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Stay not to question, for the watch is coming ; Cap. O, heavens! - O wife ! look how our Come, go, good Juliet, — [Noise again.] I dare
daughter bleeds! stay no longer.
[Erit. This dagger hath mista'en, - for lo! his house Jul. Go, get thee hence, for I will not away. Is empty on the back of Montague, What's here? a cup, clos'd in my true love's hand? And is mis-sheathed in my daughter's bosom. Poison, I see, hath been his timeless end :
La, Cap. O me! this sight of death is as a bell, O churl! drink all; and leave no friendly drop, That warns my old age to a sepulchre. To help me after ? — I will kiss thy lips;
Enter MONTAGUE and others. Haply, some poison yet doth hang on them, To make me die with a restorative. (Kisses him. Prince. Come, Montague; for thou art early up, Thy lips are warm !
To see thy son and heir more early down. i Watch. [Within.] Lead, boy :: Which way? Mon. Alas, my liege, my wife is dead to-night ; Jul. Yea, noise ? — then I'll be brief. — O happy, Grief of my son's exile hath stopp'd her breath :
dagger! (Snatching Romeo's Dagger. What further woe conspires against mine age ? This is thy sheath ; [Stabs herself. ] there rust, and Prince. Look, and thou shalt see. let me die.
Mon. O thou untaught; what manners is in this, (Falls on Romeo's Body, and dies. To press before thy father to a grave ?
Prince. Seal up the mouth of outrage for a while, Enter Watch, with the Page of Paris.
Till we can clear these ambiguities, Page. This is the place; there, where the torch And know their spring, their head, their true doth burn.
descent; 1 Watch. The ground is bloody; Search about And then will I be general of your woes, the churchyard :
And lead you even to death : Meantime forbear, Go, some of you, whoe'er you find, attach.
And let mischance be slave to patience.
[Ereunt some. Bring forth the parties of suspicion. Pitiful sight! here lies the county slain;
Fri. I am the greatest, able to do least, And Juliet bleeding; warm, and newly dead, Yet most suspected, as the time and place Who here hath lain these two days buried. - Doth make against me, of this direful murder; Go, tell the prince, - run to the Capulets, – And here I stand, both to impeach and purge Raise up the Montagues, - some others search ; - Myself condemned and myself excus'd.
[Ereunt other Watchmen. Prince. Then say at once what thou dost know in We see the ground whereon these woes do lie;
this. But the true ground of all these piteous woes, Fri. I will be brief, for my short date of breath We cannot without circumstance descry.
Is not so long as is a tedious tale.
Romeo, there dead, was husband to that Juliet; Enter some of the Watch, with BALTHAZAR.
And she, there dead, that Romeo's faithful wife: 2 Watch. Here's Romeo's man, we found him in I married them; and their stolen marriage-day the churchyard.
Was Tybalt's dooms-day, whose untimely death 1 Watch. Hold him in safety, till the prince come Banish'd the new-made bridegroom from this city; hither.
For whom, and not for Tybalt, Juliet pin’d. Enter another Watchman, with Friar Laurence. Betroth’d, and would have married her perforce,
You — to remove that sieges of grief from her, 3 Watch. Here is a friar, that trembles, sighs, and To county Paris: — Then comes she to me; weeps :
And, with wild looks, bid me devise some means We took this mattock and this spade from him, To rid her from this second marriage, As he was coming from this churchyard side. Or, in my cell there would she kill
herself. 1 Watch. A great suspicion : Stay the friar too. Then gave I her, so tutor'd by my art, Enter the PRINCE and Attendants.
A sleeping potion; which so took effect
As I intended, for it wrought on her Prince. What misadventure is so early up, The form of death : meantime I writ to Romeo, That calls our person from our morning's rest? That he should hither come as this dire night,
To help to take her from her borrow'd grave, Enter CAPULET, LADY CAPULET, and others.
Being the time the potion's force should cease. Cap. What should it be, that they so shriek But he which bore my letter, friar John, abroad?
