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he could offer no proof of what he said. Bar above them, and had moved back from the nato gave up his shares in exchange for shares crater edge, before the next group of miners in in De Beers. Control in the Kimberly crater a set of tunnels forty feet below had begun in was at last in the hands of the DeBeers Com turn to blast down the blue-ground above their pany. It has cost £5,338,650.
heads. So on to the lowest levels. These men Mr. Williams then made a careful examina had moved back before the men in another set tion of the other two craters, the Dutoitspan of tunnels below had begun to blast. All the and the Bultfontein mines, and though these blue-ground was thus taken out, and no gang at were far less valuable than DeBeers and Kim work had another gang blasting just beneath it. berly, it was decided to buy them too. The The system was a revolution in diamond mining. De Beers Company was on its way to a monop He kept several men at work on experioly of the diamond fields.
ments, until one of them discovered that if a Then Rhodes's idea became apparent. In mass of pebbles be carried across a heavily 1888 the DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Limited, greased surface, every diamond in the mass was organized with the most comprehensive will stick in the grease, though all the other charter that was ever given to a corporation.
corporation. pebbles, and even
and even glass, will flow away. It not only included all the mines that the old Greased pulsators were at once installed, and De Beers Company had been buying, but it the diamonds are now separated automatically. was authorized to do anything anywhere that The fuel problem is a serious one in the any man, group of men, or nation ever thought coal-less and almost treeless country about of doing. It was a blanket warrant to annex and Kimberly, where the diamond fields centre. conduct all Africa, “or anything elsewhere." Recently a coal mine was discovered in RhoNot Alexander the Great nor Julius Cæsar desia. He at once arranged to have most of ever meditated doing half so much. Practi its output delivered at the mines. It was of cally it outlined Rhodes's huge plan of con poor quality and “clogged the fire bars cruel.”' quering a continent. But its immediate ob- Nothing daunted, he devised grates that would ject was to annex and conduct whatever dia burn it economically. It was this sort of mond mining claims in South Africa it did not ready resource, this quickness to step out of then own. Beit, Rhodes, Barnato, and Freder the rut, that marked his whole policy. ick S. P. Stow were its incorporators, and Gard He picked his assistants from various counner Williams, presently made a director, was tries, many from the United States, but he its General Manager. He had played a never lost touch of the affairs of the mines in all doughty part in the financial warfare, and con their ramifications. Nothing of importance was tinued to play it till the De Beers Consolidated done that did not pass over his desk, and he controlled all three diamond craters.
kept the loyalty of his men by always treating time, too, he knew more about diamond min them with scrupulous justice. When the Deing than anyone else. So in 1888 he took Beers mine took fire through the carelessness hold of the problem of regulating the diamond of a Kaffir who left a lighted candle near the supply of the world and of conducting a stupen timbers on one of the upper levels shortly dous mining enterprise that employs 15,000 after the consolidation, imprisoning 685 men workers and has paid more dividends than any below, he hurried at once to the mine, and as other mining enterprise the world ever saw. Barnato said afterward, “worked night and day
The first step was to work out a system of for the relief of the sufferers.” Five hundred underground mining that should be safe and of the imprisoned men escaped, because, with economical, for the methods in use had been due precautions to prevent the escape of neither. At successive levels in the tunnels Kaffirs with stolen diamonds, exit into the old the workmen had been assiduously cutting open workings had been left to provide against the blue-ground from under the feet of the such a contingency. One of his mining axioms workers on the level just above, and they were was that the first thing to consider in sinking leaving behind them diamond-bearing rock a mine is to prepare exits in case of accident, in the pillars they carved as supports in lieu and the way he has followed it has given him of timbers. He solved the problem by driv a wide popularity among the miners. Some ing a set of tunnels clear across the mines from people have wondered why the thousands of crater wall to crater wall. The miners in Kaffirs who work under the white bosses are these tunnels had cleared out the blue-ground content to give up the freedom of their savage
life to live in "compounds” and toil in the mines. and scientific, filled with stories of the world's They work, of course, in order to save enough diamond mines, and made intensely interestto buy many wives and afterward live in ease. ing by their account of the mines he developed Such is their treatment that when Mr. Wil himself. Much of what is told in this brief liams went to a native chief, to ask his assist- sketch he tells there in most entertaining deance in securing labor, the chief replied,
labor, the chief replied, tail, hiding, however, his own share in the great "I cannot tell my people to leave their kraals undertakings that came to his hand beneath and go to Kimberly, but if a boy come to me his enthusiastic appreciation of Rhodes and and say 'I want to go to work in the mines' I
other men. Written with all the picturesquesay “Go,' for he go to work for you.”
