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THE GROWTH OF AMERICAN CITIES UPPER PICTURE: SOUTH ELEVENTH STREET, TACOMA, WASH., IN 1890. LOWER PICTURE: THE SAME VIEW TO-DAY. THE POPULATION OF TACOMA INCREASED FROM 37.714 IN 1900 TO 83 743 IN 1910, A GROWTH OF 122 PER CENT. IN TEN YEARS
MAN AND HIS MACHINES
RAISING WATER BY GAS
His invention consists mainly of a comEXPLOSIONS
bustion chamber and a play-pipe. Water
from an intake rises to a certain height in ROBABLY the most interesting the combustion chamber, a gas explosion mechanical invention placed in is directed against it, and this water is
actual operation on a large scale driven through the play-pipe into a conical during the last year is the remarkable tower or stand-pipe. The pipe connecting explosion-pump invented by an English- the combustion chamber with the tower is man. He watched a piston removing called a play-pipe rather than just a water indirectly by the force of gas explo- delivery-pipe, because, after each explosion. sions and wondered why the explosions the water plays or swings back and forth could not be utilized direct. He saw no through it, in somewhat the same manner reason why the explosions had first to be that a wave, coming from the ocean and confined in an internal combustion engine striking a breakwater, is thrown back to provide power for the operation of a until driven in again by the force of a pump. He devised an apparatus that not succeeding wave. But this is more clearly only does away with the conventional explained by a detailed description of the internal combustion engine, with its piston, method of operation. fly-wheel, and crank, but also with any- Air and gas, in the proper mixture, are thing that, through familiar usage, would forced by a small compressor into the be recognized as a pump.
space above the water level in the com
THE OUTLET or
AN ENGLISH CITY'S GASOLINE-PUMPED WATER SUPPLY
bustion chamber, and then this charge is peated, the explosions occurring about nine fired by an electric spark. The force of times a minute. the explosion drives the water through the Five of the pumps are now in successful play-pipe into the conical tower, from operation, exploding water up from the which a delivery-pipe carries part of it River Lea into the great new reservoir into the reservoir or other point of de- which supplies London. Four of the pumps livery. The water thus driven out of the discharge 40,000 gallons a minute, and combustion chamber and along the play- the fifth has a capacity of 20,000 gallons. pipe into the tower leaves a partial vacuum So economical is the operation that nothin the chamber, and more water enters through the inlet pipes. At the same time air is drawn into the combustion chamber through what are called scavenging valves, and the water left in the conical tower, having come to rest, starts to fall. As much of this water as can so escape passes through the delivery-pipe into the reservoir, and the remainder drives the water in the play-pipe back into the combustion chamber, the pressure so created expelling the products of combustion, now well diluted by the scavenging air, through open exhaust valves. As the water continues to rise in the combustion chamber
OUTLETS OF A NEW PUMPING SYSTEM these valves are sealed by it, and the diluted products of combustion still ing before invented in pumps, driven by remaining are compressed until the pres- steam, electricity, or gasoline, can comsure so attained is sufficient to cause the pete with it. The flow into the reservoir water to surge back along the play-pipe from the delivery-pipe discharging from again. When this occurs the pressure in
the conical tower of each unit is continuous the combustion chamber again falls below and practically uniform. atmospheric pressure, a charge of air and gas is drawn in, and the water, on its next
MOTION-PICTURE FILMS return, swinging through the play-pipe,
THAT TALK compresses the charge. This is exploded at
LMOST everyone has now been the proper moment by the electric spark.
made familiar with the Edison In other words the water in the play-pipe
"talking" pictures, which have goes back and forth twice for every explo- been hailed as a great advance in the sion. The process is automatically re- motion-picture world. The "talking" pic
tures, however, as now produced, seem tion film would make possible the reprosimple enough. The process is a mere duction of voices and instrumental music, combining of two separate machines - as well as the scenes of an entire opera. the Edison phonograph and the motion- In reproducing, the combination "talkpicture projector -- in such manner that ing" and motion-picture film will be run the pictures and the sounds made by the through the motion-picture projecting persons or instruments, machines, and the machine the usual way, the motionlike, shown in the pictures, and afterward reproduced by phonographic records, are synchronized.
