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buildings would be most conveniently Milwaukee, Madison, St. Paul, Savanplaced in this central spot - and so on. nah, Roanoke, Va., Wilmington, Del.,
A few such points as this determined, Montclair, N. J., Schenectady, Keokuk, the city composes itself. Streets, forming la., and San Diego. its skeleton, become natural, not artificial, Mr. Nolen's plans for most of these lines — streets of different classes: some, cities extend to a complete remodelling, chief arteries of travel; some, business with special attention to the rectification, streets; some, spacious boulevards; some, so far as possible, of the street scheme; streets for residence; some, for service, the opening, widening, and connecting etc. — streets following the land's con- of thoroughfares; the deflecting of streettours, or its natural features, the main car lines where advisable; the rescue of thoroughfares passing from centre to cen- streets and water-fronts from railroad or tre, residence streets retiring into quiet other invasion; the establishment of a sections deliberately protected from gen- civic centre; the creation of a park system; eral traffic. Thanks to the flexible course the destruction of slums and the opening of the streets, there is great variety in the of playgrounds; and the laying out in a size, shape, and position of plots of ground; scientific manner of territory on to which on this one might stand a schoolhouse; the city is expanding. on this a church; this should be dedicated It is not pretended that all or perhaps to a park, a playground, a fountain, a any of these cities will carry out all that monument. There are none of the long, Mr. Nolen plans for them; but in a numstraight, endless vistas of the rectangular ber of them his designs have been adopted town; in every direction the eye meets as the official plans toward which all imsomething of interest. The community, provement must proceed, and in some while it has provided for its own greatest large appropriations have been made and convenience and comfort, has also com- work begun. posed itself into a picture and saved money. In other cities, like Chattanooga, La
The rectangular town is inevitably Crosse, Sacramento, Charlotte, N. C., and inconvenient and uneconomical. It calls New London, Mr. Nolen's commission for uniform streets, whereas every street limited him specifically to parks. Other is a thing that demands a special character places for which he has made complete suited to its particular use. It wastes plans are such small communities as land, shockingly, and so, of course, in- Wayland, Stoneham, and Cohasset, Mass., creases the price of the lots from which Glen Ridge, N. J., and High Shoals, N. C. it unnecessarily steals. It carries every - and the opportunity of catching a town traveler the long way round. It is inex- young particularly delighted this designer pressibly dreary. It affords no interesting of cities. Results in Glen Ridge were views. It provides no sites for particular especially satisfactory; an illustration on purposes; there is no reason why any page 93, for instance, shows the neat building should be anywhere in particular. building erected by the community to
The checker-board plan is, of course, establish the village centre at the proper more a negative than a positive defect. point and to prevent the growing up of the It is a pity, though, at the best, and it has shanty-town that had already begun. At furnished the foundation for many of our Montclair, hard by, Mr. Nolen's recommost vicious city errors.
mendations not yet having been adopted,
we see the squalid stores that Glen Ridge A new spirit is abroad among the cities. has got rid of. The swiftest mention of the communities One of Mr. Nolen's most interesting to which Mr. Nolen has been called to studies has been the Wisconsin capital, survey and advise will probably surprise Madison. The natural possibilities of the those not informed of the rapidity with place were—and still remain-very great, which the idea of city planning has but they have been totally neglected. The recently spread. These points include city lies on and between pleasant hills Scranton, Reading, Erie, Lock Haven, and is surrounded by a chain of really
beautiful lakes. In laying out the city, hill will stand the University, its one hill-top was rightly appropriated for buildings brought into somewhat greater the State Capitol and another for the uniformity, and provided with a large University. But that was as far as fore- park stretching far along the shores on thought went. The city's best street another lake, with its botanical garden, connects the two eminences, but it is its forest, its aquarium and water-garden, contemptible in width — 66 feet — and arboretum, and summer engineering camp. treatment. The Capitol is put down on a Here, too, might be placed the museums lot altogether inadequate, and its surrounds that a capital ought to possess for the ings are not protected, the building of a instruction of the people — a museum splendid new State House that cost of art, of natural history, of ethnology, of $6,000,000 accentuating the failure to traffic, of agriculture, of commerce, of inprovide a proper setting. The lake-fronts vention; why not also a great theatre? have been surrendered to private owner- Between Capitol and University Hills ship. Within a few hundred yards of the stretches the Pennsylvania Avenue of this Capitol lie low banks as marshy as they western Washington, the present State were when Indians hunted in the reeds Street, widened and tree-bordered and
- except that now they are the dumping broken by occasional squares or circuses, ground of insanitary and unsightly refuse. giving opportunity for monuments to
But the possibility of a new Madison celebrate the great men and great moments
