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accept accompanied accordance acquired action activity afford animal ants appears arise association become biological birds body called carried cause cells centres changes chick circumstances close complex conscious situation consciousness continuity course definite determine direct distinction effects eggs elements emotional essential evidence evolution example existence experience expression fact factor feeling further give guidance guided habit hand higher imitation important impulse indicate individual influence inherited insects instinctive behaviour intelligent interest kind lead less manner matter meaning mental modes modification movements natural selection nervous nest object observation organic origin particular performance perhaps play pleasure practice present probably Professor psychological question rational reach reason regarded relation response result seems seen sense social sounds species stage stimulus successful term thing tion wasps whole young
Strana 300 - The consciousness of brutes would appear to be related to the mechanism of their body simply as a collateral product of its working, and to be as completely without any power of modifying that working, as the steam-whistle which accompanies the work of a locomotive engine is without influence upon its machinery.
Strana 61 - For my own part, I look upon it as upon the principle of gravitation in bodies, which is not to be explained by any known qualities inherent in the bodies themselves, nor from any laws of mechanism, but, according to the best notions of the greatest philosophers, is an immediate impression from the first mover, and the divine energy acting in the creatures.
Strana 282 - In other words, those races of beings only can have survived in which, on the average, agreeable or desired feelings went along with activities conducive to the maintenance of life, while disagreeable and habitually-avoided feelings went along with activities directly or indirectly destructive of life...
Strana 217 - When we see an ant-hill, tenanted by thousands of industrious inhabitants, excavating chambers, forming tunnels, making roads, guarding their home, gathering food, feeding the young, tending their domestic animals, — each one fulfilling its duties industriously, and without confusion, — it is difficult altogether to deny to them the gift of reason ; and the preceding observations tend to confirm the opinion that their mental powers differ from those of men, not so much in kind as in degree.
Strana 302 - (if any such now exist), must admit that we have as much reason for regarding the mode of motion of the nervous system as the cause of the state of consciousness, as we have for regarding any event as the cause of another.
Strana 311 - We see that the inferior animals, when the conditions of life are favorable, are subject to periodical fits of gladness, affecting them powerfully and standing out in vivid contrast to their ordinary temper. And we know what this feeling is — this periodic intense elation which even civilized man occasionally experiences when in perfect health, more especially when young.
Strana 219 - Our reverence for the nobility of manhood will not be lessened by the knowledge, that Man is, in substance and in structure, one with the brutes ; for, he alone possesses the marvellous endowment of intelligible and rational speech, whereby, in the secular period of his existence, he has slowly accumulated and organized the experience which is almost wholly lost with the cessation of every individual life in other animals...
Strana 145 - The cat that is clawing all over the box in her impulsive struggle will probably claw the string or loop or button so as to open the door. And gradually all the other non-successful impulses will be stamped out and the particular impulse leading to the successful act will be stamped in by the resulting pleasure, until, after many trials, the cat will, when put in the box, immediately claw the button or loop in a definite way.
Strana 212 - They came to the edge and tried hard to get over, but it did not occur to them to. push the paper bridge, though the distance was only about onethird of an inch, and they might easily have done so. After trying for about a quarter of an hour they gave up the attempt, and returned home. This I repeated several times.
Strana 281 - ... while pleasures are the correlatives of actions conducive to its welfare. We need not, however, rest satisfied with an induction from these instances yielded by the essential vital functions ; for it is an inevitable deduction from the hypothesis of Evolution, that races of sentient creatures could have come into existence under no other conditions.