Now a further advance, shown through experiments to be practicable, but still awaiting certain mechanical developments to be made perfect, may soon be announced. This is a motion-picture film that talks, and the electrical experts in New York who are at work on the idea are confident that they will soon make of it a success. The idea consists of combining pictures and a photophonographic record on the one strip of film.
Photophonographic records are not new. They were first produced in 1897 by a German scientist who discovered the “speaking" arc, which is a converter of sound into electric vibrations. The operation of making a sound record by means of an electric arc is as follows: The speaking or singing voice of the person or persons, and the sounds made by the instruments of an orchestra are, for example, caught by a telephone transmitter, the sound is augmented by a special microphone, and this augmented sound, directed into an electric arc, causes variations in the intensity of light of the arc. This light is then concentrated, by means of a cylindrical lens, upon a photographic film, which is passed at a constant velocity in front of it, and makes thereon a record of light variations. The illustration shows the kind of record that results. The alternating light and dark stripes shown upon
TALKING" FILMS these films have the appearance of great
A PHOTO irregularity, but are in reality exceedingly
GRAPHIC IMPRESSION OF THE VARIATIONS IN THE
VIBRATIONS OF AN ELECTRIC ARC WHICH PULSITES regular and harmonious, only changing
IN HARMONY WITH A MICROPHONE, AND THAT REtheir order with the change of the corres- PRODUCE THESE SOUNDS BY THE EFFECT OF VARIA
TIONS IN LIGHT THROWN THROUGH THEM U'PONA ponding sound. Every sound gives its
SELENIUM CELL WHICH IS CONNECTED WITH A own group of lines and may be easily read
LOUD-SPEAKING TELEPHONE from the photophonographic record.
Such a sound-record can be made on one picture half of the film being thrown upon side or half of the face of a motion-picture the picture screen, and the sound-record f.lm, and the pictures themselves fill the side or half of the film projected into a other side or the other half. The combina- selenium cell connected with a loud
speaking telephone placed somewhere behind the picture screen. The light projected through the sound-record half of the film by the motion-picture machine varies in strength according to the intensity of the dark stripes or lines on the film. This results in an illumination of the selenium cell corresponding in its variations with the sound waves directed into the arc and thence against the film in the making of the record, and these varying vibrations are converted into sound again through the medium of the selenium cell and the loud-speaking telephone. The "speaking” arc, in other words, is a converter of sound into electric vibrations and light, and the selenium cell and loudspeaking telephone are the means of converting the light back into electric vibrations and thence into the sounds that originally made the electric vibrations. The recording and reproducing of sound in this manner is an interesting process in which sound becomes electricity, and then becomes light, causes chemical actions, then becomes light, then electricity, and finally sound again.
One of the problems that have yet to be completely solved in the combining of pictures and a sound-record on the one film has to do with the fact that sound and light travel at different speeds. But the adjusting of this, according to the experimenters, will not prove particularly difficult to accomplish.
THE "IMPERATOR'S" FIRE
ACTORY statistics show that the PROTECTION
ordinary truckman in a factory
who is paid $2 for a day's work WENTY-EIGHT metal tubes about spends much more time in the repeated
two inches in diameter, the mouths loading and unloading of his trucks than
or outlets of which are all nested he does in the actual moving of material. in a glass-fronted box that might be taken A factory transportation system has been for some kind of music box at first glance, worked out which eliminates the waste of form one of the most important aspects of labor and time ordinarily required for the Imperator's fire protection. The hold loading and unloading, and at the same of the giant ship is divided into twenty- time does away with most of the danger of eight compartments. Should a fire start in breakage. In this system all material is any one of these divisions the smoke would piled upon wooden platforms, instead of rise in the tube leading from it and flow upon the floor. The rest of the system out into the box, where it would make its consists of a transveyor truck. When it is presence known to the man on duty. This necessary to move material — for example, attendant would then give the alarm, a roll of paper — from one place to anshove the nozzle of a special steam hose other in the factory, a truck is moved