has sprung like a vision into the minds of Wisconsin's history. And throughout the of its citizens and of many lovers of fitness city, all that informed and skilful planning and beauty throughout the state of which can do to aid the increase of comfortable it is the capital. Nowhere else has the and architecturally pleasing homes on wellimagination of the city-planner been so shaded streets will be but another function fired as here on the hill-tops amidst the of the creators of this model city. four clear-watered lakes. Mr. Nolen has T hey have done one great deed at Madidrawn a city dedicated first to its function son, which makes it seem not at all imas a seat of statehood, second to its oppor- probable that they will do another. They tunities as a seat of learning, and third have created there one of the most imto the needs of a place of residence. He portant universities in the world, a unihas conceived a city of ample propor- versity with a new conception of the tions with the dome of the Capitol as its relation of learning to the state and to the focus of attention, grouped about with life of the people. They claim to have other buildings of state, approached from created a new breed of barley that has every side by liberal avenues, but par- paid the cost of that university many ticularly composed to impress the beholder times over. Mr. Nolen conceives that the who comes up a Mall, 400 feet wide, lead- university can serve the people just as truly ing from the lake-front. On the other by improving its city life as by improving its agriculture. He argues that there is it took, but it cannot be made here. TH as much necessity that a state should city — it numbers 80,000 now — ha establish a model city as a model farm. awakened to a social consciousness, an
You may amplify that sentence elo- it has undertaken, among other thing! quently, but you cannot increase its force. to make itself over physically. It ha
The citizens of Madison have risen called in Mr. Nolen and listened in deligh splendidly in response to the ideal pre- as he has shown it what could be done sented them; they have done what they By ordinance the city has created a Plan could to advance it, but, of course, full ning Board; a man worth a story by him realization depends upon the legislature, self, Mr. Charles P. Steinmetz, is its chair from which great things are hoped. man. In coöperation with the state offi
A sharply contrasting instance of the cials, who are spending 100 million dollar community in quest of better civic life on a barge canal, constructing at Schened is afforded by Schenectady, a town of tady one of its great terminals, far-reaching altogether another type, with an alto- steps for the redemption of the neglected
HARVARD SQUARE AS IT MIGHT BE PROF. E. J. A. DUQUESNE'S IDEALIZATION OF THE HISTORIC BUSINESS SECTION OF CAMBRIDGE, MASS, SHOWING WHAT CAN BE DONE BY A UNIFIED SCHEME OF ARCHITECTURAL TREATMENT TO IMPROVE AN UGLY TOWN CENTRE
gether different vision — in its case the simple dream of a shabby, overgrown town to make itself into a minor city in which life, especially for workers of small means, shall be worth the living. Schenectady was once quaint, in a crowded Dutch way, on its canal and its river; now it is merely uncomfortable and distressing in parts squalid, the result of its swift and unplanned growth as a centre of industry. A study of its life and its interesting population would well pay for the space
areas near the water have been taken, and the plans for the opening of needed streets, the development of a park and playground system, of school grounds, and the general integration of the community are being prepared by Mr. Nolen.
A first step was the reclamation of one of the ravines, a place of natural beauty degenerated into a slum. Eight hundred thousand dollars were needed to reclaim Cotton Factory Hollow, and a two-thirds vote of the City Council was necessary to make the bond issue for it. Unfortunately, the political opponents of the present city government of Schenectady, which is Socialistic, resolved to make the plan a partisan issue, and on the night of December 9th, last, after a dramatic scene that will be long remembered, succeeded in blocking the issue by one vote — an act bitterly resented by the whole body of Schenectady's citizens. A stirring narrative might be told of the deepened resolve of Schenectady to achieve its dream — as it will — but it would be only one chapter in the narrative of the awakening of American cities to the necessity of fuller and worthier life.
Erie, a town which, but for neglect of its harbor, might have been to-day
HARVARD SQUARE IN 1840 another Buffalo; Reading and Scranton,
WHEN IT YET RETAINED THE NATURAL BEAUTY OF with the problem of their beginning in
A WOODED VILLAGE dustries and their meagre civic life; Roanoke, newly conscious of its shabbiness and Bennett was the subject of an article and of its great possibilities; San Diego, in this magazine three years ago. Clevewith scenic possibilities of the highest, until land has begun a great work of civic imnow utterly neglected; every one of these, provement with the creation of a civic with its particular needs and new ambi- centre, for which the land has been actions, has its own aspect of interest. quired, a Federal building and court-house
Though it is Mr. Nolen who is devoting erected, and a city hall begun. himself more exclusively than any one Baltimore had for three years a city else to the advocacy of the idea and to plan commission, advised by Mr. Frederick the actual work of city planning, others, Law Olmsted and Carrére & Hastings. too, have wrought great things.
Hartford, the American city which first The city plan of Chicago, that design distinguished itself by the acquisition of gigantic in its daring, made by Burnham a worthy park, was the first to provide
HARVARD SQUARE TO-DAY WHEN IT HAS DEGENERATED (AS ALL GROWING TOWNS DEGENERATE UNLESS CONSCIOUS EFFORTS ARE MADE TO PREVENT IT) INTO AN UGLY AND INCONVENIENTLY ARRANGED JUMBLE OF JARRING ARCHITECTURAL STYLES AND OF NO STYLES AT ALL
itself with a city plan commission. Carrére & Hastings prepared a comprehensive scheme of improvement, of which the monumental bridge shown on the opposite page is one of the first fruits.
Seattle has a commission which with Mr. Virgil G. Bogue as its expert, has provided an elaborate city plan contemplating a civic centre, the improvement of the harbor, the creation of a park system, the opening of arterial streets, and in general provision for the city's traffic and transit. By law, the commission's plan, when accepted by the people, is to become the official plan of Seattle, and every improvement is to follow it.
Kansas City, having developed an VISTA AND THOROUGHFARE TOO enviable park and boulevard system at a EXTENDING AND WIDENING ARLINGTON STREET, cost of 10 millions, is moving toward other IN BOSTON, TO PROVIDE A MORE DIRECT ROUTE
improvements according to a well conFOR TRAFFIC AND TO CREATE A NEW BEAUTY FOR PUBLIC VIEW. EVERY VEHICLE IN BOSTON LOSES sidered plan. TWO OR THREE HOURS A DAY BECAUSE OF THE BAD
St. Louis has created a city plan com
ARRANGEMENT OF THE STREETS
MR. JOHN NOLEN (RIGHT) AT WORK ON A CITY PLAN IN HIS OFFICE AT CAMBRIDGE, MASS., IN WHICH HE HAS DESIGNED CIVIC IMPROVEMENTS FOR MORE THAN