully 60,000 miles more of appears above the trees it is reported a: roads and trails and 35,000 miles more of headquarters. telephone lines, and other improvements

It is often said that while the forests mas in large amounts before the primary sys

be rendered comparatively safe during the tem of communication is complete. The average year, there will some time occurs work already done is enormously contribut- every region a very dry year when the

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RUINED NOW AND FOR THE FUTURE AN UNPROTECTED FOREST WHERE FIRE KILLED THE TREES AND LEFT NO SEED FOR A SECOND GROWTH

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forest is like tinder and a great conflagration will follow which no human agency can prevent. Such a season came in 1910 in Idaho and the loss was very large. The present season in California developed similar conditions in which fire would have been very difficult to cope with. Though it is true that the forests cannot be fully protected in the extraordinary year until an adequate system of improvements is completed, yet even in the extraordinary year extensive destruction can be prevented if there are good means of communication, a proper fire-fighting equipment, and a well-trained organization.

THE FIRE LOOKOUT

EVERY YEAR THE RANGERS DISCOVER AND PUT OUT ABOUT 2,000 Every year the Forest Service

FIRES, MOST OF THEM BEFORE THEY HAVE DONE ANY HARM puts out about 2,000 fires, many of which, if not handled promptly, property saved, the annual cost of the would develop into great and destructive work is insignificant. conflagrations. Measured in the value of The second great task of the Service is

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CUT, CLEANED, AND GROWING A SECOND CROP THE CUTTING OF TWO BILLION FEET OF RIPE TIMBER SOLD BY THE SERVICE IN 1912 UNDER PROPER

REGULATION ACTUALLY IMPROVED THE FORESTS

get the timber in the forests into use. and it is being used in very large quantties. In the first place settlers are given wood and timber for their own needs, free of charge. Every year more than 40,000 settlers receive such free use to the value of about $200,000. Large quantities also are being sold to lumber operators. Last year nearly 6,000 separate sales of timber were made. The demand for the public timber is increasing. The last fiscal year showed nearly three times as much contracted for as during the previous year The total was more than two billion fæt. board measure. And the present use of the timber which the Service is encouraging increases the future value of the forests

Whenever timber is cut on the national forests, the operation is so conducted that a new crop of trees will be established and the production of timber by growth will be continued. Before the forests were placed under the Service, the yearly growth did not equal the amount of timber destroyed The repeated fires prevented re-growth in

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A RANGER'S CABIN AND A FOREST SERVICE BRIDGE THE 1,500 CABINS, CONNECTED BY TRAILS, ROADS, BRIDGES, AND TELEPHONE LINES, MAKE FIRE-FIGHTING

POSSIBLE AND HELP THE SETTLEMENT, LUMBERING, AND STOCK BUSINESS IN THE FORESTS

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