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will probably be found the most interesting portions of the volume. In making the quotations from this department, it has been the object to bring the greatest quantity of useful matter within the smallest space. Parts of letters, therefore, are usually introduced, rarely the whole of any one,--sufficient to give the full sense of the Writer on any required point, and avoiding all extraneous observations. The historical and biographical portions of the work have also been derived, in great part, from this pregnant source.

In some cases the very language of the Author has been adopted, without invariably noting it with the usual mark of credit. In all such cases, however, the style or the sentiment will be sufficiently distinguishable to place it where it belongs. Some parts of the narrative may appear overwrought with eulogy, to some minds--not so much because the subject does not deserve it, as because it was infinitely above the attempt. It is a difficult matter to commemorate the deeds of 80 distinguished a benefactor of the human race, without yielding in some degree to the influence of a passion which they are so justly calculated to inspire; and the writer does not scruple to admit, that he has less endeavored to restrain his own grateful feelings, than to infuse the same into the minds of his readers.

The character of THOMAS JEFFERSON should be held up to all succeeding generations of American people, as the model on which they should habitually fix their eyes, and fashion their own characters and principles. His unparalleled achievements and sacrifices for their benefit, with the pre-eminent success, and the blissful close of his life, should be continually spread before them, as incitements to run the same virtuous and glorious career of action. IIis Writings should enlighten the fireside of every citizen of this Republic, and form the text-book of the American statesman. His pure fame should be religiously cherished by his countrymen, as a most precious inheritance to them, and as meriting from man universally an everlasting remembrance. If the present volume shall bave been instrumental in promoting these objects, it will have fulfilled its destiny.

b: found the most interesting portions of the volume. e quotations from this depariment, it has been the

the greatest quantity of useful matter within the

Parts of letters, therefore, are usually introduced.2 of any one, --sufficient to give the full sense of the required point, and avoiding all extraneous observa

cal and biographical portions of the work have al3. in great part, from this pregnant source. In some Linguage of the Author has been adopted, without ni it with the usual mark of credit. In all such

the style or the sentiment will be sufficiently distince it where it belongs. Some parts of the narrative wrought with eulogy, to some minds-not so much pt does not deserve it, as because it was infinitely 1. It is a difficult matter to commemorate the deeds ed a benefactor of the human race, without yielde to the intluence of a passion which they are so to inspire; and the writer does not scruple to adand endeavored to restrain his own grateful feelings,

same into the minds of his readers. of Thomas JEFFERSON should be held up to all ions of American people, as the model on which ally fix their eyes, and fashion their own charac

His unparalleled achievements and sacrifices Eth the pre-eminent success, and the blissful close

e continually spread before them, as incitements tuous and glorious career of action. His Writen the fireside of every citizen of this Republic, pok of the American statesman. His pure fame i cherished by his countrymen, as a inost prethem, and as meriting from man universally an ance. If the present volume shall have been

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER 1. Nativity of Mr. Jefferson. Peculiarity in the concealment of his birth-dayCuriosity felt to ascertain it-Motives of his conduct in this particular-Reply to the city authorities of Washington-To Levi Lincoln, pp. 17:18. Genealogy of Mr. Jefferson Peculiarity by which it was marked -Prominency of the feature iri Thoinas. Anecdote related by Mr. Madison. Antiquity of his maternal pedigree. Character of his father-Extent of his patrimony. His early education--Critical position of hus boy-luod—llis juvenile mind and habits -Fondness for the classics-For what qualities distinguished in CollegeFassion for certain Sciences and Fine Arts, pp. 13:20. Circumstances which decided the particular direction of his life. His character of Dr. Small-Or George Wyihe. Commences the study of Law-Extent of his researches. His fervid description of the speech of Patrick Henry against the Stamp-actInfluence of that scene upon his subsequen'. career. Mottoes of his Seals, pp. 22:27. Enquiry into the relative birth of individual opinions on the question of American Independence-Remark of Mr. Jefferson upon this point. Notice of his claims to the distinction of giving direction and permanency to the moral power of the Revolution-flis sarcastic compliment to Massachusetts upon this point-The idea pursued in a letter to General Dearborn. Enters the Practice of the Law--Profissional celebrity. Qualifications as an Advocate--As a Popular Orator. Letter to Major John Cartwright of England, displaying the depth and precision of his legal preparation-Interest excited on the publication of this letter--Answer 10 Ě. Everett upon the subject, pp. 27:33.