Was staid by accident; and yesternight
Came I to take her from her kindred's vault; Prince. What fear is this, which startles in our Meaning to keep her closely at my cell, ears?
Till I conveniently could send to Romeo : 1 Watch. Sovereign, here lies the county Paris But, when I came (some minute ere the time
Of her awakening,) here untimely lay And Romeo dead; and Juliet, dead before, The noble Paris, and true Romeo, dead. Warm and new kill'd.
She wakes; and I entreated her come forth, Prince. Search, seek, and know how this foul And bear this work of heaven with patience : murder comes.
But then a noise did scare me from the tomb; 1 Watch. Here is a friar, and slaughter'd Romeo's And she, too desperate, would not go with me, man;
But (as it seems,) did violence on herself. With instruments upon them, fit to open
All this I know; and to the marriage, These dead men's tombs.
? i.e. The scabbard.
Her nurse is privy: And, if aught in this Of a poor 'pothecary, and therewithal
Came to this vault to die, and lie with Juliet. Be sacrific'd, some hour before his time,
Where be these enemies? Capulet! Montague ! Unto the rigour of severest law.
See what a scourge is laid upon your hate,
And I, for winking at your discords too,
Bal. I brought my master news of Juliet's death; Cap. O brother Montague, give me thy hand : And then in post he came from Mantua,
This is my daughter's jointure, for no more
But I can give thee more :
That, while Verona by that name is known,
Prince. A glooming peace this morning with it And bid me stand aloof, and so I did :
brings; Anon, comes one with light to ope the tomb;
The sun for sorrow will not show his head : And, by and by, my master drew on him;
Go hence, to have more talk of these sad things; And then I ran away to call the watch.
Some shall be pardon'd, and some punished : Prince. This letter doth make good the friar's For never was a story of more woe, words,
Than this of Juliet and her Romeo. [Exeunt. Their course of love, the tidings of her death :
* Mercutio and Paris. And here he writes — that he did buy a poison
PRINCE OF DENMARK.
PREFACE TO HAMLET,
When so great a writer as Johnson declares him- thing respecting his horrid reflections on that orself unable to perceive any satisfactory cause for casion ; they do not affect the course of argument Hamlet's counterfeiting madness, I fear I shall be which I am pursuing, and in this, as in other inaccused of presumption, if I attempt to offer any stances, I attempt nothing more than to point out solution of the problem; yet I really think that the the motives of Hamlet's conduct, without entering difficulty is not as great as he supposes it to be. into the propriety or impropriety of those motives, He says that Hamlet does nothing in the character or of the actions to which they gave birth. of a lunatic, which he might not have done in his Hamlet now goes to his mother, and while be proper senses; but in this observation he appears to is with her, he does (as he supposes) what he had have overlooked what Hamlet intended to do, which before resolved to do. He thinks he is killing the ought to have been taken into consideration as well king, when he kills Polonius. That he supposed as what he actually did.
the person behind the arras to be the king, is eviThe state of the question I take to be as fol- dent from his words to his mother : “ Is it the lows:
king ?” and to the dead Polonius, “ I took thee for Hamlet being informed by the Ghost of the thy better.” After this, he entreats the queen by murder of his father, and being at the same time no means to disclose the secret of his madness being required to revenge it, forms the resolution of killing counterfeit, and not real distraction. his uncle; but being sensible that he has no proof Here, then, with all due submission to Dr. Johnof the murder, except what was said by the Ghost son, is an act done by Hamlet while supposed to to himself alone, which could have no weight with be mad, which would have been thought an unany other person; he feels conscious, that his killing pardonable murder if he had been in his proper the king would be considered as the act of a traitor senses; and this is the use which Hamlet afterwards and an assassin : he therefore determines to assume makes of his counterfeit madness. He excuses him. the appearance of madness, in order that the in- self to Laertes on this very ground: tended blow might be ascribed to distraction rather than to treason. Having formed this resolution, he
“ This presence knows, and you must needs have heard,
How I am punish'd with a sore distraction.
That might your nature, honour, and exception,
awake, I here proclaim was madness," &c.
