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THE 10,000 PICKED MEN WHO WILL CONTROL THE DESTINY OF THE NEW CHINA
NEW events, if any, ever witnessed in the It advocates all learning for all the people, the
village of Amherst, Massachusetts, necessity of a common language, and, above all,
the seat of two colleges, have had the creation of national unity. deeper significance than the weaving to
CHINESE STUDENTS IN AMERICA gether last summer of the Stars and Stripes and the dragon of China on its field of yellow. According to the register at the embassy in Beneath the mingled flags of the young republic Washington, there were 300 Chinese students of the West and of the oldest nation of the East in the United States last year, 173 of whom had were a hundred young men from the best reported to the minister and were subject to his families in many provinces of the Celestial oversight. Of these, 49 were government Empire. And-stranger still-among them students, sent over by viceroys of provinces to were a few female students.
be prepared for public service, and 124 were These Chinamen were dressed in American private students. These young men were disstyle and wore no queues. There were ath- tributed among the following institutions: Yale, letes among them and there were men of iron Cornell, Columbia, University of California, nerve and abundant vitàlity condensed into Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Virbodies of medium stature. They talked in ginia Military Institute, New Bedford Textile different dialects and many were strangers to School, Massachusetts Agricultural College, one another in a strange land, but all spoke Phillipş Academy, St. Louis Medical College, English as their common speech. Among and the high schools of Amherst, Springfield, them were students from the leading colleges Hartford, and San Francisco. In addition to and universities of America, who had not only these regular university students, there are also held their own in competition with the Anglo- Chinese theological students, sent to America Saxon but had even snatched from him the cov by missionaries of various denominations. eted honors. All were animated by the same These students are scattered among the theospirit and their college yell was "C-H-I-N-A- logical seminaries and other schools under the new China!",
denominational control. This unusual assembly was a conference of Last summer, Dr. Charles D. Tenney, a the American branch of an international move Boston scholar who went to China and became ment, the World's Chinese Students' Federa the founder of the Tien-Tsin University under tion, organized at Shanghai on July 1, 1905, the patronage of the Pei Yang Government, with Teng Hwee Lee, a graduate of Yale, as brought a company of forty young Chinamen, its president. Branches have already been collected from five different provinces; to the established in several countries and the mem Harvard Summer School. Last fall he saw bership has increased rapidly in numbers and them matriculated in the se' eral colleges of in influence. It publishes the World's Chinese their choice. They are from fourteen to Students' Federation Journal, edited by a board twenty-four years of age and have been well of four, three of whom are Yale graduates. prepared for the courses of study upon which It is printed both in English and in Chinese and they have entered. All speak English and has a wide circulation. It stands for intense many of them are familiar with French or Gerloyalty to the Chinese government and for a self man also. The sons of government officials sacrifice akin to that shown by the Japanesc. or merchants, they have been selected because
of superior scholarship and proved ability. looming up on the horizon of the East. The Some of them will study engineering and others mass of the people have been kept down too will devote themselves to political science. long. Ages of depression and repression of This delegation has been sent as the forerunner the Chinese mind must be lifted up and each of a series of annual delegations which Yuen individual man must assert its integer and Shih Kai, the viceroy of the province of Chihli, integrity and have full liberty to develop himwho is a leader of the educational move self and bring himself nearer to his God. ment in China, is planning to send to England American training is best adapted to acand America. It is probable that a similar complish this.” Yung Wing's phrase, “The band will be sent next year from Nanking. New China,” has become the watchword of the
The origin of the movement for the education twentieth century. of Chinese youth in foreign countries dates back But a bitter disappointment awaited him. to 1847, when the Rev. Samuel M. Brown Appointed to the post of Chinese minister at brought from Hong Kong to New York City a Washington, a new commissioner of education, bright Chinese boy, eighteen years of age, by Woo Tsze Tun, was sent from China to look the name of Yung Wing. He was fitted for after the boys. This new man, opposed from Yale College and entered the freshman class in the first to the education of Chinese youth in 1850, graduating in 1854 with honors in Eng- America, reported to Peking that the boys were lish composition. Returning at once to his becoming denationalized, that they were losing native land, he made a fortune in trade, then their reverence for the Chinese classics, and lost it through the mismanagement of his part- should be recalled at once. The students were ner during an absence in the United States. ordered home in the autumn of 1881, just when On his return home, in 1864, he was made a they were beginning to get the most profit from mandarin. While serving as an interpreter for their training. the Chinese Government, he finally convinced A memorial, signed by the teachers of these Li Hung Chang that if Chinese youth were sent students and endorsed by many of the presito America to acquire the Western learning, dents and professors of American colleges, was they would become of great service to China. forwarded to the Chinese Government through