CHAPTER II. Mr. Jefferson comes of age. Elected to the Legislature. His first effort in that body for the Emancipation of Slaves-Overwhelming defeat of the measure --Reinarks on the singular merils of the proposition. Extract from his Notes on Virginia, on Slavery. Progress of the Revolution. System of Non-intercourse adopted by the Colonies--Agency of Mr. Jefferson in bringing Virginia into the measure-Its utility as an engine of coercion. Retaliatory resolutions of the British Parliament. Counter resolutions brought forward by Mr. Jeffer

Gerin of the American Union. Sudden dissolution of the Legislature. Jefferson and others rally a private meeting of the members at the Raleigli tavern—Its spirited doings. Influence of the revolutionary proceedings in Virginia, pp. 341:40. Apally of the ColonistsHow viewed by Mr. Jefferson He devises measures for arousing them to a sense of their situation. Meeringu of the bulder spirits, to set the machinery in motion --Influence of this conclave upon the course of the Revolution. Committees of Correspondence established --Agency of this measure in begetting a General Congress-Strong presenti ment of Mr. Jefferson of the result of theis deliberations. Interesting debut of Mr. Cart in the legislature--Mr. Jefferson's character of him. Legislature again dissolved, pp. 41:45. Parallel Committees of Correspondence appointed by the other Colonies--Moral agency of this institution in the Revolution. News of the Beston Port Bill. Pipular effervescence. Measures set in notion hy Mr. Jefferson. Holds another council with his former confederates Appointment of a general Fast in Virginia-Mr. Jefferson's account of his draft of ihe proclamation-Effect of his incasure ibroughout the Colonies. Legislature again dissolved. Spirited Associalion entered into by the members. Recommendation of a General Congress, pp. 46:53.

CHAPTER III. The other Colonies unite in the measure of a General Congress. First dernocratic Convention in Virginia, Mr. Jefferson elected a meinber. Instructions proposed by him for the Congressional Delegates--Published by the Convention under the lille of Summary View of the Rights of Britislı America'--Effect of this work in England---Re published by the Whigs in Parliament.--Bill of Attainder commenced against the author--Political doctrines of this work form the text of the Revolution ; insried at length remarks on the Political merits of the work. The Convention virlua.ly assuines the government of the colony,

son.

noting these objects, it will have fulfilled its des

Commerce- Report of the committee, pp. 229 : 232. He submits a proposition

for appointing a Committee of the States,' lo serve during the recesses of Con.

gress--Subsequent failure of the scheme; humorous anecdole of Doctor Frank-

lin. General Washington consults him on the Cincinnati institution--Its origin

--His opinions.-Advice to Washington, who takes measuies to abolish the order.

Appointed Minster Plenipotentiary, with Franklin and Adams, for negotiating

treaties of commerce. To whom treaties were to be proposed, pp. 232: 239.

CHAPTER IX:

Accepts the appointment of Minister to Europe--Sails--Arrival in France.

Curiosity excited in the Diplomatic corps at Paris, by the instructions given to

our negotiators. Authorship of these instructions..-His letler on the subject.

Mr. Adams joins his colleagues at Paris. General form of trealy. Result of

the conference with the French Minister. Final result of their propositions to

the several Powers of Europe. Digrified conduct of the American negotiators,

pp. 240: 243. Appointed Resident Minister at the Court of Versailles-Recep-

tion al that court. Visit to London--Reception at the Court of St. James.

General view of his official duties at Par:s. His tribute to La Fayette, and the

Count de Vergennes. His project to engage the principal European Powers in

a perpetual ulliance with the U. States against the Piratical States --Letter to

Mr. Adams--His proposals--- Their reception, and failure, pp. 243 : 250. His

measures for securing the foreign credit of the United States.:- Visit to Holland.