ness that the subject suggests, the book is not Mr. Williams saw Kimberly grow from a only a revelation to engineers and scientists, small mining town to a city of imposing pro but a narrative of deep human interest, and portions. There he made his home in a beauti the last word on diamonds. The illustrations ful wide-verandahed house, covered in the fall he has gathered of all the world's great diawith wistaria bloom and surrounded by fruit monds and of the early scenes in and about the trees and vineyards. When the Boer War South Afrcan mines are remarkable. broke out he took an active part in the defence writer, he is as convincing and distinctive as of the city, and it was under his direction that he is as engineer, scientist, and man of affairs. George Labram built in the DeBeers Company On his departure from Africa last spring in workshops “Long Cecil," the famous gun that a very storm of regrets and farewell celebrastiffened the notable front the city made tions, he left his son, Alpheus Williams, behind against the Boers. When famine threatened him as General Manager. At Rhodes's request he turned over his orchards and vineyards to the young man had been made Assistant the people of the town. To help the defence General Manager, and the directors of the Dehe offered the military leaders every facility Beers Corporation insisted that he replace his for using the mines in their operations. There father. The son is on the path to a career was much dynamite on hand for blasting. perhaps as notable as his. Colonel Kekewich, in command of the British Mr. Williams is now building a house in forces, asked him to devote it to planting mines Washington, where he will live with Mrs. Wilabout the city to guard against a Boer rush. liams and his daughter Dorothy. He was be“Put down ten pounds every thirty feet,” was sought by his associates to live in London, but the request. No sooner said than done. But he said, “No, I'm going home.” the report sent back to the Colonel was “Mines He is now deeply interested in the important laid. We put down thirty pounds every ten feet.” political developments that are going on at
Never idle, always alert for new knowledge, the scene of his labors. He believes that the he studied and experimented till he knew as British Government will make a profound much about diamonds as any man living mistake if they grant, as the new Liberal He proved that they were not formed in the blue Government seems disposed to grant, a conground where they lie, but far underground, stitution to the conquered Boers that will offer where the bubbles of gaseous carbon of which a possibility of a Boer government in the they are crystallizations were compressed by Transvaal and the Orange River Colony. the weight of overlying strata. They were “All that the war cost in blood and treasure afterward shot up, he reasoned, by volcanic will be thrown away,” he says. “The Boers mud rushes which later hardened into blue are unreconstructed, they continue to teach ground. In acknowledgment of his scientific Dutch in the schools, and their attitude has work, just before his departure from Kimberly not changed since the days of Kruger. Under he was elected president of the South African the proposed d stricting of the colonies, the Association for the Advancement of Science, Boers are likely to have a majority in the and he recently received the medal of the colonial parliaments, and neither Natal nor Swedish Academy of Science. With all his
With all his Cape Colony is secure against the possibility many activities, moreover, he found time to of a Boer or a pro-Boer Government. And write the standard book on diamond-mining if this should come about, the dream of a prounder the title “The Diamond Mines of South gressive Africa for which Rhodes' life was a Africa,” unique volumes crammed with all titanic struggle may be set back a hundred the fascinating lore of diamonds, legendary years.”
PERFECT WORKING HEALTH
THE BORE OF EXERCISE AS A DUTY OR AS A FAD-THE INTERESTING GAMES AND LARGE BODY MOVEMENTS THAT MAKE FOR GOOD CONDITION—THE LAWS OF EATING THAT MODERN LIFE IMPOSES—THE SUPREME VALUE OF A CHEERFUL DINNER TABLE
LUTHER H. GULICK, M. D.
(PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION AND DIREC-
OT one man in a thousand has time to G. Stanley Hall of Clark University calls the
keep himself in the best possible fabby muscle the chasm between willing and
physical condition. To do so would doing. consume the largest part of his waking day. Enough exercise, then, to keep the muscles People who write books on hygiene have a way of the body firm and sensitive is what we aim of overlooking this.