In 1872 the first band of thirty Chinese boys, the State Department at Washington. Just selected from the best families, was sent to New when this memorial was about to secure the England. Other delegations followed until return of the students, Congress passed the one hundred and twenty Chinese students were Chinese Exclusion act and all negotiations located in homes throughout the Connecticut came to an end. But Yung Wing, now at the Valley. They were taught English and, as age of seventy-seven, has lived to see his great soon as they could be prepared, were sent to work for the education of Chinese boys in the Williston Seminary, to Phillips Academy, learning of the West about to result in a successAndover, and to other suitable schools. ful issue. first, all were under the oversight of Yung Wing, Sir Liang, the Chinese minister at who had his headquarters in Hartford. The Washington, spoke with authority when he students reported there at stated intervals for said: "There is no more encouraging sign for instruction and examination in the Chinese the modernization of the ancient Empire than language and classics. They wore their queues the sending of bright young boys of good family and were expected to maintain Chinese customs. to other countries for education. am led to Their government appropriated $8 a week for believe that my government will not only concach student and he was allowed $i addi tinue, but also increase, the sending of boys to tional for spending money. The boys and their the United States for an education. The teachers both did excellent work and Yung necessity of the time demands it and we need Wing was delighted with the progress made. thousands of them.” In the light of recent events, the following words, written by him more than twenty-five
CHINESE IN JAPANESE SCHOOLS years ago, now appear to have been uttered The eyes of the Chinese were first opened to with the inspiration of a true prophet: “I the practical benefits of Western education duram looking to the influence which the United ing their war with Japan. Since 1896, their stuStates should have in shaping the destiny of the dents have been flocking to Japan in increasing New China that is imperceptibly and slowly numbers, to sit in the schools of their conquerors.
THE CAREER OF SIR LIANG
At the present time it is estimated that at least and newspapers. They advocate the building of 10,000 Chinese students, mostly from the in- railroads with Chinese capital and the adoption terior provinces, are in Japan. Half are self- of the Mandarin dialect as the common speech, supporting; the others are maintained by the in order that by these two means national national government or by their own provinces. unity may be secured. Education of the people They vary in age from thirteen years to forty. must prepare the way for parliamentary governIn Japan they are received into government ment. The large number of Chinese students schools and private schools, some of which have in Japan is explained by the ease with which been established especially for Chinese. The the Japanese language can be learned by them majority are studying engineering, law, military and the moderate expense compared with that science, and medicine. Others are learning of attending Western institutions. Besides, railroading, photography, weaving, and soap the Chinese already in Japan work together making.
to help new students to establish themselves. But while the number is large, the work accomplished is for the most part confined to elementary subjects. The higher learning The story of Sir Chentung Liang Cheng, the is mastered by only a few. Of those going to present minister to the United States, is a strikJapan, nine-tenths arrive without any knowl- ing proof of the value to China of training a boy edge of the Japanese language and with no in America. Born on the island of Wampoa, adequate preparation, and therefore must near Hong Kong, he traces his ancestry back spend some time in primary schools. Half of
He inherited from his fathers a them return to China after a year or two splendid physique which has developed into a without having completed a secondary course. man exceeding six feet in stature, with broad A little knowledge is a dangerous thing shoulders, powerful muscles, a pleasing counfor these men, easily swayed by strange tenance, a winning voice, and a nervous temdoctrines and revolutionary ideas. The advice perament capable of most efficient labor. of the best educators now is to send only well A boy of thirteen, he passed severe civil serprepared students to Japan and to Western vice examinations and, under the name of Liang nations, and to use the money thus saved to Pi Yuk, joined the band of 120 Chinese boys establish good schools at home.
which was sent to the United States through A Chinese superintendent of education gen- the influence of Yung Wing. He became a erally has charge of the students in Japan. An pupil in the home of Miss Julia M. Harrington, allowance of $12.50 a month is granted to each in Amherst. He was a diligent student, but student under government patronage, the money found time to enter heartily into the sports of being given to the school authorities to be dis- his American playmates, who called him “Pi bursed under their direction. Rules of con Cook” and gave him a warm welcome. “The duct have been prepared by the Hankow vice- experience of my boyhood has attached me roy and the Japanese minister in China, but with particular affection to this village,” he the Japanese authorities do not strictly enforce said recently, “and I have sent hither a few them. Obedience brings rewards, while only Chinese students from the first families of the crimes are severely punished. Degrees won Empire.” Among those now studying in in Japan are honored in China equally with the Amherst are his own son, Arlu; his brother, corresponding Chinese grade. In 1905 there Liang Cheng; his nephew, Liang Hing Luen; were 411 Chinese graduates from Japanese and his prospective son-in-law, Jen Huan. institutions. Of these, many returned at once “Pi Cook” soon mastered the English lanto China as teachers.