Extracts, giving his opinions on the state of society, &c. in Europe. Insurrec-

tions in America-- How viewed by hiin. Extracts from his letters to America.

Movements in the U. S. for forinmg a Constitution-- Agency of Mr. Jefferson.

The National Convention meets-- Diversity of opinion. His v ews consulted.-

Advice to the members--- Result of their lübors - Reception by the States---His

opinions on the new Constitution.--Letter to Mr. Madison---Advice on the man-

ner of accep'ing it--Further extracts, His influence in producing the amend-

ments, pp. 250 : 272. Proposed abandonment of the navigation of the Mississippi

---Effect upon Mr. Jefferson, and letter to Mr. Madison. He introduces into the

Southern states upland cotton and the olive tree. Tour through France and

Italy-Extracts. Communicates to America a variety of new inventions, and

articles of culture. His scientific and literary efforts in France. Endeavors 10

improve the architecture of the U. States. Letter to Washington on the Cin.

cinnati.-Letters to the young men of America, pp. 272: 287. Opening scenes of

the French Revolution. Causes of this struggle. as stated by Mr. Jefferson---

His Letter, accompanied with a Charter of Rights..-Consultation at his house,

and its effects--- Apology-- Character of the Queen. Departure, and Farewell

tribute to France. Arrival in Virginia. Receives the appointment of Secretary

of State. His answers, and final acceptance. Arrival at the Seat of Govern-

ment, pp 287 : 296.

CHAPTER X.

Political elements of Washington's cabinet. Character of Hamilton, Adams,
and remarks on Knox, hy Jefferson. His critical position, and observations.
Hamilton's Funding System and Assumption scheme..-Contentions excited by
these measures. Panic of Hamilton. Conciliatory intervention of Mr. Jefferson
and final passage of the Assumption--- Influence of these measures. National
Bank, and grounds of opposition. The President requires the written opinions
of his Cabiret. Opinion of Jeflerson. Subsequent influence of the Bank, and
extensive nionied control of Hamilton. Opposition to the administration and
its causes, as stated by Jefferson, pp. 296:310. Extensive duties of the State
Department. His Report on Coins, &c.---lls outlines. Report on the Cod and
Whale Fisheries ; its general features Report on Commerce and Navigation ;
its political effects, pp. 310:312. His duties as to foreign affairs. Extracts
from his instructions to our Minister in Spain, on the Vavigation of the Vissis-
sippi, &c. Hiis controversy with Mr. Hamniond. Instruciions 10 our Minister
at London on Impressment. Critical situation of the U. Slatos, as to their foreign
relations. Popular feeling in favor of France. Intemperate character of the
French Minister. Mr. Jefferson's controversy with him, and the merits of the
performance--Character of Genet's communications; his violent measures--Re-
quest for his recall decided upon ; how performed by the Secretary. Extracts,
pp. 322: 333. Mr. Jefferson's retirement from the Cabinet, and its causes -Efforts

Repost of the committee, pp. 229 : 232. He submits a proposition

3.('ommittee of the States,' to serve during the recesses of Con.

tent failure of the scheme; humorous anecdole of Doctor Frank-

., 25 Jington consults him on the Cincinnati institution--Its origin

*Advice to Washington, who takes measuies to abolish the order.

· stor Plenipotentiary, with Franklin and Adams, for negotiating

- Herce. To whom treaties were to be proposed, pp. 232:239.

CHAPTER IX

appointment of Minister to Europe-Sails--Arrival in France

.
v. the Diplomatic corps at Paris, by the instructions given to

Authorship of these instructions... His letter on the subject.
= his coleagues at Paris. General form of treaty. Result of

ah the French Minister. Final result of their propositions to
- of Europe Dignified conduct of the American negotiators

,
pruted Kesident Minister at the Court of Versailles-Rccep.
i fisit to London--Reception at the Court of St. James.
18 otheial duties at Paris. His tribute to La Fayette, and the
ins. His project to engage the principal European Powers in
e with the U. Slates against the Piratical Stalcs --Letter to

posals...Their reception, and failure, pp. 243: 250. His
ng the foreign credit of the United States..-Visit 10 Holland.
- opinions on the state of society, &c. in Europe. Insurrec.
How viewed by him. Extracts from his letters to America.
- S. for forming a Constitution-- + gency of Mr. Jefferson.
-ntion meets--Diversity of opinion. His v ews consulted-
ep4-.. Result of their liburs - Reception by the States---His
Constitution.--Letter to Ms. Madison...Advice on the man-
Further extracts. His influence in producing the amend.