It appears, then, that Hamlet resolved to counallow any expression to escape them, which would
terfeit madness, that he might kill the king without convey an idea of what might have occasioned the being considered as a traitor and a murderer. He alteration in his behaviour.
thought he was killing him when he killed Polonius, Hamlet is nevertheless induced, by more mature king, Hamlet would
have excused his death, as he
and if the person behind the arras had been the reflection, to doubt the propriety of proceeding to extremities
, till he has further proof of the king's excused the death of Polonius, by saying, guilt.
" What I have done,
I here proclaim was madness."
I shall add one word in answer to a question
which I have heard frequently asked: Why did He therefore has recourse to the play. The stra-Hamlet act the madman in a manner so tagem succeeds; and being now convinced of the to the amiable Ophelia ? The reason I take to be truth of what was said by the Ghost, he determines this: Ophelia was known to be the object of his to kill the king.
affection. The queen hoped “ Now could I drink hot blood," &c.
“She would have been her Hamlet's wife.” This resolution he would immediately afterwards If, then, it appeared that he acted as a madman in have carried into effect, if a very extraordinary cir- the presence of the object of his tenderest regard, cumstance (the finding the king engaged in prayer) he considered it as a certain consequence, that no had not induced him to postpone it. I am happy doubt could be entertained of the reality of his disthat it is by no means necessary for me to say any traction.
More relative than this."
CLAUDIUS, King of Denmark.
Francisco, a Soldier.. HAMLET, Son to the former, and Nephew to the pre- REYNALDO, Servant to Polonius. sent King
A Captain. POLONIUS, Lord Chamberlain.
An Ambassador. Horatio, Friend to Hamlet.
Ghost of Hamlet's Father.
FORTINBRAS, Prince of Norway.
GERTRUDE, Queen of Denmark, and Mother of ROSENCRANTZ,
OPHELIA, Daughter of Polonius.
Lords, Ladies, Officers, Soldiers, Players, GraveA Priest.
diggers, Sailors, Messengers, and other Attendants.
, } officers.
SCENE I. - Elsinore. A Platform before the
Ber. I have seen nothing.
Mar. Horatio says, 'tis but our fantasy,
And will not let belief take hold of him, Francisco on his Post. Enter to him Bernardo. Touching this dreaded sight, twice seen of us ; Ber. Who's there?
Therefore I have entreated him, along
That, if again this apparition come,
He may approve our eyes, and speak to it. Fran.
Hor. Tush! tush ! 'twill not appear.
Sit down awhile;
What we two nights have seen. Fran. For this relief, much thanks ; 'tis bitter
Well, sit we down, cold,
And let us hear Bernardo speak of this. And I am sick at heart.
Ber. Last night of all, Ber. Have you had quiet guard ?
When yon same star, that's westward from the pole, Fran. Not a mouse stirring.
Had made his course to illume that part of heaven Ber. Well, good night.
Where now it burns, Marcellus, and myself, If you do meet Horatio and Marcellus,
The bell then beating one, The rivals I of my watch, bid them make haste. Mar. Peace, break thee off'; look, where it comes
again! Enter HORATIO and MARCELLUS.
Enter Ghost. Fran. I think, I hear them. - Stand, ho! Who is there?
Ber. In the same figure, like the king that's dead. Hor. Friends to this ground.
Mar. Thou art a scholar, speak to it, Horatio. Mar.
And liegemen to the Dane. Ber. Looks it not like the king ? mark it, HoFran. Give you good night.
O, farewell, honest soldier : Hor. Most like: - it harrows me with fear, and Who hath reliev'd you ?
Bernardo hath my place. Ber. It would be spoke to. Give you good night. [Exit FRANCISCO. Mar.
Speak to it, Horatio. Mar. Holla! Bernardo !
Hor. What art thou, that usurp'st this time of Ber.
night, What, is Horatio there?
Together with that fair and warlike form
In which the majesty of buried Denmark Ber. Welcome, Horatio ; welcome, good Mar- | Did sometimes march? By heaven I charge thee cellus.
speak. Hor. What, has this thing appear'd again to- Mar. It is offended. night?