guage and was sent to Phillips Academy, The centre of Chinese student life in Japan is Andover, where he won high praise as a student Tokyo, where there is a club of 4,500 members, and fame as an athlete. Speaking of baseball with a well-equipped clubhouse. Here the in an after-dinner speech delivered at the 125th greatest freedom of thought and speech is anniversary of the Academy, Sir Liang gave a allowed. Political questions are discussed and most interesting account of his smashing a governmental action is criticised without fear, "three-bagger," which won for his nine the in genuine student fashion. Innumerable in- championship in 1881 over Exeter Academy. fluences emanating from this centre are spread His ambition to enter Amherst College and throughout China by magazines, pamphlets, graduate with the class of 1885 was disap
pointed by the summons of the Chinese Gov- 1,500 men to keep the peace of the city of Tienernment to return home, a disappointment Tsin. So well did he succeed in this innovation that must have been keenly felt.
that other provinces have adopted his system. But Liang Pi Yuk could not be suppressed. For his meritorious service he has received a Too good a man to be long ignored, the gov rank in the Chinese army corresponding to ernment first sent him to the naval school at our Brigadier-General. Tien-Tsin but later promoted him to the diplomatic service. From 1886 to 1889 he was con
THE DAWN OF A NEW CHINA nected with the Chinese legation in Washing But important as is the work of Western ton. In 1895 he was taken by Li Hung Chang graduates in the military, naval, and diploto Tokyo in the capacity of secretary when the matic service of China, it is in the fields of edutreaty of peace was made between China and cation and material progress that their efforts Japan. As first secretary, he accompanied are showing especial efficiency. It is through the embassy that was sent from China in 1897 the development of Chinese mines, the introto attend the jubilee of Queen Victoria. In duction of modern methods of agriculture, the 1901 he was the companion of the Chinese application of steam and electricity to manuEmperor's brother who went to Berlin to factures, and the building of railroads that the apologize, on behalf of the Chinese Govern Imperial government is now planning to create ment, for the murder of Baron von Ketteler a New China. during the Boxer rebellion.
Already the fruits of this student movement When the term of Wu Ting Fang, the late are seen in the establishment of modern schools Chinese minister to the United States, expired throughout the Empire; in the introduction of in 1903, Sir Liang was sent to this important Western sciences into the courses required of station. He is now serving his second term in those taking the civil service examinations; in that capacity.
the revision of the criminal and judicial code
by a commission of which Wu Ting Fang, forOTHER AMERICAN GRADUATES
merly minister to the United States, is a leading Sir Liang is only one among many young member; the teaching of the Mandarin dialect men trained in other lands that have risen to in the schools, with the design of making it the distinction. Lin Leun Fai, of the class of 1882, national language to take the place of the nuPhillips Academy, became a skilful physician; merous dialects which now divide the people; overcoming the prejudice of the Chinese and especially in the Imperial decree promising against foreign medicines, he succeeded in per- parliamentary government as soon as the people suading his government to establish the Tien can be made ready for it, probably within the Tsin Medical College and hospital. During next five years. When these sweeping reforms the war in 1900, this institution was protected are in full swing, foreign-trained students will from injury because of his wisdom in opening be needed at the helm. the hospital to all nationalities. Lew Yuk Lin,
EDUCATICN FOR CHINESE WOMEN of the same class at Andover with Fai, rendered important service to China in the consular and The sending abroad of five High Commisdiplomatic corps at important posts in Europe sioners to investigate systems of female educaand America. Wo Ying Foo, of an earlier tion, and their report advocating Chinese class, won distinguished honor in the Chinese schools for women, recalls an interview between navy. As commander in the battle of Yalu, the Dowager Empress and Sir Liang, as he was his bravery secured from the Imperial govern- leaving China for Washington. ment the "Batulu," the Victoria Cross of China. "I have been advised," said this remarkable
Tsoa Kai Cheong, who was trained in Massa woman, “to introduce into the Empire schools chusetts, rendered valuable service to China for girls. But I have noticed that as soon as during the Japanese war. While commanding women begin their pursuit of learning they are as gunnery captain on the flagship Ting Yuen, seized with the mania for meddling in politics.” at the battle of the Yalu, he was severely Sir Liang's liberal New England education wounded. He retired from the navy for a time, rose to the occasion. “Your Majesty's subbut in 1898 he was assigned to the command of jects rejoice,” replied the diplomat, courteously, the new cruiser Hai Yung. His latest achieve- "that the four hundred millions of China have ment was the organization of a police force of for their ruler an educated woman!"
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