Proposed abandonment of the navigation of the Vississippi
Terson, and letter to Mr. Madison. He introduces into the
and collon and the olive tree. Tour through France and
mmunicates 10 America a variety of new inventions, and
His scientific and literary efforts in France. Endeavors to
re of the U. States. Leller in Washington on the Cin-
young men of America, pp. 272: 287. Opening scenes of

Causes of this struggle. as stated by Mr. Jefferson...

-d with a Charter of Rights---Consultation at bis house,

y-. Character of the Queen. Departure, and Farewell

salin Virg:nia. Receives the appointinent of Secretary

and final acceptance. Arrival at the Seat of Govern-

of Washington to prevent it; interesting Conversations between them. Ex-

tracts from his Correspondence, pp. 333 : 342.

CHAPTER XI.

Character of the uggle between the federalists and republicans. Third Con-

gress meets ; Mr. Jefferson's report on Commerce taken up. Further view of

his Opinions on Commerce, and Extracts from his writings. Charge against him

of partiality to France and hostility to England examined. Discriminating com-

mercial resolutions of Mr. Madison; party cffo is to defeat them. Exasperation

of parties. Nomination of a Minister Extraordinary to the British Court ; its

effect on the republican party. Character of the Jay treaty, pp.342:3-18. View

of Mr. Jefferson in retirement, dic.--- Extracts from his works. Appointed Presi-

ident of the Amer. Philo. Society; his answer. His sensations on learning late

proceedings in Congress-.-Extracts from his writings on the political affairs

of the U. Šiates, pp. 348 : 358. Explanation of his celebrated letter to Mazzei.

His rule regarding newspapers ; letter to General Washington. Question of

a successor to Washingion agitated-.-Letter of Mr. Jefferson declining being

considered a candidate ---haracter of the contest. Election of Adams.--Mag-

nanimity of Jefferson towards hini, and his endeavors to restore harmony---Let-

ter to Madison. Selections from his Correspondence, displaying certain points

of character, pp. 358:367.

CHAPTER XII.

Political character of Adams' cabinet. Jefferson's arrival as Vice President,
and precaution to elude ceremony. Determination regarding executive consul-
tations. Separation between hiin and the President. His portraiture of the
administration. Catalogue of its most obnoxious measures. Opposition of the
Republican party ; its dependence on Jefferson. Extracts from his works,
pp. 368 : 394. Desperate situation of affairs in '98...99. His advice on the best
course of measures. Republican members of Congress retire into the State
legislatures. Jefferson draughts the Kentucky Resolutions. Their general char-
acter. ' Extract. Madison's Virginia Resolutions. View of Jefferson's official
conduct... Prepares his Manual of Parliamentary Practice. Parties bring out
their candidates for the Presidency. Character of the contest. Licentiousness
of the Pulpit and the Press against Jefferson. Notice of some of the principal
libels on his character; his singular passiveness. Extracts from his works,

pp. 384:391. Result of the election by the people. Constilutional difficulty;

the federalists taking advantage of it resolve to elect Buir, Election scenes

in the House, and conduct of the minority. Fidelity of the republicans to, and

final election of Jefferson. Attempts of the federalists to extort capitulary terms

from him ; bis answers. Causes of their final abandonment of the contest, as

stated toy him. Feelings of ithe nation, pending the election in the House, and

subsequently. Last scenes and appointments of the defeated dynasty. Extracts

from his correspondence at this memorable epoch, pp. 391 : 403.

CHAPTER XIII.