See! it stalks away. i Partners.
Make good or establish.
Hor. Stay, speak: speak I charge thee, speak. Comes armed through our watch; so like the king
[Exit Ghost. That was, and is the question of these wars. Mar. 'Tis gone, and will not answer.
Hor. A mote it is, to trouble the mind's eye. Ber. How now, Horatio ? you tremble, and look | In the most high and palmy 5 state of Rome, pale:
A little ere the mightiest Julius fell, Is not this something more than fantasy?
The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead What think you of it?
Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets. Hor. Before my God, I might not this believe, Stars shone with trains of fire; dews uf blood Without the sensible and true avouch Of mine own eyes.
Disasters veil'd the sun; and the moist star, Mar.
Is it not like the king ? Upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands, Hor. As thou art to thyself :
Was sick almost to doomsday with eclipse. Such was the very armour he had on,
And even the like precurse of fierce events, – When he the ambitious Norway combated ; As harbingers preceding still the fates, So frown'd he once, when, in an angry parle, And prologue to the omen 7 coming on, – He smote the sledded 4 Polack) on the ice. Have heaven and earth together démonstrated
Unto our climatures and countrymen. Mar. Thus, twice before, and jump at this dead hour,
Re-enter Ghost. With martial stalk hath he gone by our watch. But, soft ; behold! lo, where it comes again! Hor. In what particular thought to work, I know I'll cross it, though it blast me. — Stay, illusion! not;
If thou hast any sound, or use of voice,
Speak to me:
Which, happily, foreknowing, may avoid,
Or, if thou hast uphoarded in thy life
[Cock crous. Doth make the night joint-labourer with the day; Speak of it:-stay, and speak. - Stop it, Marcellus, Who is't, that can inform me?
Mar. Shall I strike at it with my partizan? : Hor.
That can I ;
Hor. Do, if it will not stand. At least, the whisper goes so. Our last king,
'Tis here! Whose image even but now appear'd to us,
Ber. It was about to speak, when the cock crew Did forfeit, with his life, all those his lands,
Hor. And then it started like a guilty thing Which he stood seis'd of, to the conqueror : Upon a fearful summons. I have heard, Against the which, a moiety competent
The cock, that is the trumpet of the morn, Was gaged by our king; which had return'd Doth with his lofty and shrill-sounding throat To the inheritance of Fortinbras,
Awake the god of day; and, at his warning, Had he been vanquisher; as, by the same comart 7, Whether in sea or fire, in earth or air, And carriage of the article design’d ,
The extravagant and erringo spirit hies Ilis fell to Hamlet : Now, sir, young Fortinbras, To his confine: and of the truth herein Of uniinproved mettle hot and full 9,
This present object made probation.' Hath in the skirts of Norway, here and there, Mar. It faded on the crowing of the cock. Shark'd' up a list of landless resolutes,
Some say, that ever 'gainst that season comes For food and diet, to some enterprize
Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated, That hath a stomach in't: which is no other This bird of dawning singeth all night long; (As it doth well appear unto our state,)
And then they say no spirit dares stir abroad ; But to recover of us, by strong hand,
The nights are wholesome; then no planets strike. And terms compulsatory, those 'foresaid lands No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm, So by his father lost : And this, I take it,
So hallow'd and so 'gracious is the time. Is the main motive of our preparations ;
Hor. So have I heard, and do in part believe it. The source of this our watch; and the chief head But, look, the morn, in russet inantle clad, Of this post-haste and romages in the land. Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill :
Ber. I think, it be no other, but even so : Break we our watch up; and, by my advice, Well may it sort 4, that this portentous figure Let us impart what we have seen to-night 3 Dispute.
Unto young Hamlet : for, upon my life, 5 Polander, an inhabitant of Poland. 7 Joint bargain. * The covenant to confirm
that bargain. This spirit, dumb t us, will speak to him : . Full of spirit without experience.
'Tis here! [Exit Ghost.
6 The moon.
A sort of pike. 9 Wandering.
7 Event 1 Proof.