at. For a man whose chief business in life is One book I have met recommends that the head-work, there is little to be gained in buildteeth should be carefully brushed after each ing up muscular tissue beyond that point. He meal, the crevices cleaned out with dental may do it for recreation if he likes; but that is thread, the mouth swabbed out with absorbent a different matter. cotton and rinsed with an antiseptic wash. Many of us come to dislike the thought of This process, it also adds, should be gone exercise. The very word suggests conscientious through with before retiring and on rising. and disagreeable quarter-hours spent with
There is too much to do in other lines to dumb-bells or pulley-weights in the solitude permit the attainment of perfection in any one. of one's apartment, or worse yet, on the floor What we want is that degree of cultivation that of a gymnasium. There is little use in recomwill enable us to live and work most intensely. mending an elaborate system of home gymWe cannot spend our whole time oiling and nastics. That would be easy to do. Huncleaning the machine. It is efficiency we aim dreds of them have been recently put on the at, not perfection. We want to find a practical market. People often take them up with middle ground, somehow, where we can get religious enthusiasm and get splendid results the largest returns with the least sacrifice. out of them for a time. But I have known Sacrifices have to be made somewhere in any few who have kept it up long. That does not case. We have to let some things go on in a mean that the exercise system was at fault. world of hard facts. How are we to decide It simply means that it was not calculated to which?
hold the interest. A man's enthusiasm for In the matter of exercise, the question for us dumb-bell gymnastics is almost sure to wane is not-How much exercise will bring good after a while. There is nothing to keep him results? That is a theoretical, not a practical, at it excepting will-power and conscience, and consideration. The real question is-How
is-How they can't bear the strain forever. much exercise is it worth while for a man to Therefore I do not propose an elaborate take if he wants to keep on the top level of system of private gymnastics. If a man forces efficiency?
himself to carry on exercise simply because he It is certain that a man cannot think and act thinks it's his duty, more than half its benefits energetically unless his nerves and muscles are lost. For a really valuable exercise is one are in good working order. Muscles that are which reaches beyond the muscles and the never used get flabby and soft; they become digestive organs; it braces up and stimulates incapable of obeying the will promptly and the mind. effectively. The effects on the nerves that con When a man is being bored to death, he is trol them are equally bad. They lose their not deriving the most benefit from his occupapower of responding vividly. They cannot tion, even though that occupation may be a be relied upon to do expert work. President strenuous half-hour of chest-weights.
The kind of exercise that hits the mark is the the sociability of the game-all these are adkind a man likes for its own sake; and the kind mirable features. Rowing, paddling, bowling, a man likes for its own sake has something of tramping—any form of recreation that brings the play-spirit in it—the life and go of a good a variety of physical exertion and that appeals game. It will give a chance for some rivalry, to a man's interest and enthusiasm-belong in a definite goal to aim at, a point to win: some the class of “A-I" exercises. thing, in other words, to enlist his interest and
THE BUSINESS OF DIGESTION arouse his enthusiasm. You cannot look at such exercise merely for its effects on the neuro The body is like a stove. If you put the muscular apparatus. It reaches the man's wrong kind of fuel into a stove you cannot get very self. Its psychological value is as im- good results out of it.
good results out of it. A hard-coal stove will portant as its physiological.
not get along well on soft coal. It will suffer The good a man gets out of a brisk horse from indigestion. It must be thoroughly back ride in the park is something more than cleaned out, too, at certain times, or its works what comes simply from the activity of his get clogged and there is trouble of another sort. muscular system or from the effect of the con Right coaling and right cleaning are important stant jolting upon the digestive organs. There considerations if the stove is to carry on its is the stimulus to the whole system which legitimate business. comes from his filling his lungs with fresh, out No man can be useful or efficient in the of-door air. There is the exhilaration of sun world without proper food and without giving shine and blue sky and of the wind on the attention to the disposal of waste. Nearly all skin. There is the excitement of controlling the diseases and most of the pains people have a restive animal. All this makes the phenom are related, first or last, to disturbances of enon a complex one---something much larger nutrition. It pays a man to know something than the mere term exercise would imply. A about the way his stove works and how to give man could sit on a mechanical horse in a gym it the best chance. nasium and be jolted all day without getting As for coaling, then, what and how ought any of these larger effects.
a man to eat? The first important problem The best forms of exercise will call the big here has to do with the mouth and its workmuscles of the body into play—the muscles with mastication. No one has ever made a that do the work. This gives bulk effects. hard and fast rule for that which is of any It reaches the whole system. Playing scales practical value. If food be not chewed enough, on the piano, though exhausting to oneself there's a bad time due. If it be chewed too and others, does not belong to this clas much, there's a waste; patience and energy Exercise should not be too severe. Many are thrown away.
So much is obvious. ambitious people injure themselves through Now the purpose of mastication is two-fold: trying to accomplish too much along this line. first, to break up the food so that the digestive Where the mind is already tired the body can juices can get at it readily; and second, to mix only lose by a few moments of violent exertion. it with the saliva of the mouth. Food that is Exercise breaks down tissue, exhausts nerve bolted is likely to ferment in the stomach beenergy. If any good is to be gained from it fore the gastric fluids can work their way into it. this body-waste must be repaired. But when Food that is not well mixed with saliva is hard the system is already exhausted, it cannot to digest, for saliva is an alkaline substance afford an additional expenditure. A city man and stimulates the flow of the acid stomach with a conscience is in danger of making too juices. It is intended to help them in the dishard work of his exercise when he takes it at all. patch of their work.
