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must import from abroad. Major Foster told me at Hartford he suspected he had some land that would yield nitre; pray converse with him about it. Dr. Franklin's account is much the same as is mentioned in one of the first of the American Magazines: the sweepings of the streets and rubbish of old buildings are made into mortar, and built into walls, exposed to the air, and once in about two months scraped, and lixiviated, and evaporated; when I can describe the method more minutely I will write you ; mean while give me leave to condole with you the loss of colonel Lee. Pray remember me to colonel Orne and all other our worthy friends. Pray take care of your important health, that you may be able to stand stiff as a pillar in our new government.

I must now subscribe with great respect and affection, Your humble servant,

R. T. PAINE.

MR. CUSHING, MEMBER OF THE CONTINENTAL

CONGRESS, TO MR. GERRY.

PHILADELPHIA, JUNE 10, 1775. SIR, Dr. Church will bring with him a vote of the congress advising our people to consider the

governour and lieutenant governour as absent, and

As to

their offices vacant ; and further recommending it to the provincial congress to issue letters to all such places as are entitled to a representation to choose representatives, who when convened, are advised to choose counsellors agreeable to the charter; which assembly, together with the counsellors that may be chosen, are advised to carry on the affairs of government until a governour of his majesty's appointment will consent to govern according to the directions of the charter. giving a credit to our provincial note and regulating the army, you will hear further from the congress soon.

The bearer carries a recommendation to the other colonies to supply you with all the powder they can safely spare. In great haste,

I am, with respect,
Your most humble servant,

THOMAS CUSHING. P. S. Pray let me hear from you soon concerning my dear country. Must refer you for particulars to Dr. Church.

Mr. Elbridge Gerry.

PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS TO MR. GERRY.

SUNDAY MORNING, JUNE 18, 1775. DEAR SIR, I have but a moment's time left to tell you, that your order for the duck, &c. cannot be com

plied with, there being not enough here to make it worth while to think of sending; and indeed they are in want of the same articles here. I cannot inform you of the doings of congress in general, being under an injunction ; but I am thus far indulged to mention, but by no means to be put in the newspaper at present, colonel Washington is appointed commander in chief of the continental army; I shall sign his commission tomorrow, and he will depart in a few days. He is a fine man. You will judge of the propriety of the mode of his reception. Ten companies of fine riflemen from this province, Maryland, and Virginia, are ordered to proceed immediately to your army; these are clever fellows. The committee of the whole congress have agreed upon a report for the immediate emission of two millions of dollars upon the faith of the continent. Remember me to Mr. Gill, Pitts, Cooper, and all friends. Adieu, I am almost worn out. I am your real friend,

JOHN HANCOCK.

CHAPTER VIII.

Joseph Warren.......Arrival of General Washington at Cam

bridge....... Letters from the Massachusetts Delegates.

While the provincial congress was in session at Watertown, the battle most celebrated in the history of the revolution was fought at Bunker Hill. Joseph Warren, then president of congress, died there, filling a greater space in the eye of the public than any who had before fallen in the cause of the country. Dr. Warren had been the companion and room-mate of Mr. Gerry ; they lodged in the same chamber. He intrusted to Mr. Gerry alone the secret of his intention to be on the field, and with something of a presentiment of his fate, replied to the admonition of his friend, Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori."*

* Dr. Joseph Warren was one of Mr. Gerry's most intimate personal companions. A similarity of taste, disposition and principles, connected them in the closest habits of friendship. They were so frequently together, that letters on political affairs could rarely pass between them.

The public character of this eminent patriot is consecrated by the memorable manner of his death. A volunteer in the ranks, which he was soon to command, he sought opportunity of acquiring military information, and lost in its acquisition a life devoted to his country; or a pilgrim in the cause of humanity, he fell a sacrifice to the beneficent desire of alleviating the suffer

Events, which fill mankind with admiration, frequently occur without producing an excitement upon their immediate agents. The prospect of

ings of his fellow citizens. It is not yet, and may never be well ascertained, whether Dr. Warren repaired to Bunker Hill to exercise, from motives of benevolence, the duties of the profession he adorned, or to prepare himself in the school of experience for the future duties of a soldier. There is some reason for believing it was as much the kindness of the physician as the zeal of the general, which carried him to the fatal heights.

Dr. Warren possessed uncommon firmness in situations of danger. The commemoration of the anniversary of the massacre in Boston by the British soldiers on 5th March 1770, excited great indignation among the king's officers, and it was distinctly intimated on its recurrence in 1775, that no one, who consulted his personal safety, would appear as the orator of the town. This threat served as an inducement to Dr. Warren to undertake the task, which he had once before performed, and he delivered his celebrated oration on the fifth anniversary of that fatal event, before an immense crowd in the Old South church.

The pulpit stairs (said an eye witness to the writer) were occupied by British officers. One of them was ostentatiously playing with a couple of musket balls, which he occasionally threw up and caught in his hand. A solemn silence pervaded the whole assembly. The speaker seemed absorbed by his subject, and indifferent to every thing but his theme. It was momentarily expected by us that some interruption would take place. In a few minutes a drum was heard. Was it the signal for another outrage? It approached, and its sound broke the attention of the audience. With a countenance displaying the indignant feelings, which the subject excited, his arm outstretched in an attitude of dignity, the orator paused till the noise should subside and leave him at liberty to be heard again by the people. There was a slight movement round the house, the effect of intense interest; for not a hair of his head would have been hurt without most signal revenge.

The interruption was occasioned by changing guard, or some other usual military movement, and the oration proceeded with

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