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LAYING A TELEPHONE CABLE Between San Francisco and Oakland

telephone. Within a few weeks, from absolutely distinct sources, two were brought forth. The Bell instrument was superior and in the long lawsuits that followed every court upheld the validity of his patent.

Men who saw the first telephone at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876 may reasonably expect before their allotted seventy years are gone to see a national telephone system with a telephone for every five people (the average family) and by which any subscriber may call up any other subscriber within a radius of a thousand miles. Perhaps, with improved conductors, a man may sit with his telephone and talk to practically any one he wishes anywhere in the United States, perhaps even around the world.

THE LONGEST TELEGRAPH SPAN Many of the engineering problems in tele

It is on the U. S. Government line to Tatoosh Island, Washington graphy and telephony are much the same. The American Telephone and Telegraph

Telephone and Telegraph the regular leased telegraph wires. All over Company now does leased telegraph wire

Europe, telegraphy and telephony are conbusiness as well as the two regular telegraph sidered as parts of the same art and operated companies. The reason for this is that the together.

together. Telegrams are received and dewires can be used for telegraphing at the livered by telephone. Such delivery is usually same time that they are being used to telephone; free and in some places a written copy of the and being copper wires and kept in the repair message is sent for verification. In the early necessary for telephoning, they are generally days of the telephone, the Western Union Comcredited with being better for telegraphing than

pany entered the field and was going to operate

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A TELEPHONE “CENTRALOFFICE AT WORK There are 51 of these offices in New York City and through them any one of the 227,000 subscribers can be

connected with any other

the two systems in conjunction. It was first telephone in Philadelphia may also live to bought off by the Bell system in a famous see a national telegraph-telephone system of agreement by which one company agreed to rapid communication extensive enough to reach confine itself to telegraphy and the other to every inhabitant of the United States and telephony. The agreement separated the two cheap enough to be used by everybody, and industries in this country, but that agreement connected by telegraph and telephone cables expired some years ago. Those who saw the and wireless with the rest of the world.

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MONG the great railroad projects are making the most rapid progress. Austra

that have come into prominence in lia is the only exception. For reasons that will

recent years, those which are in re be mentioned, the trans-continental lines so sponse to the most pressing economic needs essential to its development are still merely

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projected. It is entirely different with one facilities from one region to another, as well as of the Asian and two of the African lines. to the sea. To give only one or two illustrations

among many—the copper mines of Katanga That imperial project, the Cape-to-Cairo and the gold fields of northern Rhodesia must Railroad, is steadily forging ahead not because have more than the mining and smelting it is economically imperative that the Cape of machinery, which might reach them by shorter Good Hope should be linked with the Medi- land and water routes between the eastern and terranean by a rail route some 5,000 miles western oceans. They require the fuel of the

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From Stereograph copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y THE “OVERLAND FREIGHT" ACROSS THE SOUTH AFRICAN VELDT

long, but for the reason that many of the best great Wankie coal field, a little south of Vicopportunities for developing tropical Africa toria Falls. This coal must go north, as it is are found in the central regions nearly midway now moving south. They must have the betbetween the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. It ter trained black labor of South Africa, which is a condition preliminary to the opening and is already filtering north of the Zambesi in an prosperity of these regions, on lines of modern increasing stream along the Cape-to-Cairo enterprise, that they shall have transportation Railroad. British publicists are saying this

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PART OF THE CAPE-TO-CAIRO RAILROAD UNDER CONSTRUCTION

year that the rich country of Uganda needs for its full awakening and widest opportunity not only the railroad that binds it with the Indian Ocean but also quick communications with the Anglo-Egyptian Soudan.

This is the hard business basis on which the Cape-to-Cairo project rests. The result is that we hear of trains running to-day to the Broken Hill mines of northern Rhodesia, 1,920 miles from Cape Town (about twice the rail distance from New York to Chicago), crossing the Zambesi River on a steel bridge that was built in five and a half months. The road builders are running a race with the Congo government to see which will first reach the mining district of Katanga, which is pronounced by experts to be one of the largest future sources of copper for the world's supply.

The Katanga line will be a branch of the main road. The route of the trunk line further north is problematical. Our map shows it as now projected to Uganda and down the Nile to the region of great swamps and overflowed lands which divert the route far to the east,

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