Tennis is a game that nervous, excitable, Many people get into the habit of dosing overworked people like to play. They ought themselves with a "digestive" or some other to avoid it. It works them too hard and too kind of medicine in order to stimulate the fast. Instead of resting them it wears them secretion of the gastric juice. This is a danout.
gerous habit. If the same effect can be obThere is no better out-door exercise for a tained through natural means, it is better from city man than a game of golf. The alternate every point of view. The natural remedy for activity and rest that it provides for, the deep faulty digestion is often simply to chew the breathing caused by the necessary hill-climbing, food slower. This increases the amount of
saliva that mixes with it. Not a picturesque liquors, particularly from drinking on an empty nor exciting method of treatment, perhaps, stomach. If a man drink liquor at all he but it often brings the right results.
should do so only when he eats. The evil Eating a dry cracker twenty minutes before effects and the morbid appetite developed by meals may be still more efficacious. No drinking occur largely in connection with inwater should be taken with it and the cracker dulgence between meals. should be thoroughly chewed. The saliva In a great many cases the cause of digestive that gets into the stomach by this means starts troubles is to be found in a bad carriage of the the gastric juices flowing, and by the time the body-neck forward, ribs depressed, abdomen meal itself arrives, the stomach is able to cope protuberant—what has been termed gorilla with it.
position. This allows a slight displacement Nobody has escaped being informed by some of all the important organs of the abdominal earnest friend that it is injurious to take water cavity; and such a displacement along with the with meals. The "Health Hints” of the aver- reduced power of the heart and diaphragm age newspaper are fertile with this sort of ad- may work great harm. The first step in getvice. There is really a sound reason at the ting the digestion into better shape is often the basis of it, but it is carried too far. The correction of this easy but villainous habit. trouble with the majority of people is that they Another great aid is deep breathing. After drink water simply to wash down their solid your breakfast and lunch, as you are walking food. This is a thoroughly bad habit. It on the street, breathe just as deeply as you can cuts off the secretion of saliva; the stomach ten times in succession. Then breathe norjuices lack their normal stimulus.
mally for a minute. Then take ten more deep Further than this, if the water be cold, it breaths. Do this four or five times the first day puts a temporary injunction on the work of the and increase it by one round every day until alimentary canal. The stomach is unable to you are taking from three to four hundred carry on business again until the regulation deep breaths daily as a regular habit. This temperature has been restored. And this consumes no time. You do it while you are takes time. The moderate use of water or walking on the street. It improves the action other liquids at meals does not harm if one of the diaphragm. It stimulates the circutake them not as a wash but as a drink.
lation of the blood in the head. It increases
the activity of the intestinal movements. It PRECAUTIONS AGAINST INDIGESTION
costs no money. Right there, perhaps, lies There are plenty of other causes for indiges- the chief difficulty with it.
the chief difficulty with it. If each breath tion besides slipshod mastication. A faulty cost a man a cent a great many more circulation of blood through the abdomen is would cultivate the habit. one. This may be due to interference either Most of us take but little exercise. We sit from within or without. Tight clothes are in chairs and work with our heads. Nature the commonest form of outside interference. intended our bodies to do muscular work. Not only is the blood circulation hurt by them, When she did that job, she did not look ahead but also the free action of the great diaphragm to the complex and artifical conditions of modmuscle beneath the lungs, one of whose duties ern city life. But it is clear that one of the is to keep the walls of the stomach kneading best methods we have of raising the efficiency and churning the food contents. Military of the bodily functions is exercise. It is especcoats, stays, tight belts—anything that really ially helpful to imperfect digestion. binds the body is sure to be harmful.
If a man will go to a gymnasium, or swim, It is hard to get people, particularly women, or bowl, or box, or play golf, or do anything to admit that their clothes are too tight. A else that involves a good deal of exertion for pressure mark left on the skin after undressing the big muscles of the body, the whole system is an infallible sign. Internal interference will respond energetically. The digestive organs with the circulation is most often due to some will be among the first to feel the effect of the trouble with the liver. Anything which stops new life. the free flow of blood through this organ dams But we must make a clear distinction beit back into the region of the stomach and pro tween what is called general exercise and other duces a congestion there. A bad liver cir forms. A man can work his hand or his culation frequently comes from the use of throat or the muscles of his face most conscien