Inauguration of Jefferson. Description of the ceremony. Inaugural address,

Formation of the Cabinet, and rules of communication. Removal of officers,

and rules of action. Outcry of the opposition. President's reply to New

Haven remunstrance. Reformation of other abuses. Private rescript of re-

form meditated by him. Abolition of levees. Anecdote of Washington. Rule

of receiving company.

Moral effect of the new order of things, pp. 403:414.

Principle of reform. Reduction of the army and navy; abolition of superflu-
nus offices, &c. Measures of the President relating to the international code of
minkind. Chastisement of the Mediterranean pirates. His first annual mes-
sage. Propositions of reform. Congratulatory addresses of the people, and his
answers. Effect of the proposition to abolish internal taxes, and his private ex-
plaration, pp. 414:424. Reduction of the public debt. Extent of refurinations
during the first Session. System of finance adopted by the President. Measures
adopted by him for the Purchase of Louisiana. Extracts froin his works.
Ratification of the treaty; merits of this achievement, pp. 424 : 436. Policy
of the Executive towards the Indians; its beneficial effects. Extent of native
title extinguished by him. His policy towards foreign nations. His views on
commerce, creaties and alliances. Rejection of the treaty negotiated with Great

CHAPTER X

Washington's cabinet. Character of Hamilton, Adams,

Jefferson. His critical position, and observations.
Fem and Assumption scheme...Continuions excited by
'Hamilton Conciliatory intervention of Mr. Jefferson
4 ssumption--- Influence of these measures. National
position. The President requires the written opinions
of Jetierson. Subsequent influence of the Bank, and
of Hamilton. Opposition to the administration and
Jefferson, pp. 296:310. Extensive duties of the State

on Coins, dc.---]ts outlines. Report on the Cod and
ral features Report on Commerce and Navigation;
0:39. His duties as to foreign affairs. Extracts
ar Minister in Spain, on the Navigation of the Vissis-
y with Mr. Hamniond. Justructions 10 our Minister

Critical situation of the U. Slates, as to their foreign

in favor of France. Intemperate characler of the
erson's controversy with him, and the merits of the
Genet's communications; his violent measures-- Re-
upon ; how performed by the Secretary. Extracts,

s retirement from the Cabinet, and its causes.-Efforts

which had conferred such distinguished excellence upon their country. He replied, in a style of Roman heroism, “ The only birthday which I recognize, is that of my country's liberties.” In August, 1803, he received a similar communication from Levi Lincoln, in behalf of a certain association in Boston, to which he replied : “Disapproving myself of transferring the honors and veneration for the great birth-day of our Republic, to any individual, or of dividing them with individuals, I have declined letting my own birthday be known, and have engaged my family not to communicate it. This has been the uniform answer to every application of the kind."

On the paternal side, Mr. Jefferson could number no titles to high or ancient lineage. His ancestors, however, as far back as they can be traced, were of solid respectability, and among the first settlers of Virginia. They emigrated to this country from Wales, and from near the mountain of Snowden, the highest in GreatBritain. His grand-father was the first of whom we have any particular information. He lived in Chesterfield county, at the place called Ozborne's, and owned the lands, afterwards the glebe of the parish. He had three sons; Thomas, who died young; Field, who resided on the waters of the Roanoke, and left numerous descendants; and Peter, the father of the subject of these Memoirs, who settled in Albemarle county, on the lands called Shadwell. He was the third or fourth settler in that region of the country. They were all gentlemen of property and influence in the Colony.

But the chief glory of Mr. Jefferson genealogy was the sturdy contempt of hereditary honors and distinctions, with which the whole race was imbued. At a period when birth wasthe principal circumstance which decided rank, such a raciness and unsophisticated tone of character, in an influential family, whose wealth alone was sufficient to identify them with the aristocracy, could not but be regarded as a novel and decisive peculiarity. It was a strong genealogical feature, pervading all the branches of the primitive stock, and forming a remarkable head and concentration in the individual who was destined to confer immortality upon the name. With him, indeed, if there was any one sentiment which predominated in early life, and which lost none of its rightful ascendency through a long career of enlightened and philanthropic effort, it was that of the natural equality of all men, in their rights and wants; and of the nothingness of those pretensions which "are gained without merit and

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