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such as those that ordinarily prevail west of the Missouri River, that is, where traffic is light and trains infrequent, these Union Pacific gasoline cars have proved their worth. A local steam train with a locomotive, two cars, expenses for labor, repairs, cleaning, and so on, costs 24 cents a mile to operate. Electric service with one motor-car and a trailer costs 18 cents a mile, provided the traffic be dense enough to keep the line busy seven days a week. It must be recalled, however, that electrical service requires an elaborate trolley or third-rail equipment. A gasoline motor-car with a trailer, offering baggage, mail, and express, as well as passenger service, costs 15 cents a mile. This is the cost whether the cars run siz davs or seven, depending wholly on the amount of service to which they are put. Who is to say that with a showing like this the self-propelled motor-car has not far wider possibilities than

have yet been taken advantage of. These Union Pacific cars have traveled from Omaha, Neb., to Portland, Ore., and back again,

, from Omaha to New York and to Los Angeles, Cal. The Strang gasoline electric car “Ogerita” ran from Philadelphia to Kansas City, maintaining a speed over much of the route of 45 miles an hour, and it bucked snowdrifts with considerable success last winter on the Santa Fé lines in Kansas. It ran eighteen thousand miles without requiring repairs. The cars are easily capable of traveling more than a mile a minute. Will not the millionaires in the near future have each his private gasoline car to travel where he will ?

A typical car of advanced design is No. 8 on the Union Pacific. It seats 75 people. The windows are made like the portholes of a vessel, with round panes that keep out water, dust, and even air. A ventilation system takes in



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fresh air at the front of the car and lets out the vitiated air at the rear. The entrance steps are let into the sides of the car. The car wher under way is as snug and neat as a racing motor-boat. It is two feet lower than an ordinary car, pointed in front and rounded at the back, offering thus a minimum wind resistance. It starts gently, makes little noise, and can run as fast as 70 miles an hour. The experience of the Union Pacific with all its cars has been that they do not require many repairs. With baggage and smoking compartments and comfortable seats for passengers, motor-cars have already come to be regarded as offering one of the luxuries of travel. Most of the cars now in use are more like ordinary coaches than the Union Pacific's Number 8, resembling the familiar combination of baggage and smoking

car. Traveling in motor-cars is smoother and pleasanter than in regular electric cars, and cleaner than riding in steam trains.

The course that the three innovations outlined—the electric locomotive, the suburban electric car, and the railway motor-car--indicate as the direction of railroad progress, seems to be this: The motor-cars will increase traffic on branch lines until the volume is great cnough. to justify the installation of electric cars. The electric cars will be the typical form of transportation machines within wide zones about great cities. The branch-line cars will be practically interchangeable with interurban cars on trolley lines—this is, indeed, one of the improvements provided for in the electrification scheme of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, which now owns the main inter

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urban trolley lines of Connecticut and a num desert spaces of the Far West. Meanwhile ber of important lines in Massachusetts. The neither steam railroads nor interurban or city public demand will require that the intervening trolley lines have been backward in making links of track between the rural districts notable improvements. Superheaters on locoequipped with trolley lines and the zones in motives, 'insuring a great saving in coal conwhich frequent trains run about the cities be sumption, the compulsory use of automatic connected. With the electrical locomotive oper- couplers, electric and other automatic signal ating within these city zones for both freight devices—all are making the railroads an intrains and through passenger trains, and with creasingly efficient transportation machine. the main lines already provided with electrical With all these improvements introduced to passenger equipment, who does not perceive make our railroad travel more convenient, that in all the thickly settled portions of the cleaner, pleasanter, and safer, and with the country, the steam locomotive will go to the interurban trolley lines extending their scope scrap-heap? Cost is an important element in and approaching closer and closer to railroad transportation changes, but it is not the only operation-running long distance through cars element. With increasing Government con at high speeds, employing in some places trol of railroads, it is even a possibility that sleeping cars and in many places a frequent smoky steam locomotives will be legislated out rural freight service for farmers—the transof existence, if they are not put out by the rail- portation of the near future promises a revoluroads themselves, except on the huge semi- tionary advance over present methods.



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VOME twenty years ago, Mr. J. P. Morgan Harriman. When the Morgan people asked

planned a readjustment of the finances him whom he represented he replied, brusquely:

of the Erie Railroad. The great banker “Myself!” had undertaken the task of clearing up the diffi This episode, it will be noted, happened twenty culties left over from the time of Jay Gould, years ago. It has happened many times since, Daniel Drew, and Jim Fisk. He had made a in different forms. When this same Harriman plan which he thought should be acceptable. appeared on the Illinois Central board of direcNothing remained but to get the assent of the tors in 1883, he was asked the same question and stockholders. Everything was going along he answered it in the same way. When he nicely.

bought into the Union Pacific Railroad in Suddenly the well-oiled machinery came to 1897, he would not answer it at all, so Wall a stop, as though some one had dropped a Street decided that he was a “Vanderbilt stone between two cog-wheels. A compara

man." A little later came the supposition tively unknown broker had called together that he was, and is, a "Standard Oil man." some of his friends who happened to be deep There is no conclusive proof that he at the in the Erie morass, and had persuaded them present time represents anyone but Edward H. to stand with him in demanding better terms Harriman. from Mr. Morgan. His insight into the situation was so clear, his exposition of it so plain,

WHO AND WHAT IS HARRIMAN ? that he was able to hold his men together and

Who, then, is this E. H. Harriman? Wall make their position so strong that they forced Street has been asking this question, savagely concessions from the Morgan firm.

at times, for the past ten years. The United The name of the broker was Edward H. States has begun to ask it, curiously, in the past


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